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Chapter 39. Municipalities (Indian Polity & Constitution Summary Laxmikanth)

Municipalities

he term ‘Urban Local Government’ in India signifies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. The jurisdiction of an urban local government is limited to a specific urban area which is demarcated for this purpose by the state government1.
There are eight types of urban local governments in India—municipal corporation, municipality, notified area committee, town area committee, cantonment board, township, port trust and special purpose agency.
The system of urban government was constitutionalised through the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992. At the Central level, the subject of ‘urban local government’ is dealt with by the following three ministries:
(i) Ministry of Urban Development, created as a separate ministry in 1985
(ii) Ministry of Defence in the case of cantonment boards
(iii) Ministry of Home Affairs in the case of Union Territories

Evolution of Urban Bodies

Historical Perspective

The institutions of urban local government originated and developed in modern India during the period of British rule. The major events in this context are as follows:
(i) In 1687-88, the first municipal corporation in India was set up at Madras.
(ii) In 1726, the municipal corporations were set up in Bombay and Calcutta.
(iii) Lord Mayo’s Resolution of 1870 on financial decentralisation visualised the development of local self-government institutions.
(iv) Lord Ripon’s Resolution of 1882 has been hailed as the ‘Magna Carta’ of local self-government. He is called as the father of local-self government in India.
(v) The Royal Commission on decentralisation was appointed in 1907 and it submitted its report in 1909. Its chairman was Hobhouse.
(vi) Under the dyarchical scheme introduced in Provinces by the Government of India Act of 1919, local self-government became a transferred subject under the charge of a responsible Indian minister.
(vii) In 1924, the Cantonments Act was passed by the Central legislature.
(viii) Under the provincial autonomy scheme introduced by the Government of India Act of 1935, local self-government was declared a provincial subject.

Committees and Commissions

The committees and commissions appointed by the Central Government to improve the functioning of urban local governments are mentioned below in Table 39.1.

Table 39.1 Committees and Commissions on Urban Local Governments

Sl. No.YearName of the Committee / CommissionChairman
1.1949–51Local Finance Enquiry CommitteeP.K. Wattal
2.1953–54Taxation Enquiry CommissionJohn Matthai
3.1963–65Committee on the Training of Municipal EmployeesNur-Ud-din Ahmed
4.1963–66Rural-Urban Relationship CommitteeA.P. Jain
5.1963Committee of Ministers on Augmentation of Financial Resources of Urban Local BodiesRafiq Zakaria
6.1965–68Committee on Service Conditions of Municipal Employees
7.1974Committee on Budgetary Reform in Municipal AdministrationGirijapati Mukharji
8.1982Study Group on Constitution, Powers and Laws of Urban Local Bodies and Municipal CorporationsK.N. Sahaya
9.1985–88National Commission on UrbanisationC.M. Correa

Constitutionalisation

In August 1989, the Rajiv Gandhi government introduced the 65th Constitutional Amendment Bill (i.e., Nagarpalika Bill) in the Lok Sabha. The bill aimed at strengthening and revamping the municipal bodies by conferring a constitutional status on them. Although the bill was passed in the Lok Sabha, it was defeated in the Rajya Sabha in October 1989 and hence, lapsed.
The National Front Government under V P Singh introduced the revised Nagarpalika Bill in the Lok Sabha again in September 1990. However, the bill was not passed and finally lapsed due to the dissolution of the Lok Sabha.
P V Narasimha Rao’s Government also introduced the modified Municipalities Bill in the Lok Sabha in September 1991. It finally emerged as the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992 and came into force on 1 June 19932.

74th Amendment Act of 1992
This Act has added a new Part IX-A to the Constitution of India. This part is entitled as ‘The Municipalities’ and consists of provisions from Articles 243-P to 243-ZG. In addition, the act has also added a new Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution. This schedule contains eighteen functional items of municipalities. It deals with Article 243-W.
The act gave constitutional status to the municipalities. It has brought them under the purview of justiciable part of the Constitution. In other words, state governments are under constitutional obligation to adopt the new system of municipalities in accordance with the provisions of the act.
The act aims at revitalising and strengthening the urban governments so that they function effectively as units of local government.

