Chapter 8. Manufacturing Industries

Types of Industries
• On basis of ownership, industries are classified into three categories: Public sector, Private sector and Joint & cooperative sector.
• On basis of raw materials used by them they are classified into Agricultural based industries, Forestbased industries, Mineral-based industries and Industrially processed raw material based Industries.
• On basis of use of their products, they are classified as Basic goods industries, Capital goods industries and Intermediate goods industries.
• On basis of nature of manufactured products, they are classified into eight categories: Metallurgical Industries, Mechanical Engineering Industries, Chemical & Allied Industries, Textile Industries, Food & Processing Industries, Electricity Generation, Electronics and Communication Industries.

Location of Industries
• factors influencing location of industries are availability of raw materials, transport, labour, market & power [electricity].

Iron and Steel Industry
TISCO: Tata Iron and Steel plant lies very close to Mumbai-Kolkata railway line. rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai provide water to plant. iron ore for plant is obtained from Noamundi and Badam Pahar and coal is brought from Joda mines in Odisha.
IISCO: Indian Iron and steel company [IISCO] set up its first factory at Hirapur and later on another at Kutli. Water is obtained from Barakar River, a tributary of Damodar. Iron ore comes from Singhbhum in Jharkhand.
VISL: Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel works, initially known as Mysore Iron and Steel works, is located close to an iron ore producing area of Kemangundi in Bababudan Hills. Bhadravati river supplies water to plant. plant produces specialized steels and alloys.
• During Second five year plan, three integrated steel plants were set up with foreign collaboration: Rourkela steel plant in collaboration with Germany in Odisha, Bhilai steel plant in collaboration with Russia in Durg, Chhattisgarh and Durgapur Steel plant in collaboration with United Kingdom in West Bengal.
Sugar Industry: India is largest producer of both sugarcane and cane sugar and contributes about 8% of total sugar production in world. Maharashtra is largest sugar producing state in India followed by Uttar Pradesh.
• Petrochemical Industries: Petro-chemical industries are divided into four categories: polymers, synthetic fibres, elastomers and surfactant intermediate. Mumbai is hub of petrochemical industries in India.
• Three organisations are working in petrochemical sector under administrative control of Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals: Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited [IPCL], Petrofils Cooperative Limited [PCL], Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology [CIPET].

Cotton Textile Industry
• India is a tropical country favourable for development of cotton industry since cotton is most comfortable fabric for a hot and humid climate. Secondly, a large quantity of cotton was grown in India. Abundant skilled labour required for this industry is available in this country.
• In 1854, first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai. cotton textile industry in India can be broadly divided into two sectors, organized sector and decentralised sector. decentralised sector includes cloth produced in handlooms [including Khadi] and powerlooms. Presently, major centres of cotton textile industry are Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore & Ujjain. Maharashtra, Gujarat & Tamil Nadu are leading cotton producing states. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Punjab are other important cotton producers. Tamil Nadu has largest number of mills and most of them produce yarn rather than cloth.

Knowledge Based Industries
• Information Technology [IT] revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation.
• IT and IT enabled business process outsourcing [ITESBPO] services continue to be on a robust growth path.
• Indian software industry has emerged as one of fastest growing sectors in economy.
• A large number of Indian software companies have acquired international quality certification.
• A major impact of this growth has been on employment creation, which is almost doubled every year.

Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation [LPG] and Industrial Development in India
New industrial Policy: new Industrial Policy was announced in 1991. Within this policy, measures initiated are:
[1] abolition of industrial licensing,
[2] free entry to foreign technology,
[3] foreign investment policy,
[4] access to capital market,
[5] open trade,
[6] abolition of phased manufacturing programme, and
[7] liberalised industrial location programme. policy has three main dimensions, that are – liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation. industrial licensing system has been abolished for all except six industries related to security, strategic or environmental concerns. At same time, number of industries reserved for public sector since 1956 has been reduced from 17 to 4.
policy has three main dimensions: Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation.

Industrial Regions in India

Major Industrial Regions [8]
(1) Mumbai-Pune Region, (2) Hugli Region, (3) Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu Region, (4) Gujarat Region, (5) Chotanagpur Region, (6) Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region, (7) Gurugram-Delhi-Meerut Region, and
(8) Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Region.

Minor Industrial Regions [13]
(1) Ambala-Amritsar, (2) Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar-Bijnor, (3) Indore-Dewas-Uijjain, (4) Jaipur-Ajmer, (5) KolhapurSouth Kannada, (6) Northern Malabar, (7) Middle Malabar, (8) Adilabad-Nizamabad, (9) Allahabad-Varanasi-Mirzapur, (10) Bhojpur-Munger, (11) Durg-Raipur, (12) Bilaspur-Korba, and (13) Brahmaputra Valley.

Industrial Districts [15]
(1) Kanpur, (2) Hyderabad, (3) Agra, (4) Nagpur, (5) Gwalior, (6) Bhopal, (7) Lucknow, (8) Jalpaiguri, (9) Cuttack, (10) Gorakhpur, (11) Aligarh, (12) Kota, (13) Purnia, (14) Jabalpur, and (15) Bareilly.

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