Scholars believe that intelligence is a general ability whereas others believe that intelligence is a range of aptitudes, skills and talents. Intelligence can be defined as an ability to adjust within unfavourable situations. Here, we discuss about intelligence in terms of its nature and related definitions. This is the best way to understand the term intelligence. They are as follows:
1. Intelligence in Terms of Adjustment: Some scholars defined intelligence in terms of adjustment. Adjustment is considered as an adaptation within one’s environmental situation. It also includes an ability to cope with a problematic situation or behaviour. How an individual adjusts with a situation depends on his/her adjusting capability or ability. Following educationalists or psychologists described intelligence in terms of adjustment:
► According to William Stern (1912), “Intelligence is a general capacity of an individual consciously to adjust his thinking to new requirements or a general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.”
► According to Colvin (1982), “A person possesses intelligence in so far as he had learned, or can learn, to adjust himself to his environment.”
► According to R. Kurzweil (1999), “Intelligence is the ability to use optimally limited resources – including time – to achieve goals.”
2. Intelligence in Terms of Learning: Some scholars described intelligence in terms of learning ability. It is the most commonly accepted concept regarding intelligence. An individual gains experiences in effect of his/her learnings. It means that the rate of learning is directly correlated to an individual’s experiences. Following education-alists or psychologists described intelligence in terms of learning;
► According to Woodrow (1921), “The capacity to acquire capacity.”
► According to Dearborn (1921), “Intelligence is the capacity to learn or to profit by experience.”
► According to W.V. Bingham (1937), “Intelligence means the ability of an organism to solve new problems.”
3. Intelligence in Terms of Thinking: Some scholars described intelligence in terms of thinking ability which is useful to solve problematic behaviour. Thinking or abstract thinking both are similar terms and mostly used with reasoning or a logical way to solve a problem. Thinking is completely an abstract process which varies from individual to individual. Following educationalists or psychologists described intelligence in terms of thinking or abstract thinking;
► According to Charles Spearman (1904), “Intelligence is a relational thinking.”
► According to A. Binet (1905), “Intelligence is the capacity to think well, to judge well and to be self-critical.”
► According to Terman (1921), “The ability to carry out abstract thinking.”
4. Intelligence in Terms of Problem Solving Behaviour: Some scholars described intelligence in terms of an indi-vidual’s problem solving behaviour. When a person faces a problem which works as an obstacle to obtaining or reaching his/her goal; he/she tries to solve that issue by applying his/her best efforts.
After solving that particular problem; that individual modifies his/her behaviour so that in future he/she would not face such kind of problems. Thus, in this way intelligence also affects one’s problem solving behaviour. Following educationalists or psychologists described intelligence in terms of problem solving behaviour:
► According to George D. Stoddard (1943), “Intelligence is the ability to undertake activities that are characterized by difficulty, complexity, abstractness, economy, adaptedness to goal, social value, and the emergence of originals, and to maintain such activities under conditions that demand a concentration of energy and a resistance to emotional forces.”
► According to D. Wechsler (1958), “A global concept that involves an individual’s ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment.”
Following are some characteristics of intelligence:
► Intelligence varies from person to person.
► Intelligence is an inborn concept and it cannot be acquired.
► Intelligence is a process that develops throughout the life of an individual.
► Intelligence helps a learner to proceed learning from ‘concrete to abstract.’
► Intelligence enables an individual to distinguish between the right and wrong.
► Intelligence is an endowment to the individual which has been given to an individual by nature.
► Intelligence enables the learner in learning process and also plays a remarkable role to achieve success.
► Intelligence enables an individual to acquire the capability to gain profit from his/her previous experiences.
► Intelligence provides an insight to the child to assess the future which takes place according to the requirements of the situation.
► Intelligence is affected by heredity, environmental situa-tions, education of an individual, etc. But it does not differ due to sex differences.
TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE
According to Edward Lee Thorndike (1920) who was a famous psychologist of America, there are three main types of intelligence. discussed as follows:
1 Abstract Intelligence – It Refers To An Ability To Process Or Understand The Abstract Concepts, Ideas, Symbols, Etc. For Example, To Capture The Views Of A Poet Within His/Her Poetry.
