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Chapter 82. Constitutional Amendments at a Glance (Indian Polity & Constitution Summary Laxmikanth)

Constitutional Amendments at a Glance

Amendment Number and YearAmended Provisions of the Constitution
First Amendment Act, 19511. Empowered the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes.
2. Provided for the saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
3. Added Ninth Schedule to protect the land reform and other laws included in it from the judicial review.
4. Added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, viz., public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence. Also, made the restrictions ‘reasonable’ and thus, justiciable in nature.
5. Provided that state trading and nationalisation of any trade or business by the state is not to be invalid on the ground of violation of the right to trade or business.
Second Amendment Act, 1952Readjusted the scale of representation in the Lok Sabha by providing that one member could represent even more than 7,50,000 persons.
Third Amendment Act, 1954Empowered the Parliament to control the production, supply and distribution of the foodstuffs, cattle fodder, raw cotton, cotton seed and raw jute in the public interest.
Fourth Amendment Act, 19551. Made the scale of compensation given in lieu of compulsory acquisition of private property beyond the scrutiny of courts.
2. Authorised the state to nationalise any trade.
3. Included some more Acts in the Ninth Schedule.
4. Extended the scope of Article 31 A (savings of laws).
Fifth Amendment Act, 1955Empowered the president to fix the time-limit for the state legislatures to express their views on the proposed Central legislation affecting the areas, boundaries and names of the states.
Sixth Amendment Act, 1956Included a new subject in the Union list i.e., taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-state trade and commerce and restricted the state’s power in this regard.
Seventh Amendment Act, 19561. Abolished the existing classification of states into four categories i.e., Part A, Part B, Part C and Part D states, and reorganised them into 14 states and 6 union territories.
2. Extended the jurisdiction of high courts to union territories.
3. Provided for the establishment of a common high court for two or more states.
4. Provided for the appointment of additional and acting judges of the high court.
Eighth Amendment Act, 1960Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs, and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a period of ten years (i.e., up to 1970).
Ninth Amendment Act, 1960Facilitated the cession of Indian territory of Berubari Union (located in West Bengal) to Pakistan as provided in the Indo-Pakistan Agreement (1958).
Tenth Amendment Act, 1961Incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the Indian Union.
Eleventh Amendment Act, 19611. Changed the procedure of election of the vice-president by providing for an electoral college instead of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament.
2. Provided that the election of the president or vice-president cannot be challenged on the ground of any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
Twelfth Amendment Act, 1962Incorporated Goa, Daman and Diu in the Indian Union.
Thirteenth Amendment Act, 1962Gave the status of a state to Nagaland and made special provisions for it.
Fourteenth Amendment Act, 19621. Incorporated Puducherry in the Indian Union.
2. Provided for the creation of legislatures and council of ministers for the Union Territories of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu, and Puducherry.
Fifteenth Amendment Act, 19631. Enabled the high courts to issue writs to any person or authority even outside its territorial jurisdiction if the cause of action arise within its territorial limits.
2. Increased the retirement age of high court judges from 60 to 62 years.
3. Provided for appointment of retired judges of the high courts as acting judges of the same court.
4. Provided for compensatory allowance to judges who are transferred from one high court to another.
5. Enabled the retired judge of a high court to act as adhoc judge of the Supreme Court.
6. Provided for the procedure for determining the age of the Supreme Court and high court judges.
Sixteenth Amendment Act, 19631. Empowered the state to impose further restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably and to form associations in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India.
2. Included sovereignty and integrity in the forms of oaths or affirmations to be subscribed by contestants to the legislatures, members of the legislatures, ministers, judges and CAG of India.
Seventeenth Amendment Act, 19641. Prohibited the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid as compensation.
2. Included 44 more Acts in the Ninth Schedule.
Eighteenth Amendment Act, 1966Made it clear that the power of Parliament to form a new state also includes a power to form a new state or union territory by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to another state or union territory.
Nineteenth Amendment Act, 1966Abolished the system of Election Tribunals and vested the power to hear election petitions in the High Courts.
Twentieth Amendment Act, 1966Validated certain appointments of district judges in the UP which were declared void by the Supreme Court.
Twenty-First Amendment Act, 1967Included sindhi as the 15th language in the Eight Schedule.
Twenty-Second Amendment Act, 1969Facilitated the creation of a new autonomous State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam.
Twenty-Third Amendment Act, 1969Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs, and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years (i.e., up to 1980).
