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Chapter 8. Evaluating Language Comprehension And Proficiency (Language English For CTET & TET Exams)

Chapter 8. EVALUATING LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION AND PROFICIENCY

INTRODUCTION

Apart from educational objectives and learning experiences, education is a process consisting of evaluation. A teacher not only teaches his/her students, but also assesses them during the teachinglearning process through tests. Here, the main aim of the teacher is to evaluate the learning of students.
Thus, we can say that evaluation is an important aspect in the teaching-learning process and ‘tests’ are the tool of evaluation.
The concept of evaluation was introduced by B.S. Bloom in 1956. Bloom concluded in his theory that three domains are affected during the learning process. These domains are cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

BLOOM’S TAXANOMY IN EVALUATION

Bloom’s Taxonomy helps in the evaluation process.
Cognitive Domain based on Bloom’s Taxanomy
S. No. Objective Action Verbs Associated with the Learner
1. Knowledge Define, name, state, write, select, etc.
2. Comprehension Explain, identify, change, judge, etc.
3. Application Find, choose, assess, compute, etc.
4. Analysis Analyse, criticise, contrast, differentiate, etc.
5. Synthesis Combine, prove, conclude, derive, summarise, etc.
6. Evaluation Determine, evaluate, support, associate, etc.
Affective Domain based on Bloom’s Taxanomy
S. No. Objective Action Verbs Associated with the Learner
1. Receiving Attend, prefer, ask, observe, etc.
2. Responding Derive, assist, develop, answer, etc.
3. Valuing Participate, accept, demonstrate, dedicate, etc.
4. Organising Integrate, add, find, compare, etc.
5. Characterising Develop, decide, accept, face, etc.
Scan this QR code to watch a video on the Bloom’s taxanomy
Psychomotor Domain based on Harrow’s Classification
S. No. Objective Action Verbs Associated with the Learner
1. Reflex movements Bite, jerk, loosen, relax, stop, stretch, etc.
2. Basic fundamental movements Hold, jump, walk, catch, drink,
etc.
3. Perceptual abilities Bend, eat, feed, throw, balance,
etc.
4. Physical abilities Lean, stop, start, begin, bear,
etc.
5. Skilled movements Play, shoot, swim, dance, dive,
etc.
6. Non-discursive communication Stand, sketch, mimic, pose, set,
etc.

CONCEPT OF EVALUATION

In the field of education, the term ‘evaluation’ implies a broad programme rather than just an examination where achievements, attitudes, interests, personality traits and skill factors are taken into consideration. In other words, we can say that cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning outcomes are measured in the evaluation process. There is another term, ‘measurement’, which is closely associated with the term ‘evaluation’, and, in fact, used interchangeably many times.
However, in psychology, sociology, education and research, the two terms have distinct meanings and are used in different contexts.
The following table shows the main differences between measurement and evaluation:
S. No. Factor Measurement Evaluation
1. Purpose Assigning numerals for a variable, quantification Both quantitative and qualitative; assigning grade and level
2. Nature Formal process, more precise and accurate Both formal and informal, continuous, less accurate
3. Characteristics Valid, reliable, objective, standardised Both objective and subjective
4. Functions Diagnosis, research, prognosis Selection, grading, prediction, guidance
5. Tools Intelligence, achievements, aptitude tests Inventories, rating, interview, questionnaire
6. Techniques Observation, written Record, rating scale, oral, practical
7. Methods Testing, observation Interview (GD or individual), questionnaire, observation
8. Scale Equal interval, ratio scale Nominal, ordinal, ratio
S. No. Factor Measurement Evaluation
9. Usage Behavioural science, education, psychology, testing hypothesis Career & guidance, administration, vocational guidance 10. Scope Narrow and related to variable Wide scope, informal, measuring attributes

Evaluation of a Teacher during Teaching

The process of evaluation helps to judge the effectiveness of a teacher in terms of his/her behaviour and teaching ability. A teacher can be evaluated on the basis of the following parameters:
The performance of students in sports and other cocurricular activities.
► The observation and assessment of the teacher’s behaviour in the class through special techniques, such as the Flanders’ interaction analysis technique.
► Result of tests conducted on a monthly and annual basis.
► Record of the inspection committee.
► Use of questionnaires, etc. for collecting information about the effectiveness of teachers from colleagues, students, and head of institutions.