2 Concrete Intelligence – It Enables An Individual To Deal With Mechanical Things Or Related To Motor Activity. For Example, To Participate In Games Or In A Dance Competition.
3 Social Intelligence – It Enables An Individual To Deal Effectively Within His/Her Cultural And Social Environment. For Example, Dealing With Peers During Studying.
Binet-Simon Scale of intelligence test helps in distinguishing normal children and children with mental deficiencies. While conducting intelligence tests, two terms, mental age and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) are important to measure intelligence.
William Stern introduced the term mental age which shows how a specific child of a specific age performs intellectually. Thus, mental age is taken as per the performance of a child in the Binet-Simon tests. In other words, intellectual levels could be expressed in terms of mental age. IQ was introduced by William Stern, a German psychologist. As per Stern, mental age can be divided by the chronological age that helps in determining IQ of a child. In 1916, Lewis Terman suggested multiplying the IQ by 100 to remove decimal point. The ratio was given the name of intelligence quotient i.e. IQ. Formula to determine the value of I.Q. is as follows:
I.Q. = [Mental Age /Chronological Age]100
Where, ► Chronological age is considered as the real physical age of an individual.
► Mental age is calculated from various intelligence tests designed by psychologists after conducting the test.
Categorisation or Analysis of I.Q. Scores
After conducting an intelligence test on a subject we analyse his/her ‘mental age’ by following the procedure which was prescribed by the developer (psychologists) of that particular test. Then, calculate the I.Q. of that subject by applying the I.Q. formula.
After all those processes and calculations; there is a need of categorisation which enables an examiner to standardise or categorise his/her subject under a level. This level explains the individual or subject according to the norms of that test. This level lies on the behalf of the range of I.Q. Some of the most famous classifications of I.Q. are as follows:
IQ classification according to Simon-Binet Scale (1916): Binet scale of intelligence is also called “Simon-Binet Scale”. Lewis M. Terman revised the Simon-Binet IQ Scale and in 1916 published the ‘Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence’
which was also known as the ‘Stanford-Binet Scale’. Following table shows the scale for classifying IQ scores:
Table: IQ classification according to Simon-Binet Scale 1916)
|S. No.||Classification of Types||I.Q. (Intelligence Quotient)|
|1||Genius||140 and above (approx.)|
|2||Very superior||130-140 (approx.)|
|4||Above average||110-120 (approx.)|
|5||Normal or average||90-109 (approx.)|
|6||Below average||80-89 (approx.)|
|7||Dull or borderline||70-79 (approx.)|
The standard Intelligent Quotient chart, as found by many child psychologist.
After seeing and reviewing many definitions and meanings of definitions, we can talk about some important aspects of intelligence to have a comprehensive perspective.
The Ability to Adapt, Learn for Daily Life Events and Problem Solving
The concept of intelligence involves the ability and capability which helps a person to solve problems. An intelligent person can solve simple and complex problems confidently.
They also relate their learning with daily life and try to make sense of them.
They learn and understand things and concepts beyond rote learning. These peoples are very adaptive in different circumstances and situations.
The Capacity to Learn from Experiences
Intelligence involves the capacity to learn from experiences. Their learning is not restricted to one dimension. They have the capacity to learn from all experiences of life.
Creativity and Interpersonal Skills are Included In Intelligence
Intelligence involves creativity. Creativity represents thinking in a creative and productive manner. A creative person will be able to see new things in old concepts. Good interpersonal skills are also part of intelligence. Interpersonal skills talk about how one develops and maintains his or her social life. Behaviour, social relation and other such things are part of interpersonal skills. It also involves the mental abilities that enable one to adapt to, shape, or select one’s environment.
Intelligence Involves Ability of Judgment, Comprehension and Reasoning
Judging, comprehending and reasoning are also part of intelligence. Judging here means to take decision about rights and wrongs. An intelligent person takes decisions after evaluating all possibilities. Intelligence helps to comprehend the situation we are living in. These comprehensions help to understand the situation from various dimensions, which ultimately help to take decision about anything. Comprehension helps in reasoning. Reasoning involves understanding things and concepts analytically and critically. Reasoning develops the ability to question a given idea and helps to produce alternative ideas.
