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Chapter 30. Important Notes (History of Modern India Summary)

Important Notes

1. Personalities Associated with Specific Movements Swadeshi Movement Lokmanya Tilak spread the message of swadeshi to Poona and Bombay and organised Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to arouse patriotic feelings. He stressed that the aim of swadeshi, boycott and national education was attainment of swaraj. He opened cooperative stores and headed the Swadeshi Wastu Pracharini Sabha.
Lala Lajpat Rai took the movement to Punjab and parts of northern India. He was assisted in his venture by Ajit Singh. His articles, which were published in Kayastha Samachar, endorsed technical education and industrial selfsufficiency.
Syed Haider Raza popularised the Swadeshi Movement in Delhi.
Chidambaram Pillai spread the movement to Madras and organised the strike of the Tuticorin Coral Mill. He founded the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin on the east coast of the Madras Province.
Bipin Chandra Pal of the Extremist clan played a major role in popularising the movement, especially in the urban areas. He was the editor of New India.
Laikat Hossain of Patna suggested boycott and organised the East Indian Railway strike in 1906. He also wrote fiery articles in Urdu to rouse nationalist sentiments in Muslims. He was supported by other Muslim swadeshi agitators like Ghaznavi, Rasul, Din Mohammed, Dedar Bux, Moniruzzaman, Ismail Hussain, Siraji, Abdul Hussain
and Abdul Gaffar.
Shyamsunder Chakrabarti,
a swadeshi political leader, helped in organising strikes.
Ramendra Sunder Trivedi called for observance of arandhan (keeping the hearth unlit) as a mark of mourning and protest on the day the partition was put into effect.
Rabindranath Tagore composed several songs to inspire freedom struggle and revived Bengali folk music to rouse national pride. He also set up some swadeshi stores and called for the observance of raksha bandhan (tying of threads on each other’s wrists as a sign of brotherhood).
Aurobindo Ghosh was in favour of extending the movement to the rest of India. He was appointed as the principal of Bengal National College founded in 1906 to encourage patriotic thinking and an education system related to Indian conditions and culture. He was also the editor of Bande Mataram and through his editorials encouraged strikes, national education etc., in the spirit of the Swadeshi Movement. He was assisted by Jatindranath Bannerji and Barindrakumar Ghosh (who managed the Anushilan Samiti).
Surendranath Banerjea who held moderate nationalist opinion launched powerful press campaigns through newspapers like The Bengalee and addressed mass meetings.
He was assisted by Krishnakumar Mitra and Narendra Kumar Sen.
Ashwini Kumar Dutt,
a school teacher, set up Swadesh Bandhab Samiti to propagate the Swadeshi Movement and led the Muslim peasants of Barisal in their protests.
Promotha Mitter, Barindrakumar Ghosh, Jatindranath Bannerji founded the Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta.
G.K. Gokhale, president of the Benaras session of the Indian National Congress, 1905, supported the Swadeshi Movement.
Abdul Halim Guznavi, a zamindar and a lawyer, set up swadeshi industries and helped Aurobindo Ghosh to extend revolutionary activities outside Bengal. He was assisted by Abul Kalam Azad.
Dadabhai Naoroji
at the 1906 Congress session declared that the goal of the Congress was to attain swaraj.
Acharya P.C. Roy, in order to promote swadeshi, set up the Bengal Chemicals Factory.
Mukunda Das, Rajanikanta Sen, Dwijendralal Roy, Girindramohini Dosi, Sayed Abu Mohammed composed patriotic songs on swadeshi themes. Girishchandra Ghosh, Kshirodeprasad Vidyavinode and Amritlal Bose were play-wrights who contributed to the swadeshi spirit through their creative efforts.
Ashwini Coomar Banerjee, a swadeshi activist, led the jute mill workers to form an Indian Millhands’ Union at Budge-Budge in August 1906.
Satish Chandra Mukherji through his Dawn Society promoted an education system under indigenous control.
Motilal Ghosh of the Amrit Bazar Patrika group contributed several fiery articles in the paper to arouse patriotic sentiments and was in favour of Extremism.