Salient Features

The salient features of the act are:
Three Types of Municipalities The act provides for the constitution of the following three types of municipalities in every state.
1. A nagar panchayat (by whatever name called) for a transitional area, that is, an area in transition from a rural area to an urban area.
2. A municipal council for a smaller urban area.
3. A municipal corporation for a larger urban area3.
Composition All the members of a municipality shall be elected directly by the people of the municipal area. For this purpose, each municipal area shall be divided into territorial constituencies to be known as wards. The state legislature may provide the manner of election of the chairperson of a municipality. It may also provide for the representation of the following persons in a municipality.
1. Persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration without the right to vote in the meetings of municipality.
2. The members of the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assembly representing constituencies that comprise wholly or partly the municipal area.
3. The members of the Rajya Sabha and the state legislative council registered as electors within the municipal area.
4. The chairpersons of committees (other than wards committees).
Wards Committees There shall be constituted a wards committee, consisting of one or more wards, within the territorial area of a municipality having population of three lakh or more. The state legislature may make provision with respect to the composition and the territorial area of a wards committee and the manner in which the seats in a wards committee shall be filled. It may also make any provision for the constitution of commitees in addition to the wards committees.
Reservation of Seats The act provides for the reservation of seats for the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes in every municipality in proportion of their population to the total population in the municipal area. Further, it provides for the reservation of not less than one-third of the total number of seats for women (including the number of seats reserved for woman belonging to the SCs and the STs).
The state legislature may provide for the manner of reservation of offices of chairpersons in the municipalities for SCs, STs and women. It may also make any provision for the reservation of seats in any municipality or offices of chairpersons in municipalities in favour of backward classes.
Duration of Municipalities The act provides for a five-year term of office for every municipality. However, it can be dissolved before the completion of its term. Further, the fresh elections to constitute a municipality shall be completed (a) before the expiry of its duration of five years; or (b) in case of dissolution, before the expiry of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution.
But, where the remainder of the period (for which the dissolved municipality would have continued) is less than six months, it shall not be necessary to hold any election for constituting the new municipality for such period.
Moreover, a municipality constituted upon the dissolution of a municipality before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the remainder of the period for which the dissolved municipality would have continued had it not been so dissolved. In other words, a municipality reconstituted after premature dissolution does not enjoy the full period of five years but remains in office only for the remainder of the period.
Disqualifications A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as or for being a member of a municipality if he is so disqualified (a) under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of elections to the legislature of the state concerned; or (b) under any law made by the state legislature. However, no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than 25 years of age if he has attained the age of 21 years. Further, all questions of disqualifications shall be referred to such authority as the state legislature determines.
State Election Commission The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of all elections to the municipalities shall be vested in the state election commission.
The state legislature may make provision with respect to all matters relating to elections to the municipalities.
Powers and Functions The state legislature may endow the municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government. Such a scheme may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon municipalities at the appropriate level with respect to (a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; (b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them, including those in relation to the eighteen matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule.
Finances The state legislature may (a) authorise a municipality to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees; (b) assign to a municipality taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by state government; (c) provide for making grants-in-aid to the municipalities from the consolidated fund of the state; and (d) provide for constitution of funds for crediting all moneys of the municipalities.
Finance Commission The finance commission (which is constituted for the panchayats) shall also, for every five years, review the financial position of municipalities and make recommendation to the governor as to:
1. The principles that should govern:
(a) The distribution between the state and the municipalities, the net proceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied by the state.
(b) The determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees that may be assigned to the municipalities.
(c) The grants-in-aid to the municipalities from the consolidated fund of the state.
2. The measures needed to improve the financial position of the municipalities.
3. Any other matter referred to it by the governor in the interests of sound finance of municipalities.
The governor shall place the recommendations of the commission along with the action taken report before the state legislature.
The central finance commission shall also suggest the measures needed to augment the consolidated fund of a state to supplement the resources of the municipalities in the state (on the basis of the recommendations made by the finance commission of the state).
Audit of Accounts The state legislature may make provisions with respect to the maintenance of accounts by municipalities and the auditing of such accounts.
Application to Union Territories The president of India may direct that the provisions of this act shall apply to any union territory subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify.
Exempted Areas The act does not apply to the scheduled areas and tribal areas in the states4. It shall also not affect the functions and powers of the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council of the West Bengal.
District Planning Committee Every state shall constitute at the district level, a district planning committee to consolidate the plans prepared by panchayats and municipalities in the district, and to prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole. The state legislature may make provisions with respect to the following:
1. The composition of such committees;
2. The manner of election of members of such committees;
3. The functions of such committees in relation to district planning; and
4. The manner of the election of the chairpersons of such committees.
The act lays down that four-fifths of the members of a district planning committee should be elected by the elected members of the district panchayat and municipalities in the district from amongst themselves. The representation of these members in the committee should be in proportion to the ratio between the rural and urban populations in the district.
The chairperson of such committee shall forward the development plan to the state government.
In preparing the draft development plan, a district planning committee shall
(a) Have regard to—
(i) matters of common interest between the Panchayats and the Municipalities including spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation;
(ii) the extent and type of available resources whether financial or otherwise; and
(b) Consult such institutions and organisations as the Governor may specify.
Metropolitan Planning Committee Every metropolitan area shall have a metropolitan planning committee to prepare a draft development plan5. The state legislature may make provisions with respect to the following:
1. The composition of such committees;
2. The manner of election of members of such committees;
3. The representation in such committes of the Central government, state government and other organisations;
4. The functions of such committees in relation to planning and coordination for the metropolitan area; and
5. The manner of election of chairpersons of such committees.
The act lays down that two-thirds of the members of a metropolitan planning committee should be elected by the elected members of the municipalities and chairpersons of the panchayats in the metropolitan area from amongst themselves. The representation of these members in the committee should be in proportion to the ratio between the population of the municipalities and the panchayats in that metropolitan area.
The chairpersons of such committees shall forward the development plan to the state government.
In preparing the draft development plan, a metropolitan planning committee shall
(a) Have regard to—
(i) the plans prepared by the Municipalities and the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area;
(ii) matters of common interest between the Municipalities and the Panchayats, including co-ordinated spatial planning of the area, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation;
(iii) the overall objectives and priorities set by the Government of India and the government of the state;
(iv) the extent and nature of investments likely to be made in the Metropolitan area by agencies of the Government of India and of the Government of the State and other available resources whether financial or otherwise; and
(b) consult such institutions and organisations as the Governor may specify.
Continuance of Existing Laws and Municipalities All the state laws relating to municipalities shall continue to be in force until the expiry of one year from the commencement of this act. In other words, the states have to adopt the new system of municipalities based on this act within the maximum period of one year from 1 June, 1993, which is the date of commencement of this act. However, all municipalities existing immediately before the commencement of this act shall continue till the expiry of their term, unless dissolved by the state legislature sooner.
Bar to Interference by Courts in Electoral Matters The act bars the interference by courts in the electoral matters of municipalities. It declares that the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies cannot be questioned in any court. It further lays down that no election to any municipality is to be questioned except by an election petition presented to such authority and in such manner as provided by the state legislature.
Twelfth Schedule It contains the following 18 functional items placed within the purview of municipalities:
1. Urban planning including town planning;
2. Regulation of land use and construction of buildings;
3. Planning for economic and social development;
4. Roads and bridges;
5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes;
6. Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management;
7. Fire services;
8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects;
9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded;
10. Slum improvement and upgradation;
11. Urban poverty alleviation;
12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds;
13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects;
14. Burials and burial grounds, cremations and cremation grounds and electric crematoriums;
15. Cattle ponds, prevention of cruelty to animals;
16. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths;
17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences; and
18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.