Intelligence Involves Ability to Understand People, Objects and Symbols Like Language
Intelligence helps to deal with different people, objects and symbols. People here mean social life; we have to deal with many relations in the family, school and society.
Intelligence helps to deal with them. Language development is associated with intelligence. Intelligence helps us to learn, understand and comprehend languages and objects.
There are some questions one should think about before we proceed ahead, such as:
Is intelligence genetically determined? Is intelligence constant? What is the relationship between cognitive ability and various other aspects of functioning? Is there any sex or gender difference in intelligence? Are there many intelligences or one? These questions can be answered and understood with the help of various theories of intelligence.
In first segment of the chapter, we studied about the concept, nature, types and, to some extent, the meaning of intelligence. We have also understood that there are different assumptions and constituents of intelligence; therefore, there are also different theories of intelligence. All these theories explain intelligence based on their fundamental assumption about learning and intelligence. To understand the theories of intelligence, we can categorise them into two parts: Factorial theories and Processoriented theories. Factorial theories believe that intelligence is organised in various factors and these factors explain intelligence. Whereas, process-oriented theories believe that there are no such factors of intelligence; rather, it is a process to understand, analysed, criticise, summarise and so on. Cognitive psychology gave birth to this understanding of intelligence. Process-oriented theories try to answer two broad questions: what and how intellectual processes are being used by a person to solve the given problem and how these intellectual processes develop in a person. Jean Piaget and Bruner are important theorists of the process-oriented approach. We have already discussed Jean Piaget in Chapter 2 under cognitive development. Here, we will study about Stenberg’s theory of intelligence under process-oriented theory and also other factor-oriented theories of intelligence.
Two-factor theory (Spearman)
Group factor theory (Thurston)
Multi-factor theory (Thorndike and Guilford)
Theory of multiple intelligence (Gardner)
Stenberg’s theory of intelligence (Triarchic theory of intelligence)
Two-Factor Theory (Spearman)
Spearman was British and influenced by Galton. He believed that there is one general mental ability that is governed by heredity. He is known as the father of factor analysis.
He did factor analysis on tests and based on factor analysis found out correlations. After many tests and studies he said intelligence is made up of two factors: the general or g factor and the specific or s factor.
The g factor indicated the ability of doing mental tasks. It is available in all human beings but in different quantities. This g factor forms the basis for all mental abilities and capabilities. Spearman called it mental energy. Higher the g factor, higher the intelligence. This factor provides the base to perform any task; it is innate and received by heredity. Thus, training and education do not influence this factor.
To perform a task effectively, one needs some specific abilities. This specific ability is called the s factor.
The s factor is changeable in nature and is influenced by training and education. We need one type of s factor to do one task and another type of s factor to do another task. The s factor for different skill sets may vary in the same person. For example, a person may have high s factor for mathematics and low s factor for literature or dancing.
Spearman said that every task needed both a common g factor and a specific s factor.
But, he strongly believed that g factor is more important than s factors. If g factor is less in a person, s factor will not be developed to its best. He made this claim on observations he did on various mental ability tests and found them positively correlated. He claimed on the basis of his observations that those who scored high on IQ tests also scored high on other kinds of tests.
Spearman’s theory of intelligence has been criticised since it talks about only two factors of intelligence, i.e., g and s. Other theorists like Thurston have proved that there are many factors that constitute intelligence.
Group Factor Theory (Thurston)
Thurston’s theory is also known as the theory of primary mental ability (PMA). Thurston improved the factor analysis method developed by Spearman. He strongly believed that intelligence is multidimensional and rejected the idea of a single dominating ability.
To prove this, he conducted several studies on college students and came out with several mental abilities. Initially, these were seven but later 3 more abilities were added to it and it became nine abilities. Two subdivisions were done of reasoning ability, i.e. inductive reasoning (RI) and deductive reasoning (RD) and a new ability called problem solving (PS) was added.
His theory explains that doing intellectual work does not involve many specific abilities; rather, there are some common mental abilities or common primary factors. All mental abilities have one common factor: they correlate with each other and form a group. The main factor representing these abilities is known as the primary factor. In the same way, other mental abilities have another common factor and so on. Thus, all mental abilities can be clubbed into different groups based on the common factors they share. The primary factor of one group is independent of the primary factor of the other group.