Evaluation of a Pupil during the Learning

Process

A pupil can be evaluated on the following parameters:
Regularity in doing homework and assignments.
► Progress shown in class (when assessed on daily basis).
► Results of various central or state boards like CBSE, ICSE, Uttar Pradesh Board, etc.
Importance of Evaluation in the Teaching- Learning Process Evaluation is important in the teaching-learning process for the following reasons:
It helps the teacher to know whether the teaching methodology adopted was successful or not.
► It helps the teacher know whether the students have learnt what was taught to them.
► It helps the teacher evaluate how successful students were in learning new skills, i.e., LSRW.
Evaluation is done through a systematic approach involving a number of steps in order to make the process effective.
These steps can be listed as follows:
I. Determine educational objectives
II. Organise learning experiences
III. Measure behavioural changes
IV. Perform tests VIDEO LESSON

TOOLS FOR EVALUATION

Various tools are used for different types of evaluation. These tools are basically the tests used to judge a person. Some important types of tests are as given below:
Interview
► Checklist
► Aptitude test
► Observation
► Questionnaire
► Personality test
► Rating scale
► Intelligence test
► Achievement test RCEM approach for writing objectives in behavioural terms
(Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in the RCEM Approach):
S. No. Objective Mental Process or Ability
1. Knowledge Recall Recognise
2. Understanding Identify relationship, interpret, discriminate, generalise Cite example, classify, verify
3. Application Reason out, infer, predict Formulate hypothesis, establish hypothesis
4. Creativity Analyse, evaluate Synthesise

COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION

The term ‘comprehensive evaluation’ is made up of two terms, ‘comprehensive’ and ‘evaluation’. Here, ‘comprehensive’ refers to both the scholastic and non-scholastic areas of a student’s growth. The function of a school is not only to build the cognitive capacities of the student’ but also to develop his/her non-cognitive abilities. ‘Evaluation’ is the process of finding out the extent to which the desired changes have taken place in students. It, therefore, mandates collecting of evidences that identify the growth and progress of the students so that the information can be used for decision-making related to the learning outcomes and further action plan. Thus, information gathering, data analysis and decision-making are the three phases of the evaluation process. We can say that comprehensive evaluation covers a whole range of experiences of a student in the school environment, and includes the physical, intellectual, emotional and social growth of the student.
The following aspects should be considered for comprehensive evaluation:
1. Individual and social values: It includes qualities like punctuality, morality and honesty.
2. Activities related to curriculum: It includes academics, sports, music, drama, debate and other co-curricular activities.
3. Health: It includes physical growth and mental health of the students.

Evaluation of Language Skills (LSRW)

Evaluation of language skills includes four areas. These are listening (L), speaking (S), reading (R) and writing (W).
Evaluation of Listening Skill (L)
This skill can be evaluated on the basis of the following parameters:
Ability to understand the vocabulary
► Ability to distinguish between L1 and L2
► Ability to understand sentence structure
► Ability to respond what he/she hears
► Ability to draw meaning from what he/she hears
► Ability to distinctly recognise English speech sounds both in isolation and in combination Evaluation of Speaking Skill (S)
This skill can be evaluated on the basis of the following components of speech:
1. Fluency
2. Rhythm
3. Usage of juncture
4. Stress on letters or words
5. Expression (expressive voice or tone)
6. Modulation of voice or variation in pitch

EVALUATION OF READING SKILL (R)