Brahmabandhab Upadhyay through his Sandhya and Yugantar (brought out by a group associated with Barindrakumar Ghosh) popularised swaraj and the Swadeshi Movement.
Jogendrachandra set up an association in March 1904 to raise funds to facilitate students to go abroad for technical and industrial training.
Manindra Nandi, a zamindar from Kasimbazar, patronised several indigenous industries.
Kalisankar Sukul brought out several pamphlets on Swadeshi Movement and argued that a new kind of business class should be built to promote national interests.
Sunder Lal, a student from UP, was drawn towards terrorism.
Kunwarji Mehta and Kalyanji Mehta began organisational work through the Patidar Yuvak Mandal.
Lala Harkishan Lal promoted Swadeshi Movement in Punjab through the Brahmo-leaning group which began the Tribune newspaper. He also founded the Punjab National Bank.
Muhammed Shafi and Fazal-i-Husain were leaders of a Muslim group in Punjab involved in constructive swadeshi, rather than boycott.
V. Krishnaswami Iyer headed the ‘Mylapore’ group in the Madras Presidency.
G. Subramaniya Iyer, T. Prakasam and M. Krishna Rao were other leaders in the south but were opposed to
V.K. Iyer. Prakasam and Krishna Rao started Kistnapatrika in Masulipatnam in 1904.
Subramaniya Bharati, a member of Tamilian revolutionary group and an eminent poet, played a significant role in arousing nationalism in the Tamil areas.
Prabhatkusum Roy Chaudhuri, Athanasuis Apurbakumar Ghosh were lawyers who helped in organising labour; Premtosh Bose was another pioneer labour leader.
Hemachandra Kanungo was one of the first revolutionary leaders, and after his return from Paris (he had gone there to get military training), a combined bomb factory and religious school was set up in Calcutta.
Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki, two revolutionaries, murdered Kennedy on April 30, 1908.
Pulin Das organised the Deccan Anushilan, with the Barrah dacoity as its first major venture.
Madan Mohan Malaviya and Motilal Nehru were in favour of cooperation with provincial governments and nonpolitical Swadeshi Movement.
Sachindranath Sanyal emerged as a revolutionary leader in Benaras through contacts with Mokhodacharan Samadhyay (the editor of Sandhya after the death of Brahmabandhab).
The Savarkar brothers founded the Mitra Mela in 1899 and were directly involved in extremism in Maharashtra.
Dinshaw Wacha persuaded mill-owners in Maharashtra to sell dhotis at moderate prices.
Non-cooperation Movement M.K. Gandhi issued a manifesto in March 1920, announcing his doctrine of non-violent Non-Cooperation Movement. He was the main force behind the movement and urged the people to adopt swadeshi principles and habits including hand spinning, weaving and work for removal of untouchability. He addressed lakhs of people during his nation-wide tour in 1921. He suspended the movement after an outburst of violence at Chauri Chaura in UP in February 1922.
C.R. Das moved the main resolution on non-cooperation in the annual session of the Congress in Nagpur in 1920 and played a major role in promoting the movement. A successful lawyer, he boycotted the law courts and gave up a lucrative practice. His three subordinates and supporters, Birendranath Samsal in Midnapore, J.M. Sengupta in Chittagong and Subhash Bose in Calcutta played a major role in uniting the Hindus and Muslims.
Jawaharlal Nehru carried on the non-cooperation propaganda and encouraged the formation of kisan sabhas to take up the cause of the peasants exploited by government policies. He was against Gandhi’s decision to withdraw the movement.
J.M. Sengupta, a Bengali nationalist leader, supported the labourers on tea plantations in Assam in their protests and strike.
Basanti Debi, wife of C.R. Das, was one of the first women volunteers to court arrest in 1921.
Birendranath Samsal organised the anti-union board agitation in the Contai and Tamluk sub-divisions of Midnapore.
In November-December 1921, Samsal initiated a no-tax movement among the Mahishya substantial tenantry of Midnapore.
Jitendralal Banerji organised the peasants in 1921- 22 to resist settlement operations in Bogra, Pabna and Birbhum.