Thurston has given seven primary mental ability (PMA) factors through his factor analysis, These seven primary mental ability factors are:
1. Verbal meaning ability or V
2. Word fluency ability or W
3. Spatial ability or S
4. Numeric ability or N
5. Reasoning ability or R
6. Memory ability or M
7. Perceptual speed ability or P
Verbal meaning ability represents the ability to understand and comprehend given words. This understanding and comprehension help the thinking process. Word fluency ability serves to come up with new and appropriate words spontaneously while thinking or doing any work. Spatial ability means the ability to think and create relationship between empty space and use of that space. For example, consider the question: “How may chair be able to be accommodated in this room?” Spatial ability helps us to come up with a fair estimate. Numerical ability is associated with mathematical ability. It involves knowledge of numbers and other numeric calculations. Reasoning ability represents logical thinking processes, where a person understands the hidden principles behind the work to be done. It also involves both inductive and deductive reasoning.
Memory ability represents the ability to learn fast any event or content. It also deals with organisation of learned data in memory. Perceptual speed ability is the ability to perceive any event quickly. These seven primary abilities given by Thurston are independent of each other.
Although Thurston’s theory of intelligence is very impressive, it has may loop holes.
Thurston’s statement that all primary mental abilities are independent of each other has been criticised by theorists such as Atkinson and Hilgard. Thurston rejected the ideas of g factor, but his primary mental ability or common mental factor is same as g factor in Spearman’s theory. So, Thurston’s rejection of g factor has been criticised. Further, Guilford has identified 150 factors in intelligence, and criticised Thurston’s theory for limiting intelligence in seven primary mental abilities.
Multifactor Theory (Guilford)
The multifactor theory of intelligence is associated with Thorndike and Guilford.
Thorndike found that all factors in intelligence represent a specific mental ability which are different from each other but associated too like breaks on a wall.
He said, that intelligence is an aggregate of many abilities. Common elements are found in specific ability. For example, for work ‘A’ we need ‘X’ ability and for work
‘B’ we need ‘Y’ ability. If 8 8 abilities are common between ‘X’ and ‘Y’ then the correlation between ‘X’ and ‘Y’ will be very high. If the commonalities are low, then correlation will also be very low. Thorndike’s theory of multiple intelligence is not very popular these days. Guilford’s theory has replaced his theory.
Guilford’s (1967) theory of intelligence is known as three-dimensional theory or structure of intelligence theory. Guilford suggested a different theory of intelligence.
He worked with the air force as psychologist. He constructed a test, which helped to identify people who could work as engineers and perform other duties in the army.
The sample size taken by him was only adult male and items in the test were as per the job requirement. He also did factor analysis to find out the results. He added the dimension of creativity in his test but creativity here meant only divergent thinking. Initially, when he did factor analysis, he came up with 25 abilities. However, he later conducted more tests and came up with 150 isolated abilities and said that systematic collection of ability is intelligence. He used analysis based on process, product and content. And for analysing he used the term ‘operation’ rather than ‘process’. He added all three dimensions in all the test items and explained intelligence in a cubical modal, where each cube represented one ability. He believed that all mental abilities can be represented in three dimensions named operations, content, and product.
Operation –Operation represents the nature of mental activities a person does. We all use different mental abilities to do work; the nature of these abilities is defined by the operations dimension. It can be further divided into five categories: convergent thinking (N), divergent thinking (D), evaluation (E), cognition (C) and memory (M).
|1||Convergent thinking||Convergent thinking is the ability which helps to find single solution to the problem.|
|2||Divergent thinking||Divergent thinking helps to find multiple solutions to one problem.|
|3||Evaluation||Evaluation represents the ability to find out which information or knowledge is correct and valid and which is not.|
|4||Cognition||Cognition means thinking, understanding, comprehending, analysing and so on.|
|5||Memory||Memory represents the storage and retrieval of information.|
One example can be taken to understand operations: If we ask a child to write about the positive and negative aspects of the media, he or she will use the ability of evaluation because he or she has to analyse the effect of media from both perspectives and then answer. Thus, he or she uses the ability of evaluation under the dimension of operation.
