• India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In north, it is bound by lofty Himalayas.
• Arabian Sea in west, Bay of Bengal in east and Indian Ocean in south, wash shores of Peninsular India.
• India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km.
• north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km.
• And east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
• India is located in northern hemisphere.
• Tropic of Cancer [23°30’N] passes almost halfway through country.
• From south to north, main land of India extends between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes.
• From west to east, India extends between 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes.
• There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India viz. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal & Pakistan.
• India has two island neighbours viz. Sri Lanka and Maldives.
• Sri Lanka is separated from India by Palk Strait.
Political and administrative divisions
• India is a vast country. For administrative purposes, country is divided into 28 States and 8 Union Territories.
• New Delhi is national capital.
• India is marked by a diversity of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts & islands.
• Himalayan Mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges.
• northernmost is Great Himalaya or Himadri which comprises of highest peaks
• Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to south of Himadri where many popular hill stations are situated.
• Shiwalik is southernmost range.
Northern Indian plains
• Northern Indian plains lie to south of Himalayas.
• These are formed by alluvial deposits laid down by rivers– Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
• These river plains provide fertile land for cultivation. That is reason for high concentration of population in these plains.
Great Indian Desert:
(1) In western part of India lies Great Indian Desert.
(2) This is a dry, hot & sandy stretch of land. It has very little vegetation.
• Peninsular Plateau:
(1) Aravali hills, one of oldest ranges of world, border it on north-west side.
(2) Vindhyas and Satpuras are important ranges.
(3) rivers Narmada and Tapi are west flowing rivers that drain into Arabian Sea.
Western Ghats vs. Eastern Ghats:
(1) While Western Ghats are almost continuous, Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven.
(2) plateau is rich in minerals like coal and ironore.
(3) western coastal plains are very narrow. eastern coastal plains are much broader.
(1) Two groups of islands form part of India.
(2) Lakshadweep Islands are located in Arabian Sea. These are coral islands located off coast of Kerala.
(3) Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to southeast of Indian mainland in Bay of Bengal.
(4) Andaman and Nicobar Island groups of islands were affected by Tsunami in 2004.
(5) Tsunami is a huge sea wave generated due to an earthquake on sea floor.
(1) rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna & Kaveri drain into Bay of Bengal.
(2) These rivers have formed fertile deltas at their mouths.
(3) Sunderban delta is formed where Ganga and Brahmaputra flow into Bay of Bengal.