Types of Urban Governments
The following eight types of urban local bodies are created in India for the administration of urban areas:
● Municipal Corporation
● Municipality
● Notified Area Committee
● Town Area Committee
● Cantonment Board
● Township
● Port Trust
● Special Purpose Agency

1. Municipal Corporation

Municipal corporations are created for the administration of big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bangalore and others. They are established in the states by the acts of the concerned state legislatures, and in the union territories by the acts of the Parliament of India. There may be one common act for all the municipal corporations in a state or a separate act for each municipal corporation.
A municipal corporation has three authorities, namely, the council, the standing committees and the commissioner.
The Council is the deliberative and legislative wing of the corporation. It consists of the Councillors directly elected by the people, as well as a few nominated persons having knowledge or experience of municipal administration. In brief, the composition of the Council including the reservation of seats for SCs, STs and women is governed by the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act.
The Council is headed by a Mayor. He is assisted by a Deputy Mayor. He is elected in a majority of the states for a one-year renewable term. He is basically an ornamental figure and a formal head of the corporation. His main function is to preside over the meetings of the Council.
The standing committees are created to facilitate the working of the council, which is too large in size. They deal with public works, education, health, taxation, finance and so on. They take decisions in their fields.
The municipal commissioner is responsible for the implementation of the decisions taken by the council and its standing committees. Thus, he is the chief executive authority of the corporation. He is appointed by the state government and is generally a member of the IAS.