Twenty-Fourth Amendment Act, 19711. Affirmed the power of Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution including fundamental rights.
2. Made it compulsory for the president to give his assent to a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
Twenty-Fifth Amendment Act, 19711. Curtailed the fundamental right to property.
2. Provided that any law made to give effect to the Directive Principles contained in Article 39 (b) or (c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by Articles 14, 19 and 31.
Twenty-Sixth Amendment Act, 1971Abolished the privy purses and privileges of the former rulers of princely states.
Twenty-Seventh Amendment, 19711. Empowered the administrators of certain union territories to promulgate ordinances.
2. Made certain special provisions for new Union Territories of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
3. Authorised the Parliament to create the legislative assembly and the council of ministers for the new state of Manipur.
Twenty-Eighth Amendment Act, 1972Abolished the special privileges of ICS officers and empowered the Parliament to determine their service conditions.
Twenty-Ninth Amendment Act, 1972Included two Kerala Acts on land reforms in the Ninth Schedule.
Thirtieth Amendment Act, 1972Did away with the provision which allowed appeal to the Supreme Court in civil cases involving an amount of 20,000, and provided instead that an appeal can be filed in the Supreme Court only if the case involves a substantial question of law.
Thirty-First Amendment Act, 1972Increased the number of Lok Sabha seats from 525 to 545.
Thirty-Second Amendment Act, 1973Made special provisions to satisfy the aspirations of the people of the Telengana region in Andhra Pradesh.
Thirty-Third Amendment Act, 1974Provided that the resignation of the members of Parliament and the state legislatures may be accepted by the Speaker/Chairman only if he is satisfied that the resignation is voluntary or genuine.
Thirty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1974Included twenty more land tenure and land reforms acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
Thirty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1974Terminated the protectorate status of Sikkim and conferred on it the status of an associate state of the Indian Union. The Tenth Schedule was added laying down the terms and conditions of association of Sikkim with the Indian Union.
Thirty-Sixth Amendment Act, 1975Made Sikkim a full-fledged State of the Indian Union and omitted the Tenth Schedule.
Thirty-Seventh Amendment Act, 1975Provided legislative assembly and council of ministers for the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh.
Thirty-Eighth Amendment Act, 19751. Made the declaration of emergency by the president non-justiciable.
2. Made the promulgation of ordinances by the president, governors and administrators of union territories non-justiciable.
3. Empowered the president to declare different proclamations of national emergency on different grounds simultaneously.
Thirty-Ninth Amendment Act, 19751. Placed the disputes relating to the president, vice-president, prime minister and Speaker beyond the scope of the judiciary. They are to be decided by such authority as may be determined by the Parliament.
2. Included certain Central acts in the Ninth Schedule.
Fortieth Amendment Act, 19761. Empowered the Parliament to specify from time to time the limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and the maritime zones of India.
2. Included 64 more Central and state laws, mostly relating to land reforms, in the Ninth Schedule.
Forty-First Amendment Act, 1976Raised the retirement age of members of State Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission from 60 to 62.
Forty-Second Amendment Act, 1976 (The most comprehensive amendment made so far to the Constitution; it is known as ‘Mini-Constitution’; it gave effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.)1. Added three new words (i.e., socialist, secular and integrity) in the Preamble.
2. Added Fundamental Duties by the citizens (new Part IV A).
3. Made the president bound by the advise of the cabinet.
4. Provided for administrative tribunals and tribunals for other matters (Added Part XIV A).
5. Froze the seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies on the basis of 1971 census till 2001.
6. Made the constitutional amendments beyond judicial scrutiny.
7. Curtailed the power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and high courts.
8. Raised the tenure of Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies from 5 to 6 years.
9. Provided that the laws made for the implementation of Directive Principles cannot be declared invalid by the courts on the ground of violation of some Fundamental Rights.
10. Empowered the Parliament to make laws to deal with anti-national activities and such laws are to take precedence over Fundamental Rights.
11. Added three new Directive Principles viz., equal justice and free-legal aid, participation of workers in the management of industries and protection of environment, forests and wild life.
12. Facilitated the proclamation of national emergency in a part of territory of India.
13. Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to one year.
14. Empowered the Centre to deploy its armed forces in any state to deal with a grave situation of law and order.
15. Shifted five subjects from the state list to the concurrent list, viz, education, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, weights and measures and administration of justice, constitution and organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the high courts.