Content – Content means the field or matter on which operation has to be done. It is a subject matter, item or information on which on has to think. This can also be divided into five categories named visual (V), auditory (A), semantic (M), symbolic (S) and behavioural (B).
|1||Visual||Content or information based on visuals like any film, documentary etc.|
|2||Auditory||Content based on only sound or voice such as tape-recorded material.|
|3||Semantic||Content related to verbal meanings.|
|4||Symbolic||Content based on symbols and signs such as English or Hindi alphabets, languages, etc.|
|5||Behavioural||Content based on action of people.|
For example, showing someone a movie and asking him or her to review it with any specific reference can be a task. The content here is both visual and auditory. Similarly, the content of a written text may be reviewed and analysed.
Product – This dimension is used to apply a particular operation to particular content to get results. Guildford has divided this dimension into six categories named units (U), classes (C), relations (R), systems (S), transformations (T) and implications (I).
|1||Units||Units here mean product of the work done in the form of a single item.|
|2||Classes||The present output in form of different classes or categories or set of different units which share common attributes.|
|3||Relations||The results of the work done can be presented in terms of established relationship or any kinds of sequences.|
|4||System||Output of an operation in the form of a system which talked about multiple relations interconnected to any structure.|
|5||Transformation||Product in the form of change in existing situation, perspective and knowledge.|
|6||Implication||Result in the form of implication of the content used in terms of interpretation, inferences and consequences.|
If a learner is asked to study Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and asked to write or discuss its use in class or how to make classroom teaching based on Piaget’s perspective, it can be taken an example of product, where an implication of mental ability is used.
Guildford’s model of intelligence has been criticised because of two basic reasons: first, its use of statistical method and second, it has too many categories of mental ability, which seem to present classification of intelligence rather than theory.
Theory Of Multiple Intelligence (Gardner)
Gardner’s (1983) contribution to intelligence theory is that he included talents other than academic performance in intelligence. While doing this, his focus was on exceptional cases and later he extended this work to normal population. He used the case study research method to evaluate his theory. In his book, Frames of Mind, he talked about seven parameters or criteria of behaviour to be accepted as intelligence.
These seven potentials are isolated and damage to one does not influence the other.
He selected eight abilities to achieve these seven criteria, namely, linguistic, logicalmathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, musical, inter-personal, and intra-personal.
Later, he added two more abilities – naturalistic and existential intelligence.
|1||Linguistic intelligence||Linguistic intelligence involves ability to comprehend words and sentences, good reading, writing, memorising new words and so on.|
|2||Logical-mathematical intelligence||It involves ability to understand the logic behind a concept, understanding of numbers and associated concerns.|
|3||Spatial intelligence||It involves imaginative thinking and spatial visualisation.|
|It is associated with the ability to control one’s body energy and the kinesthetic capability to perform a skilful task. People with this intelligence are more likely to be artists, skilled in gymnastics etc.|
|5||Musical intelligence||It involves the ability to perceive pitch and rhythms. People with this intelligence generally become musicians.|
|6||Interpersonal intelligence||It involves the ability to understand inter-personal relations. People with inter-personal intelligence understand others’ needs, requirement and attitude.|
|7||Intra-personal intelligence||This indicates the ability to think critically about one’s own self, capacities, capabilities and potentialities.|
|8||Naturalistic intelligence||It means the ability to appreciate one’s natural surroundings and includes appreciation of all animals, plants and other natural environment.|
|9||Existential intelligence||It includes spiritual and religious intelligence. Gardner did|
not want to be associated with spiritual intelligence and therefore, he suggested existential intelligence.
With his theory, Gardner tried to establish the fact that labelling a learner with any one kind of intelligence is incorrect. Every person is unique and a mixture or blend of all the intelligences. By developing the theory of multiple intelligence, Gardner wanted to empower learners and enhance their capabilities. He talked about three core categories to explain intelligence. These are:
1. Ability to generate creative knowledge and output for the society one lived in
2. Ability to solve problems in day-to-day life
3. Ability to produce new knowledge.
All seven abilities interact with each other, but there is a possibility that one person is more intelligent in one ability than in others. These abilities are all associated but independent; therefore, they are said to be semi-autonomous. The importance of this theory of intelligence is that it helped to explain why an academically accomplished person fails in his or her social life. The reason behind this difference is that a person can be very intelligent in one demission but may not be so in others.