2. Municipality

The municipalities are established for the administration of towns and smaller cities. Like the corporations, they are also set up in the states by the acts of the concerned state legislatures and in the union territory by the acts of the Parliament of India. They are also known by various other names like municipal council, municipal committee, municipal board, borough municipality, city municipality and others.
Like a municipal corporation, a municipality also has three authorities, namely, the council, the standing committees and the chief executive officer.
The council is the deliberative and legislative wing of the municipality. It consists of the councillors directly elected by the people.
The council is headed by a president/chairman. He is assisted by a vice-president/vice-chairman. He presides over the meetings of the council. Unlike the Mayor of a municipal corporation, he plays a significant role and is the pivot of the municipal administration. Apart from presiding over the meetings of the Council, he enjoys executive powers.
The standing committees are created to facil-itate the working of the council. They deal with public works, taxation, health, finance and so on.
The chief executive officer/chief municipal officer is responsible for day-to-day general administration of the municipality. He is appointed by the state government.

3. Notified Area Committee

A notified area committee is created for the administration of two types of areas—a fast developing town due to industrialisation, and a town which does not yet fulfil all the conditions necessary for the constitution of a municipality, but which otherwise is considered important by the state government. Since it is established by a notification in the government gazette, it is called as notified area committee. Though it functions within the framework of the State Municipal Act, only those provisions of the act apply to it which are notified in the government gazette by which it is created. It may also be entrusted to exercise powers under any other act. Its powers are almost equivalent to those of a municipality. But unlike the municipality, it is an entirely nominated body, that is, all the members of a notified area committee including the chairman are nominated by the state government. Thus, it is neither an elected body nor a statutory body.

4. Town Area Committee

A town area committee is set up for the administration of a small town. It is a semi-municipal authority and is entrusted with a limited number of civic functions like drainage, roads, street lighting, and conservancy. It is created by a separate act of a state legislature. Its composition, functions and other matters are governed by the act. It may be wholly elected or wholly nominated by the state government or partly elected and partly nominated6.

5. Cantonment Board

A cantonment board is established for municipal administration for civilian population in the cantonment area7. It is set up under the provisions of the Cantonments Act of 2006—a legislation enacted by the Central government. It works under the administrative control of the defence ministry of the Central government. Thus, unlike the above four types of urban local bodies, which are created and administered by the state government, a cantonment board is created as well as administered by the Central government.
The Cantonments Act of 2006 was enacted to consolidate and amend the law relating to the administration of cantonments with a view to impart greater democratisation, improvement of their financial base to make provisions for developmental activities and for matters connected with them. This Act has repealed the Cantonments Act of 1924.
At present (2016), there are 62 cantonment boards in the country. They are grouped into four categories on the basis of the civil population. This is shown below in Table 39.2.

Table 39.2 Classification of Cantonment Boards

CategoryCivil Population
Iabove 50,000
II10,000 to 50,000
III2,500 to 10,000
IVBelow 2,500

A cantonment board consists of partly elected and partly nominated members. The elected members hold office for a term of five years while the nominated members (i.e., ex-officio members) continue so long as they hold the office in that station. The military officer commanding the station is the ex-officio president of the board and presides over its meetings. The vice-president of the board is elected by the elected members from amongst themselves for a term of five years.
The Category I cantonment board consists of the following members:
(i) A military officer commanding the station
(ii) An executive engineer in the cantonment
(iii) A health officer in the cantonment
(iv) A first class magistrate nominated by the district magistrate
(v) Three military officers nominated by the officer commanding the station
(vi) Eight members elected by the people of the cantonment area
(vii) Chief Executive Officer of the cantonment board
The functions performed by a cantonment board are similar to those of a municipality. These are statutorily categorised into obligatory functions and discretionary functions. The sources of income includes both, tax revenue and non-tax revenue.
The executive officer of the cantonment board is appointed by the president of India. He implements all the resolutions and decisions of the board and its committees. He belongs to the central cadre established for the purpose.