16. Did away with the requirement of quorum in the Parliament and the state legislatures.
17. Empowered the Parliament to decide from time to time the rights and privileges of its members and committees.
18. Provided for the creation of the All-India Judicial Service.
19. Shortened the procedure for disciplinary action by taking away the right of a civil servant to make representation at the second stage after the inquiry (i.e., on the penalty proposed).
Forty-Third Amendment Act, 1977 (Enacted by the Janata Government to nullify some of the distortions introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976)1. Restored the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the high courts in respect of judicial review and issue of writs.
2. Deprived the Parliament of its special powers to make laws to deal with anti-national activities.
Forty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1978 (Enacted by the Janata Government mainly to nullify some of the other distortions introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976)1. Restored the original term of the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies (i.e., 5 years).”
2. Restored the provisions with regard to quorum in the Parliament and state legislatures.
3. Omitted the reference to the British House of Commons in the provisions pertaining to the parliamentary privileges.
4. Gave constitutional protection to publication in newspaper of true reports of the proceedings of the Parliament and the state legislatures.
5. Empowered the president to send back once the advice of cabinet for reconsideration. But, the reconsidered advice is to be binding on the president.
6. Deleted the provision which made the satisfaction of the president, governor and administrators final in issuing ordinances.
7. Restored some of the powers of the Supreme Court and high courts.
8. Replaced the term ‘internal disturbance’ by ‘armed rebellion’ in respect of national emergency.
9. Made the President to declare a national emergency only on the written recommendation of the cabinet.
10. Made certain procedural safeguards with respect to national emergency and President’s rule.
11. Deleted the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights and made it only a legal right.
12. Provided that the fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended during a national emergency.
13. Omitted the provisions which took away the power of the court to decide the election disputes of the president, the vice-president, the prime minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Forty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1980Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years (i.e., up to 1990).
Forty-Sixth Amendment Act, 19821. Enabled the states to plug loopholes in the laws and realise sales tax dues.
2. Brought about some uniformity in tax rates on certain items.
Forty-Seventh Amendment Act, 1984Included 14 land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
Forty-Eighth Amendment Act, 1984Facilitated the extension of President’s rule in Punjab beyond one year without meeting the two special conditions for such extension.
Forty-Ninth Amendment Act, 1984Gave a constitutional sanctity to the Autonomous District Council in Tripura.
Fiftieth Amendment Act, 1984Empowered the Parliament to restrict the Fundamental Rights of persons employed in intelligence organisations and telecommunication systems set up for the armed forces or intelligence organisations.
Fifty-First Amendment Act, 1984Provided for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for STs in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram as well as in the Legislative Assemblies of Meghalaya and Nagaland.
Fifty-Second Amendment Act, 1985 (popularly known as Anti-Defection Law)Provided for disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection and added a new Tenth Schedule containing the details in this regard.
Fifty-Third Amendment Act, 1986Made special provisions in respect of Mizoram and fixed the strength of its Assembly at a minimum of 40 members.
Fifty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1986Increased the salaries of the Supreme Court and high court judges and enabled the Parliament to change them in future by an ordinary law.
Fifty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1986Made special provisions in respect of Arunachal Pradesh and fixed the strength of its Assembly at a minimum of 30 members.
Fifty-Sixth Amendment Act, 1987Fixed the strength of the Goa Legislative Assembly at a minimum of 30 members.
Fifty-Seventh Amendment Act, 1987Reserved seats for the STs in the legislative assemblies of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
Fifty-Eighth Amendment Act, 1987Provided for an authoritative text of the Constitution in hindi language and gave the same legal sanctity to the Hindi version of the Constitution.
Fifty-Ninth Amendment Act, 19881. Facilitated the extension of President’s Rule in Punjab up to three years.
2. Provided for the declaration of national emergency in Punjab on the ground of internal disturbance.
Sixtieth Amendment Act, 1988Increased the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments from 250 per annum to 2,500 per annum.
Sixty-First Amendment Act, 1989Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly elections.
Sixty-Second Amendment Act, 1989Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for the further period of ten years (i.e., up to 2000).
Sixty-Third Amendment Act, 1989Repealed the changes introduced by the 59th Amendment Act of 1988 in relation to Punjab. In other words, Punjab was brought at par with the other states in respect of emergency provisions.
Sixty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1990Facilitated the extension of the President’s rule in Punjab upto a total period of three years and six months.
