# Chapter 6. Population

India’s Population Size and Distribution by Numbers
• As of March 2011, India’s population was 1,210.6 million which accounts for 17.5% of world’s population.
• Uttar Pradesh is most populous state of India as it counts for about 16% of country’s population.
• Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states which are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

India’s Population Distribution by Density
• Population Density is calculated as number of persons per unit area. population density of India in year 2011 was 382 persons per sq km. That’s why India is considered one of most densely populated countries in world.

Population Growth and Processes of Population Change
• numbers, distribution and composition of population are constantly changing. It is influence of interaction of three processes:
(1) Birth
(2) Death
(3) Migration

Population Growth
• Growth of population refers to change in number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time. This change can be expressed in 2 ways:
(1) In terms of absolute numbers: absolute numbers are obtained by subtracting earlier population [for example that of 2001] from later population [for example that of 2011].
(2) In terms of percentage change per year: This is studied in percent per annum, for example a rate of increase of 2% per annum means that in a given year, there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in base population. It is referred to as annual growth rate.

Processes of Population Change/Growth
• Three main processes of change in population are:
(1) Birth Rate: Birth rate is number of live births per thousand persons in a year. In India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates.
(2) Death Rate: Death rate is number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. 3.

Migration: Migration is movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal [within country] or international [between countries]. It influences distribution of population within nation. In India, rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in percentage of population in cities and towns.

Age Composition
• age composition of a population refers to number of people in different age groups in a country. population of a nation is grouped into 3 broad categories:
(1) Children [generally below 15 years]: They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education & medical care.
(2) Working Age [15–59 years]: They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise working population.
(3) Aged [Above 59 years]: They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment.

Sex Ratio
• This is defined as number of females per 1000 males in population. Sex Ratio is an important social indicator to measure extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time.

Health
• Health is an important component of population composition, which affects process of development. substantial improvement in Health in our country is result of many factors such as:
(1) Improvement in Public Health.
(2) Prevention of infectious disease.
(3) Application of modern medical practises in diagnosis and treatment of ailments.

• Adolescents are grouped in age group of 10 to 19 years. They are most important resource for future. It constitutes one-fifth of total population of India. Nutrition requirements of adolescents Literacy Rates
• According to Census 2011, a person aged 7 years and above, who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate. India’s literacy rate is 73% as per census of 2011.

Occupational Structure
• distribution of population according to different types of occupation is referred to as occupational structure. Occupations are classified as:
(1) Primary: Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining & quarrying.
(2) Secondary: Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building & construction work.
(3) Tertiary: Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.
are higher than those of a normal child or an adult.

National Population Policy
• National Population Policy [NPP] 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age. It helps in:
(1) Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(2) Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
(3) Promoting delayed marriage for girls, and making family welfare a people-centred programme.
• NPP 2000 put emphasis on other important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases [STDs]. It aims towards encouraging:
(1) Delayed marriage and child-bearing.