6. Township

This type of urban government is established by the large public enterprises to provide civic amenities to its staff and workers who live in the housing colonies built near the plant. The enterprise appoints a town administrator to look after the administration of the township. He is assisted by some engineers and other technical and non-technical staff. Thus, the township form of urban government has no elected members. In fact, it is an extension of the bureaucratic structure of the enterprises.

7. Port Trust

The port trusts are established in the port areas like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and so on for two purposes: (a) to manage and protect the ports; and (b) to provide civic amenities. A port trust is created by an Act of Parliament. It consists of both elected and nominated members. Its chairman is an official. Its civic functions are more or less similar to those of a municipality.

8. Special Purpose Agency

In addition to these seven area-based urban bodies (or multipurpose agencies), the states have set up certain agencies to undertake designated activities or specific functions that ‘legitimately’ belong to the domain of municipal corporations or municipalities or other local urban governments. In other words, these are function-based and not area-based. They are known as ‘single purpose’, ‘uni-purpose’ or ‘special purpose’ agencies or ‘functional local bodies’. Some such bodies are:
1. Town improvement trusts.
2. Urban development authorities.
3. Water supply and sewerage boards.
4. Housing boards.
5. Pollution control boards.
6. Electricity supply boards.
7. City transport boards.
These functional local bodies are established as statutory bodies by an act of state legislature or as departments by an executive resolution. They function as autonomous bodies and deal with the functions allotted to them independently of the local urban governments, that is, municipal corporations or municipalities and so forth. Thus, they are not subordinate agencies of the local municipal bodies.

Municipal Personnel
There are three types of municipal personnel systems in India. The personnel working in the urban governments may belong to any one or all the three types. These are
1. Separate Personnel System: Under this system, each local body appoints, administers, and controls its own personnel. They are not transferable to other local bodies. It is the most widely prevalent system. This system upholds the principle of local autonomy and promotes undivided loyalty.
2. Unified Personnel System: In this system, the state government appoints, administers, and controls the municipal personnel. In other words, state-wide services (cadres) are created for all the urban bodies in the state. They are transferable between the local bodies in the state. This system is prevalent in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and so on.
3. Integrated Personnel System: Under this system, the personnel of the state government and those of the local bodies form part of the same service. In other words, the municipal personnel are the members of the state services. They are transferable not only between the local bodies in the state but also between local bodies and departments of state government. Thus, there is no distinction between local civil service and state civil service. This system is prevalent in Odisha, Bihar, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana and others.
The various national level institutions providing training to the municipal personnel are
1. All-India Institute of Local Self-Government (Mumbai) constituted in 1927; it is a private registered society
2. Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies (New Delhi) set up in 1967 on the recommendation of Nur-ud-din Ahmed Committee on Training of Municipal Employees (1963-1965)
3. Regional Centres for Urban and Environmental Studies (Kolkata, Lucknow, Hyderabad and Mumbai) set up in 1968 on the recommendation of Nur-ud-din Ahmed Committee on Training of Municipal Employees (1963-1965)
4. National Institute of Urban Affairs, established in 1976
5. Human Settlement Management Institute, established in 1985

Municipal Revenue
There are five sources of income of the urban local bodies. These are as follows:
1. Tax Revenue: The revenue from the local taxes include property tax, entertainment tax, taxes on advertisements, professional tax, water tax, tax on animals, lighting tax, pilgrim tax, market tax, toll on new bridges, octroi and so on. In addition, the municipal bodies imposes various cesses like library cess, education cess, beggary cess and so on. Octroi (i.e., taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use or sale therein) has been abolished in most of the states. Property tax is the most important tax revenue.
2. Non-Tax Revenue: This source include rent on municipal properties, fees and fines, royalty, profits and dividends, interest, user charges and miscellaneous receipts. The user charges (i.e., payment for public utilities) include water charges, sanitation charges, sewerage charges and so on.
3. Grants: These include the various grants given to municipal bodies by the Central and State Governments for several development programmes, infrastructure schemes, urban reform initiatives and so on.
4. Devolution: This consists of the transfer of funds to the urban local bodies from the state government. This devolution is made on the basis of the recommendations of the state finance commission.
5. Loans: The urban local bodies raise loans from the state government as well as financial institutions to meet their capital expenditure. They can borrow from the financial institutions or other bodies only with the approval of the state government.