Sternberg’s’ Theory Of Intelligence (Triarchic Theory Of
Sternberg’s theory is based on information processing approaches, which perceive intelligence as a process rather than an outcome of a combination of factors. He gave his theory in his book Beyond IQ (1985), in which he stated that intelligence is divided into different basic skills and components and that a person processes the information received from each component through a series of five steps. These steps are encoding, inferring, mapping, application and response.
Encoding – The person identifies information which is relevant to the problem.
Inferring –The person makes an inference based on the gathered information.
Mapping – The person tries to establish a relationship between past situations and the present situation.
Application –The person tries to make actual use of the given inferences.
Response – The person searches for the best possible solution of the problem.
Sternberg believes that intelligence is a mental activity and process which helps a person to deal with the environment throughout life. To explain this idea of intelligence, he proposed three sub-theories of intelligence named contextual, experiential and componential.
The diagram given below presents the sub-theories of Sternberg’s theory.
Contextual or Practical Sub-theory
The contextual theory talks about how a person changes, moulds and modifies the environment according to his or her ability or requirements, which means, attaining fit to the context. There are three processes associated with this sub-theory, namely, adaptation, shaping and selection. Adaptation means making change in one’s self to adjust with the environment. Shaping means making a change in the environment to suit one’s need. Selection is a process that takes place when we find ourselves in a situation that we have never experienced. With the help of these processes we try to mould the environment according to our individual abilities, so that we may use it to our advantage. Sternberg said it is not necessary that a person should carry out all the three processes to show contextual intelligence. One may manifest all of them or be inclined to any one process.
Experiential or Creative Sub Theory
It is also known as experiential intelligence. It is a measure of the effectiveness with which a person deals with or performs a given task. There are two ways in which one can classify one’s experience, or we can say there are two sub-parts to this experience:
Novelty and Automation. A novel situation is a completely new situation and a person has to find out ways to deal with it. Whereas, automation occurs when a person has done a task many times and while performing such tasks, the experience so gained comes in handy.
This intelligence involves the ability to think and solve a problem abstractly. People having this intelligence have a critical and analytical approach towards a problem or issue. According to Sternberg, our mind works with the help of three components, namely, meta-component, performance component and knowledge acquisition component. These components help in decision making and facilitate the mind in its functioning. The meta-component is like a controller in our mind, which controls our way of working. It is an executive process, which facilitates the planning and execution of work. The performance component performs the function which has been decided by the meta-component. It also helps in perception and analysis at the practical level. The knowledge acquisition component is one that is used by a person trying to acquire new information. This component helps to create relationship between new knowledge and previous knowledge and can be categorised into three sub-components, namely, selective encoding, selective combination, and selective comparison
Intelligence means a person’s ability to solve a problem and respond effectively to new situations. Wechsler said “intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
There are many other definitions of intelligence and there are many ways of measuring intelligence such as the Binet–Simon Test, Wechsler Intelligence scale, Cattell culture-free intelligence test and so on.
Classification Of Intelligence Tests
Intelligence tests may broadly be classified as follows:
Individual tests are those in which only one individual is tested at a time. These tests are often conducted for young children who either cannot read at all or lack the reading ability to take on tests in the self-explanatory group forms. These tests are often useful in clinical settings. The difficulties in constructing test materials, standardising the test and setting up instructions for administration and scoring make the development of individual tests a time consuming and expensive job.
Group tests are those that are administered to a group of individuals at the same time.
These tests are used for testing normal adults. The well standardised group tests prove to be as good predictors as the individual tests when working with most teenage and adult groups. Group tests are usually easier to construct than individual tests. They are much less expensive and time consuming as compared to individual tests. Such tests are very useful for army and research purposes. These tests are mainly verbal and do not require much skill.
Intelligence tests may also be classified on the basis of their forms as:
Verbal or Language Test – Intelligence tests which need words or language to solve them are termed as verbal tests. The words here may also include numbers.
Non-verbal Test – In these tests, words or language is not required. The person is asked to solve problems in the form of activities involving pictures composition etc.
Individual Verbal Tests –These tests involve the use of language and is administered to one individual at a time, e.g., the Binet–Simon test.