Sixty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1990Provided for the establishment of a multi-member National Commission for SCs and STs in the place of a Special Officer for SCs and STs.
Sixty-Sixth Amendment Act, 1990Included 55 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
Sixty-Seventh Amendment Act, 1990Facilitated the extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to a total period of four years.
Sixty-Eighth Amendment Act, 1991Facilitated the extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to a total period of five years.
Sixty-Ninth Amendment Act, 1991Accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The amendment also provided for the creation of a 70-member legislative assembly and a 7-member council of ministers for Delhi.
Seventieth Amendment Act, 1992Provided for the inclusion of the members of the Legislative Assemblies of National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry in the electoral college for the election of the president.
Seventy-First Amendment Act, 1992Included konkani, manipuri and nepali languages in the Eight Schedule. With this, the total number of scheduled languages increased to 18.
Seventy-Second Amendment Act, 1992Provided for reservation of seats for the STs in the Legislative Assembly of Tripura.
Seventy-Third Amendment Act, 1992Granted constitutional status and protection to the panchayati raj institutions. For this purpose, the Amendment has added a new Part-IX entitled as ‘the panchayats’ and a new Eleventh Schedule containing 29 functional items of the panchayats.
Seventy-Fourth Amendment Act, 1992Granted constitutional status and protection to the urban local bodies. For this purpose, the Amendment has added a new Part IX-A entitled as ‘the municipalities’ and a new Twelfth Schedule containing 18 functional items of the municipalities.
Seventy-Fifth Amendment Act, 1994Provided for the establishment of rent tribunals for the adjudication of disputes with respect to rent, its regulation and control and tenancy issues including the rights, title and interest of landlords and tenants.
Seventy-Sixth Amendment Act, 1994Included the Tamil Nadu Reservation Act of 1994 (which provides for 69 per cent reservation of seats in educational institutions and posts in state services) in the Ninth Schedule to protect it from judicial review. In 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that the total reservation should not exceed 50 per cent.
Seventy-Seventh Amendment Act, 1995Provided for reservation in promotions in government jobs for SCs and STs. This amendment nullified the Supreme Court ruling with regard to reservation in promotions.
Seventy-Eighth Amendment Act, 1995Included 27 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule. With this, the total number of Acts in the Schedule increased to 282. But, the last entry is numbered 284.
Seventy-Ninth Amendment Act, 1999Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years (i.e., up to 2010).
Eightieth Amendment Act, 2000Provided for an ‘alternative scheme of devolution’ of revenue between the Centre and states. This was enacted on the basis of the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission which has recommended that out of the total income obtained from Central taxes and duties, twenty-nine per cent should be distributed among the states.
Eighty-First Amendment Act, 2000Empowered the state to consider the unfilled reserved vacancies of a year as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years. Such class of vacancies are not to be combined with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up to determine the ceiling of 50 per cent reservation on total number of vacancies of that year. In brief, this amendment ended the 50 per cent ceiling on reservation in backlog vacancies.
Eighty-Second Amendment Act, 2000Provided for making of any provision in favour of the SCs and STs for relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for reservation in matters of promotion to the public services of the Centre and the states.
Eighty-Third Amendment Act, 2000Provided that no reservation in panchayats need be made for SCs in Arunachal Pradesh. The total population of the state is tribal and there are no SCs.
Eighty-Fourth Amendment Act, 2001Extended the ban on readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for another 25 years (i.e., up to 2026) with the same objective of encouraging population limiting measures. In other words, the number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the assemblies are to remain same till 2026. It also provided for the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states on the basis of the population figures of 1991 census.
Eighty-Fifth Amendment Act, 2001Provided for ‘consequential seniority’ in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of reservation for the government servants belonging to the SCs and STs with retrospective effect from June 1995.
Eighty-Sixth Amendment Act, 20021. Made elementary education a fundamental right. The newly-added Article 21-A declares that “the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may determine”.
2. Changed the subject matter of Article 45 in Directive Principles. It now reads—“The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years”.
3. Added a new fundamental duty under Article 51-A which reads—“It shall be the duty of every citizen of India who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years”.
Eighty-Seventh Amendment Act, 2003Provided for the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states on the basis of the population figures of 2001 census and not 1991 census as provided earlier by the 84th Amendment Act of 2001.
Eighty-Eighth Amendment Act, 2003Made a provision for service tax (Article 268-A). Taxes on services are levied by the Centre. But, their proceeds are collected as well as appropriated by both the Centre and the states in accordance with the principles formulated by parliament.