Subhash Chandra Bose supported the movement and resigned from the civil service. He was appointed the principal of the National College in Calcutta.
Ali brothers (Shaukat Ali and Muhammed Ali) who were the foremost Khilafat leaders vehemently supported Gandhi in his nation-wide tour to spread the movement. At the All India Khilafat Conference, Muhammed Ali declared that ‘it was religiously unlawful for the Muslims to continue in the British Army’. The Ali brothers were arrested later.
Motilal Nehru renounced his legal practice in response to the non-cooperation call by Gandhi. He was arrested in 1921. Other notable lawyers who gave up their practice included M.R. Jayakar, Saifuddin Kitchlew, Vallabhbhai Patel, C. Rajagopalachari, T. Prakasam and Asaf Ali. Their sacrifice inspired many others, who boycotted government jobs and entered the mainstream of freedom struggle.
Lala Lajpat Rai was initially not in favour of the policy of non-cooperation (he was against the boycott of schools) but later he supported the movement. In fact he protested against its withdrawal in 1922.
Rajendra Prasad actively supported the Gandhian movement in Bihar.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel spread the movement in Gujarat and regarded non-cooperation as a feasible alternative to revolutionary terrorism to fight against a colonial government.
Motilal Tejawat organised the Bhils and the Bhil movement strengthened the non-cooperation activities.
Alluri Sitaram Raju led the tribals in Andhra and combined their demands with those of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Hasrat Mohani, a Khilafat leader, condemned the arrest of the Ali brothers and demanded complete independence.
Purushottamdas Thakurdas, Jamnadas Dwarkadas, Cowasji Jehangir, Phroze Sethna and Setalvad, all of whom belonged to the industrialist section, launched an Anti- Non-Cooperation Association in 1920.
Kunhammad Haji, Kalathingal Mammad, Ali Musaliar, Sithi Koya Thangal and Imbechi Koya Thangal
acted as presidents of the Khilafat Republics set up at a number of places.
K. Madhavan Nair, U. Gopala Menon, Yakub Hasan
and P. Moideen Koya were the Khilafat leaders and supporters of the Non-Cooperation Movement. They were arrested in February 1921.
Muhammad Osman, another Khilafat agitator, organised volunteer groups and trade unions in Calcutta.
Swami Vishwanand (supported by Ramjas Agarwala, a Marwari mine owner) and Swami Darsananand organised the coal miners of the Raniganj-Jharia belt for the Non- Cooperation Movement.
Kishan Singh and Mota Singh called for no-revenue movements and headed the ‘Babbar Akali’ group, which emerged as a dissident of Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee, in 1921 in Jullundur and Hoshiarpur.
Jairamadas Daulatram was a close associate of Gandhi and promoted the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Swami Govindanand, a supporter of Gandhi, was jailed for five years on charges of sedition in May 1921.
He later became a critic of the Congress.
S.A. Dange, R.S. Nimbkar, V.D. Sathaye, R.V.
Nadkarni, S.V. Deshpande
and K.N. Joglekar were members of a radical student group and promoted the movement although they were not in line with Gandhi’s views. They were influenced by R.B. Lotwalla, a millionaire with a socialist leaning. Dange, in April 1921, wrote Gandhi versus Lenin and was in favour of swaraj which would nationalise factories and distribute zamindari land among farmers.
Thiru Vika supported the labour uprising and strike at the Buckingham and Carnatic textile mills from July to October 1921.
Singaravelu Chettiar was a lawyer and labour organiser in Madras and played a significant role in merging the labour and freedom movements. He was the first communist in south India and was in favour of using non-violent non-cooperation against ‘capitalistic autocracy’.
Konda Venkatappaya, A. Kaleswara Rao, T.
and Pattabhi Sitaramaya led the Non-Cooperation Movement in the Andhra delta region.
Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya inspired the inhabitants of the small town of Chirala-Parala in Guntur district to resist the Government’s plan to make the town a municipality and the hike in local taxes.
N.C. Bardaloi, an Assam Congress leader, favoured non-cooperation but was against strikes in plantations, as he himself was a planter.