This skill can be evaluated on the basis of the following parameters:
Fluency
► Accuracy
► Pronunciation
► Expression (expressive voice or tone)
Pause (according to punctuation)
Attitude or interest while reading Evaluation of Writing Skill (W)
This skill can be evaluated on the basis of the following parameters:
Legibility, proper space between letters and words
► Cohesion and coherence
► Originality of idea
► Clarity of expression
► Suitability to the title or purpose Scan this QR code to watch a video on the evaluation for English.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
15. A fellow traveller at the airport has just finished reading the newspaper and you want him/her to pass it to you. Choose how you will make the request.
(1) Pass me the paper.
(2) Pass me the paper, please.
(3) Can you pass me the paper?
(4) Could you possibly pass me the newspaper?
Ans: (4)
1. Learning a new language after puberty leads to ________ of a foreign language.
(1) difficulty in acquisition
(2) normal acquisition
(3) greater mastery
(4) loss of mastery
Ans: (1)
2. The Humanistic Approach is specifically tuned to the
(1) mastery of academic disciplines with all their characteristic features.
(2) application of learnt structure, content, concepts and principles to new situations.
(3) processes that enable students to discover structures for themselves.
(4) process where sequence is taught along with how to present the related contents.
Ans: (3)
3. The main purpose of assessment is
(1) to decide pass and fail.
(2) to measure achievement of learners.
(3) to give practice in writing.
(4) to improve the teaching-learning process.
Ans: (4)
4. The activity that requires an understanding of text organisation is where the student
(1) states the main idea or finds the topic sentence.
(2) makes a prediction or hypothesis about what the text is likely to be about.
(3) shows through interlinking the relationship between details and main points.
(4) makes notes on the text.
Ans: (2)
5. While evaluating students’ responses for reading comprehension, marks may be deducted for _________ errors.
(1) grammatical
(2) syntactical
(3) content
(4) spelling
Ans: (3)
6. Learners are familiar with the concept of ‘cyberspace’ due to their cognitive overload. Therefore the learners
(1) may end up studying more meaningful topics in class.
(2) may explore their own interests according to their own experience, background and perspective while spending considerable time navigating for content.
(3) usually omit studying prescribed but important topics.
(4) may be exposed to a sequential and cohesive expository presentation.
Ans: (2)
7. In the writing process, ‘translating’ means to
(1) the interpretation of one language text in to another.
(2) use the right words and sentences to express your thoughts.
(3) review a written text or comparing two or more versions of the text.
(4) re-formulate based on feedback from other readers.
Ans: (1)
8. Writing involves the sequence
(1) Expression – Content
(2) Reading – Evaluation
(3) Content – Expression
(4) Evaluation – Reading
Ans: (3)
9. Which of the following is not included under the three phases of writing?
(1) Copying
(2) Extensive
(3) Dictation
(4) Narration
Ans: (2)
10. What is taught is not what is learnt because
(1) a teacher or learner can never fully master any discipline.
(2) students pay attention during informal discussion.
(3) a teacher’s socio-economic level may differ widely from the students.
(4) students possess different abilities, and come from a variety of backgrounds.
Ans: (4)
11. What is the third stage of language learning process?
(1) Reading
(2) Writing
(3) Listening
(4) Speaking
Ans: (1)
12. The main purpose of assessment is to
(1) decide pass and fail.
(2) measure achievement of learners.
(3) give practice in writing.
(4) improve the teaching learning process.
Ans: (4)
13. Which of the following is not a type of reading?
(1) Intensive
(2) Calligraphic
(3) Supplementary
(4) Silent
Ans: (2)
14. The assessment refers to
(1) guidelines with marking scheme.
(2) question-wise distribution of marks.
(3) general impression of a student’s ability.
(4) scoring key.
Ans: (3)
15. Penmanship is a __________ skill.
(1) writing
(2) reading
(3) listening
(4) speaking
Ans: (1)
16. After a story telling session, the learners are asked to change the ending of the story. This will help the learners
(1) develop library reference skills.
(2) evaluate the teacher’s originality.
(3) become imaginative and creative.
(4) understand the story better.
Ans: (3)
17. Which of the following is not a proper way to improve handwriting?
(1) Holding a pen or pencil
(2) Using a simple two-lined notebook
(3) Proper writing materials
(4) Proper sitting arrangement
Ans: (2)
18. Writing is a representation of ____________ speech.
(1) graphical
(2) phonetic
(3) morphological
(4) linguistic
Ans: (1)
19. Which of the following is not a vocabulary game?
(1) Word finder
(2) Word chains
(3) Monopoly
(4) Semantic mapping
Ans: (3)
20. How many steps are there in the writing skill process?
(1) Six
(2) Four
(3) Five
(4) Three
Ans: (2)
21. Learners are involved in individual activities, pair work, group work and whole-class work because these
(1) enable the already over-worked teacher to preserve her energy, thereby becoming more effective.
(2) afford the learners opportunities to use the language in a focussed manner for real-life interaction.
(3) provide the learners enough opportunities to relax in a language classroom.
(4) have the sole aim of introducing variety in a language classroom.
Ans: (4)
22. The most important aim of reading skills is to
(1) make the learner a good listener.
(2) make the learner a good writer.
(3) make the learner a good observer.
(4) make the learner a good speaker.
Ans: (4)
23. Ritu often makes errors in subject-verb concord. The teacher can help her by
(1) taking up many examples for the entire class and paying special attention to Ritu.
(2) explaining to her the rules of grammar.
(3) asking Ritu to learn the rules and scolding her.
(4) asking Ritu to write the rules ten times in her notebook.
Ans: (1)
24. How will a teacher best teach writing skills to a class?
(1) By brainstorming ideas and asking students to write in their own words.
(2) By asking students to write neatly.
(3) Through dictation.
(4) By asking students to learn articles and rewrite them.
Ans: (1)

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