Eighty-Ninth Amendment Act, 2003Bifurcated the erstwhile combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate bodies, namely, National Commission for Scheduled Castes (Article 338) and National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (Article 338-A). Both the Commissions consist of a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson and three other members. They are appointed by the President.
Ninetieth Amendment Act, 2003Provided for maintaining the erstwhile representation of the Scheduled Tribes and non- Scheduled Tribes in the Assam legislative assembly from the Bodoland Territorial Areas District (Article 332 (6)).
Ninety-First Amendment Act, 2003Made the following provisions to limit the size of Council of Ministers, to debar defectors from holding public offices, and to strengthen the anti-defection law:
1. The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Central Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha (Article 75(1A)).
2. A member of either house of Parliament belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister (Article 75(1B)).
3. The total number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a state shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the legislative Assembly of that state. But, the number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a state shall not be less than 12 (Article 164(1A)).
4. A member of either House of a state legislature belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister (Article 164(1B)).
5. A member of either House of Parliament or either House of a State Legislature belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to hold any remunerative political post. The expression “remunerative political post” means (i) any office under the central government or a state government where the salary or remuneration for such office is paid out of the public revenue of the concerned government; or (ii) any office under a body, whether incorporated or not, which is wholly or partially owned by the central government or a state government and the salary or remuneration for such office is paid by such body, except where such salary or remuneration paid is compensatory in nature (Article 361-B).
6. The provision of the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) pertaining to exemption from disqualification in case of split by one-third members of legislature party has been deleted. It means that the defectors have no more protection on grounds of splits.
Ninety-Second Amendment Act, 2003Included four more languages in the Eighth Schedule. They are Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Mathilli (Maithili) and Santhali. With this, the total number of constitutionally recognised languages increased to 22.
Ninety-Third Amendment Act, 2005Empowered the state to make special provisions for the socially and educationally backward classes or the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in educational institutions including private educational institutions (whether aided or unaided by the state), except the minority educational institutions (clause (5) in Article 15). This Amendment was enacted to nullify the Supreme Court judgement in the Inamdar case (2005) where the apex court ruled that the state cannot impose its reservation policy on minority and non-minority unaided private colleges, including professional colleges. The court declared that reservation in private, unaided educational institutions was unconstitutional.
Ninety-Fourth Amendment Act, 2006Freed Bihar from the obligation of having a tribal welfare minister and extended the same provision to Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. This provision will now be applicable to the two newly formed states and Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, where it has already been in force (Article 164(1)).
Ninety-Fifth Amendment Act, 2009Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years i.e., upto 2020 (Article 334).
Ninety-Sixth Amendment Act, 2011Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”. Consequently, the “Oriya” language in the Eighth Schedule shall be pronounced as “Odia”.
Ninety-Seventh Amendment Act, 2011Gave a constitutional status and protection to co-operative societies. In this context, it made the following three changes in the constitution:
1. It made the right to form co-operative societies a fundamental right (Article 19).
2. It included a new Directive Principle of State Policy on promotion of co-operative societies (Article 43-B).
3. It added a new Part IX-B in the constitution which is entitled as “The Co-operative societies” (Articles 243-ZH to 243-ZT).
Ninety-Eighth Amendment Act, 2012Provided for special provisions for the Hyderabad- Karnataka region of the State of Karnataka. The special provisions aim to establish an institutional mechanism for equitable allocation of funds to meet the development needs over the region, as well as to enhance human resources and promote employment from the region by providing for local cadres in service and reservation in educational and vocational training institutions (Article 371-J).
Ninety-Ninth Amendment Act, 2014Replaced the collegium system of appointing judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts with a new body called the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC). However, in 2015, the Supreme Court has declared this amendment act as unconstitutional and void. Consequently, the earlier collegium system became operative again (amended Articles 124, 127, 128, 217, 222, 224, 224A, 231 and inserted Articles 124A, 124B, 124C).
One Hundredth Amendment Act, 2015Gave effect to the acquiring of certain territories by India and transfer of certain other territories to Bangladesh (through exchange of enclaves and retention of adverse possessions) in pursuance of the Land Boundary Agreement of 1974 and its Protocol of 2011. For this purpose, this amendment act amended the provisions relating to the territories of four states (Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Tripura) in the First Schedule of the Constitution.

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