Chapter 6. Rural and Urban Administration

Maintenance of Land Record
• Patwari measures land and keeps land records.
• Patwari is known by different names in different states such as Lekhpal, Karamchari, Kanungo, & Village Officers.
• Each Patwari is responsible for a group of villages.
• Patwari maintains and updates records of village.
• Patwari is responsible for organising collection of land revenue from farmers and providing information to government about crops grown in area.

Division of States
• All states in India are divided into districts.
• districts are further sub-divided and are known by different names such as tehsil, taluka., for managing matters related to land.
• head of district is District Collector and under him/her are revenue officers, called Tehsildars. They supervise work of Patwaris and ensure that records are properly kept and land revenue is collected.
• Land disputes are heard at Tehsildar office.

Urban Administration
• Municipal Corporation overlooks administration at urban level.
• Municipal Corporation is responsible for ensuring cleanliness of city. It runs schools, hospitals & dispensaries.
• city is divided into different wards and ward councillors get elected.
• complicated decisions that affect entire city are taken by groups of councillors who form committees to decide and debate issues.
• Councillor’s Committees and councillors decide on issues, Commissioner and administrative staff implement these.
• Ward Councillors try to ensure that particular demands of their wards are placed before entire council.
• Commissioner and administrative staff are appointed while councillors are elected.
• work in city is divided into different departments like water department, garbage collection department, a department to look after gardens, roads.
• Municipal Corporation gets money from taxes such as property tax, water tax.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005
• This new law provides equal land share to sons, daughters, and their mothers in Hindu families after father’s death.
• law is applicable to all states and union territories of country. It benefits a large number of women.

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