Central Council of Local Government
The Central Council of Local Government was set up in 1954. It was constituted under Article 263 of the Constitution of India by an order of the President of India. Originally, it was known as the Central Council of Local Self-Government. However, the term ‘self-government’ was found to be superfluous and hence was replaced by the term ‘government’ in the 1980s. Till 1958, it dealt with both urban as well as rural local governments, but after 1958 it has been dealing with matters of urban local government only.
The Council is an advisory body. It consists of the Minister for Urban Development in the Government of India and the ministers for local self government in states. The Union minister acts as the Chairman of the Council.
The Council performs the following functions with regard to local government:
(i) Considering and recommending the policy matters
(ii) Making proposals for legislation
(iii) Examining the possibility of cooperation between the Centre and the states
(iv) Drawing up a common programme of action
(v) Recommending Central financial assistance
(vi) Reviewing the work done by the local bodies with the Central financial assistance

Table 39.3 Articles Related to Municipalities at a Glance

Article No.Subject-matter
243PDefinitions
243QConstitution of municipalities
243RComposition of municipalities
243SConstitution and composition of wards committees, and so on
243TReservation of seats
243UDuration of municipalities, and so on
243VDisqualifications for membership
243WPowers, authority and responsibilities of municipalities, and so on
243XPowers to impose taxes by, and funds of, the municipalities
243YFinance commission
243ZAudit of accounts of municipalities
243ZAElections to the municipalities
243ZBApplication to union territories
243ZCPart not to apply to certain areas
243ZDCommittee for district planning
243ZECommittee for metropolitan planning
243ZFContinuance of existing laws and municipalities
243ZGBar to interference by courts in electoral matters


Table 39.4 Name and Number of Municipalities (2010)8

Sl. No.StateUrban Local BodiesNumber
1.Andhra Pradesh1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Nagar Panchayats
15
103
6
2.Arunachal Pradesh(ULBs do not exist)
3.Assam1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Town Panchayats
1
29
59
4.Bihar1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
3. Nagar Panchayats
11
43
84
5.Chattisgarh1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Town Panchayats
10
28
124
6.Goa1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
1
13
7.Gujarat1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Notified Area Councils
7
159
2
8.Haryana1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
3. Municipal Committees
1
24
51
9.Himachal Pradesh1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
3. Nagar Panchayats
1
20
28
10.Jammu & Kashmir1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Committees
2
80
11.Jharkhand1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities / MC
3. Town Panchayats / NAC
2
15
22
12.Karnataka1. Municipal / City Corporations
2. Municipal / City Councils
3. Town Panchayats
8
138
73
13.Kerala1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
5
53
14.Madhya Pradesh1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Nagar Panchayats
14
88
236
15.Maharashtra1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
3. Nagar Panchayats
22
222
5
16.Manipur1. Municipal Councils
2. Nagar Panchayats
10
18
17.Meghalaya1. Municipalities6
18.Mizoram1. Municipalities1
19.Nagaland1. Municipal Councils
2. Town Councils
3
16
20.Odisha1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Notified Area Councils
3
36
64
21.Punjab1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Nagar Panchayats
5
97
33
22.Rajasthan1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
3. Municipal Boards
3
11
169
23.Sikkim1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipal Councils
3. Nagar Panchayats
1
2
9
24.Tamil Nadu1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Town Panchayats
8
150
561
25.Tripura1. Municipal Councils
2. Nagar Panchayats
1
12
26.Uttar Pradesh1. Nagar Nigam
2. Nagar Palika Parishads
3. Nagar Panchayats
12
194
422
27.Uttarakhand1. Nagar Nigam
2. Nagar Palika Parishads
3. Nagar Panchayats
1
31
31
28.West Bengal1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Notified Area Authorities
6
118
3
All India1. Municipal Corporations
2. Municipalities
3. Nagar Panchayats
139
1595
2108

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