• Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is known as manufacturing. Manufacturing belongs to Secondary sector.
• Contribution of Industries in Indian economy:
Industries contribute 17% of total GDP in economy. National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council [NMCC] has been set up for improving productivity to achieve targets by next decade.
Five basis on which industries are classified
• On basis of source of raw materials used — Agrobased and mineral-Based.
• According to their main role — Basic and Consumer industries.
• On basis of capital investment — Small-scale and large-scale Industries.
• On basis of ownership-Public Sector, Private Sector, Cooperative Sector.
• Based on bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods- Heavy & light
• Large scale Industry: Investment is more than one crore rupees For eg-Iron industry.
• Small scale Industry: investment is less than one crore rupees.
• Agro-based industries: Raw materials obtained from agricultural products. Eg-Textiles
• Mineral-based industries: Raw materials obtained from minerals. Eg- Iron & steel.
• Textile Industry: This is second largest sector after agriculture providing employment of about 35 million directly and foreign exchange of about 24.6% and contributes to 14% of total industrial production.
• This industry contributes 4% of GDP
• Cotton Textile Industry: It has a close link with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing.
(1) Khadi [hand spun] provide large scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.
(2) 90% of weaving, cutting & processing is in decentralised sector.
• Sugar Industry: India is second largest producer of sugar but stands first in producing gur and khandsari. 60% of sugar mills are located in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
• Challenges: Seasonal nature of industry, old & efficient method of production, transport delay and need to maximize use of baggage.
• Jute textile: India is largest producer of raw jute and jute goods
(1) India is second largest exporter of jute after Bangladesh.
(2) Most of jute mills are located at Hooghly river [West Bengal].
• Reasons for location of jute mills on Hugli basin:
proximity of jute producing area, inexpensive water transport, good link b/w roadways, railways & waterways, cheap labour, Kolkata provides banking, insurance & port facilities.
• Challenges: Stiff competition from international market such as Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Thailand & Philippines.
• Mineral based industry: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
Iron and steel industry
• India ranks 2nd among world crude steel producers while China is largest, producer, whereas India is largest producer of sponge iron .
(1) In making up of steel iron ore, coking coal and limestone are required in ratio of 4:2:1, some quantities of manganese is required to harden steel.
• Chhotanagpur plateau: Due to low cost of iron ore,cheap labour, and high grade raw material Chotanagpur region has maximum concentration of steel and industry.
• Aluminium Smelting [Second most metallurgy industry in India].
(1) Light in weight, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable & become strong when mixed with metal.
(2) Aluminium Smelting plants are is located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerela, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
(3) Bauxite which is a raw material used in smelting is a very bulky, and dark reddish coloured rock .
• Chemical industry: India is 3rd largest in Asia and is at 12th place in world as per size.
(1) Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, & soda ash whereas Organic chemical industries are oil refineries and petrochemical plants .
• Automobile industry: 1 It provides quick transport of goods and services, passengers.
(2) Foreign and direct investment has bought many new technologies to this sector and aligned industry with global development.
• Fertilizer Industry:
(1) This is centred around production of nitrogenous fertilisers such as urea, ammonium phosphate [DAP], and complex fertilisers.
(2) India is 3rd largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers.
• Information technology and electronic industry:
Bengaluru is called electronic capital of India. Bengaluru, Kolkata, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Noida, Chennai & Pune are some IT parks of India. Almost 30% of employees are women. As BPO [ Business Processing Outsourcing] is growing on large scale that led to an increase in foreign exchange.
Types of Pollution Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
• Air pollution: Caused due to emissions of smokes of paper and chemical industry, burning of fossil fuels. Toxic gas leaks can be hazardous with long time effect on humans as well as animals too.
• Water pollution: Caused due to discharge of organic and inorganic industrial waste into river bodies mainly from paper, pulp, chemical, & many other industries.
• Noise pollution: It makes people upset and angry, hurts their hearing, speeds up their heart rate, and raises their blood pressure. It’s caused by things like industrial construction, machines, factory equipment, car horns.
• Thermal pollution: This is a factor of water pollution as hot waters from thermal plants are poured into rivers before cooling which affects aquatic life.