Chapter 5. Minerals and Energy Resources

• This is a ‘homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.’ This is found in different forms in nature, ranging from hardest diamond to soft talc.

Minerals in India
Rocks [Rock Mineral]: This is a combination of minerals in varying proportions. There are some rocks that consist of a single mineral, for example, limestone while most rocks consist of several minerals.

Ferrous Minerals

Iron Ore
• term ‘ore’ is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements.
• Four types of Iron Ores are Magnetite, Hematite, Siderite & Limonite.

two best ores are:
(1) Magnetite: This is finest iron ore with a very high iron content . It contains upto 70% iron. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is especially valuable in electrical industry.
(2) Hematite: This is most important industrial iron ore in terms of quantity used. It contains 50-60% iron content.
Four Major Iron ore belts are:
(1) Odisha-Jharkhand Belt: High grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines.
(2) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt: Bailadila Mines—Very high grade Hematite ore deposits are found in Bailadila range. Iron ore from these mines are exported to Japan and South Korea.
(3) Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru:
Kudremukh Mines located in western ghats of Karnataka are a 100% export unit. ore is transported as slurry to a port near Mangalore.
(4) Maharashtra-Goa Belt: Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra—ores are not of very high quality. Iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.

Non-ferrous minerals
Bauxite deposits are formed by decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates. Odisha was largest bauxite Producing state in India, which produced 34.97% of total bauxite in India in 2009-10. most important bauxite deposits are found in Panchpatmali in Koraput district. Other States are Gujarat [17%], Jharkhand [14%] and Maharashtra [11%].
Aluminium is obtained from bauxite ore. This is an important metal because it combines strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and it has good conductivity and great malleability.

Non-metallic Mineral
Mica is made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin Sheets that a thousand put together are only a few centimeters thick. This is an Indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industry due to its excellent di-electric strength, Low power loss factor, Insulating properties, and Resistance to high voltage.
Mica deposits are found on northern edge of Chhota Nagpur Plateau. Jharkhand is leading producer. Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh is important mica producing belt.

Energy Resources
• Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources.
Conventional sources include coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity [both Hydel and thermal]. All these sources have been in use for quite some time.
Non-conventional sources of energy are relatively new sources as their large scale generation has started recently. These include solar, wind, tidal, geo thermal, biogas & atomic energy.

• Coal as an important source of energy:
(1) It provides a substantial part of nation’s energy needs as it is most abundantly available.
(2) India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial needs. It’s share in total is 55%[as per latest data].
Four types of coal and their characteristics:
(1) Anthracite: [i] This is highest quality hard coal; [ii] It contains more than 80% carbon content. It gives less smoke.
(2) Bituminous: [i] This is most popular coal in commercial use and has 60-80% carbon content; [ii] Metallurgical coal is a high grade bituminous coal and is of special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
(3) Lignite: [i] This is a low grade brown coal; [ii] This is soft with high moisture Content. main lignite reserve is Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
(4) Peat: [i] It has a low carbon and high moisture content; [ii] It has a low Heating capacity and gives a lot of smoke on burning.
Petroleum: This is second most important energy source in of India after coal. It provides fuel for heat and light. It provides lubricants for machinery. Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal industry’ for Synthetic textiles, fertilizers and many chemical industries.

Distribution of Petroleum
Mumbai High: Its share is about 63% of India’s petroleum production
Gujarat: It produces 18% petroleum of India. Ankaleshwar is most Important field.
Assam: This is oldest oil producing State of India. Its contribution is 16% in total production.
• Important oilfields are Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Solar Energy: Photovoltaic technology is used to convert solar energy into electricity. largest solar plant of India is located in Madhapur near Bhuj.
Wind Power: wind farm cluster in Tamil Nadu [from Nagarcoil to Madurai] is largest cluster in India. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep are important centres of wind power production.
Nuclear Energy: This is obtained by altering structure of atom. To generate atomic Power uranium and Thorium are used. These minerals are Available in Jharkhand, and Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan.
Biogas: Biogas can be produced from shrubs, farm waste, and animal and human waste. This is more efficient than kerosene, dung cake & charcoal.
Geo Thermal Energy: It refers to heat and electricity produced using heat from interior of earth. Two geo thermal energy projects—the Parvati valley near Manikam in Himachal Pradesh and Puga valley in Ladakh.
Tidal Energy: Dams are built across inlets. water flows into inlet during high tide and gets trapped when gate is closed.

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