Individual Performance Tests – Non-verbal or non-language tests of intelligence for testing one individual at a time come under this category, e.g., the Bhatia battery of performance test.
Group Verbal Intelligence Tests – These tests necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time, e.g., the general intelligence test by S. M. Mohsin.
Group Non-verbal Intelligence Tests
These tests do not necessitate the use of language and are applicable to a group of individuals at a time. The army alpha test is an example.
Concepts Of Child-Centered And Progressive Education
The education process of a country aims at the development of a child. The methods used for teaching children have been a topic of debate among educationists over the years. Some educationists supported instructor-centred education, while some preferred child-centred education. Instructor-centred education is a traditional method in which teachers focus on what they did and not on what students learn.
Students are passive learners and do not take the responsibility of their learning.
On the other hand, child-centred education considers learning a natural process for a child. A child learns from day-to-day activities leading to the right growth of the child. A teacher focuses on a child’s learning. The role of a teacher should be that of a guide who encourages, instructs and stimulates a child as per his/her needs. This is because every child has different capabilities. A teacher cannot employ one single method to all children in a class as the needs of children are different. In recent years, teachers have moved towards the child-centred approach in order to best serve the needs of children.
According to Prof. P. M. Lohithakshan, Educational active-ties are designed and implemented on the basis of the capacities, needs and interests of children.
Curricula, teaching methods, evaluation, co-curricular activities, etc. are all planned accordingly.
In the words of Prof. G. L. Arora, Child-centred education means that for the organisation of different processes of education, child’s point of views, such as his/her needs, interests and aptitudes should get precedence over the teacher’s, curriculum developer’s or evaluator’s point of view.
The features of child-centred education are as follows:
► Considers the growth of a child as a priority
► Makes the child’s learning interesting and meaningful
► Recognises the child’s potential and utilises it effectively
► Leads to the physical, social, moral and spiritual development of the child
► Enables the child to learn through experiences
► Provides complete freedom to the child to grow naturally The role of teachers in child-centred education is important. They set achievable goals, encourage students and help them to work co-operatively with each other.
Thus, child-centred education also helps in interaction among children.
Child-centred education addresses not only the academic needs of a child but also various other needs such as social and emotional needs. Welfare programmes are conducted to grow public awareness about child’s development.
Progressive education makes use of ideas and practices that aim for making schools more effective agencies in a democratic society. This focuses on teaching children how to think. According to John French, The progressive school teaches the child to think for himself instead of passively accepting stereotyped ideas. It keeps always in mind that each child is different from each other, and that what makes an educated person useful in his particular walk of life, what makes him interesting, what makes him an individual, is not his resemblance to other people, but his differences.
In progressive education, each child is recognised for his/her uniqueness in terms of abilities, ideas, needs, etc. Thus, child-centred learning is an important feature of progressive education. The following are the characteristics of progressive education:
► Curriculum is designed as per the interests of children.
► Developmental approach is used, according to which, each child is unique.
► Integrated curriculum approach is used.
► Less emphasis is laid on textbooks.
Progressive Education Is Different From The Traditional Style Of Education. Table Distinguishes Between Traditional Education And Progressive Education: Table: Distinction Between Traditional Education And Progressive Education
Traditional Education Progressive Education School Is Considered To Be An Institution For Preparing Individuals For Life.
School is considered to be a part of life.
Learners Absorb Information And Obey Rules.
Learners Actively Participate In Problem Solving.
Parents Are Treated As Outsiders. Parents Are Considered To Be Primary Teachers.
Society Is Considered To Be Separate From School.
Society is the extension of a classroom.
Knowledge Is Given By Lectures And Worksheets.
Knowledge Is Constructed Through Direct Experience And Social Interaction.
Progressive education can be of different types, such as:
► Humanistic education: This type of education focuses on arts and social science. This develops critical thinking and reasoning skills in a child. Humanistic education lays emphasis on learning through social interactions.
► Constructivism education: This focuses on the creativity of a child by using learning techniques that aim at experiential learning and learning by doing. As per constructivism education, a child’s developmental stages are necessary to be considered.
► Montessori education: This is given by an Italian doctor, Maria Montessori, who developed teaching theories by analysing and observing children. She observed that children learn themselves and teachers just facilitate the process of learning in children by providing a rich environment.