‘Assam Kesari’ Ambikagiri Roy Chaudhuri’s poetry had a profound impact on the Assamese and helped in arousing nationalist spirit in them.
Muzaffar Ahmad formed the pioneer communist group in Calcutta. He was influenced by M.N. Roy and Nalini Gupta.
Someshwarprasad Chaudhuri
, a student in Calcutta, organised the peasants protesting against indigo cultivation on the Rajshaski-Nadia and Pabna-Murshidabad border.
Purushottamdas Tandon, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, Govind Ballabh Pant and Lal Bahadur Shastri began their political careers in 1920-21, with the onset of the Non- Cooperation Movement.
Premchand, a well-known novelist, resigned his post in a Gorakhpur government school in February 1921 and started contributing to the journal Aaj. His novels Premasharam, Rangbhumi etc., reflect Gandhian principles and values and endorse non-cooperation as an effective weapon to gain freedom.
Baba Ramchandra organised peasants’ revolt in south and south-east Awadh and helped merge the peasants’ revolt with the Non-Cooperation Movement. He was arrested in February 1921.
A. Shah Naim Ata announced himself ‘King of Salon’ and initiated no-taxes movement.
M.N. Roy, a communist leader, was the editor of the communist journal Vanguard. He condemned the sessions court’s sentence to death to 172 of the 225 accused in the Chauri Chaura incident (later, 19 were hanged and the rest transported) as against 22 policemen killed.
Bhagwan Ahir, an army pensioner in Gorakhpur village, was beaten up by the British police. The incident flared up nationalist sentiments in the village, which then led to the killing of 22 policemen in Chauri-Chaura, by the peasants.
Civil Disobedience Movement M.K. Gandhi formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement on April 6, 1930 by picking a handful of salt after the completion of historic ‘Dandi March’ from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, thus breaking the salt law imposed by the Government. He was the major force behind the movement and inspired grass-root participation in the freedom struggle.
C. Rajagopalachari led a salt march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast in Tamil Nadu, in support of the Civil Disobedience Movement. He was arrested on April 30, 1930.
K. Kelappan, a Nair Congress leader, launched the Vaikom Satyagraha and marched from Calicut to Payanneer in defiance of salt laws.
Jawaharlal Nehru was actively involved in the movement and was arrested on April 17, 1930 for defiance of the salt law. He formulated a radical agrarian programme and suggested formation of the Constituent Assembly as the prime political slogan.
P. Krishna Pillai defended the national flag and resisted lathicharge on the Calicut beach on November 11, 1930. He later founded the Kerala Communist Movement.
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan formed a clan of non-violent revolutionaries, the Khudai Khidmatgars (known as Red Shirts), who played an active role in the movement.
Sarojini Naidu, the first Indian woman to become the president of the Congress, was involved in a march towards the Dharsana Salt Works, a government salt depot. Other leaders who participated in this total non-violent affair were Imam Saheb, Gandhi’s comrade of the South African struggle, and Manilal, Gandhi’s son.
Surya Sen’s Chittagong Revolt Group carried out a raid on two armouries and declared the establishment of a provisional government. He issued a manifesto in the name of Indian Republican Army and called on the Indians to revolt against the British rule.
Abbas Tayabji, a leader of the nationalist Muslims in Bombay, took the place of Gandhi in the movement after the latter’s arrest. However, he too was arrested by the Government.
Ambalal Sarabhai and Kasturbhai Lakhai gave their cooperation to Motilal Nehru in removing the barriers between the Congress and the Bombay mill-owners and industrialists.
Industrialists such as G.D. Birla (who donated from one to five lakh rupees), Jamnalal Bajaj (who served as the AICC treasurer for several years and represented Gandhian leadership in Bombay), Homi Modi, Walchand Hirachand, Lalji Naranji, Purushottamdas Thakurdas, Lala Sri Ram
etc., supported the movement in its first phase. Homi Modi, in his presidential speech to Bombay Mill-owners’ Association in March 1931 said that though the Swadeshi Movement had helped the Indian industry, frequent strikes had dislocated trade and industry. Naranji and Thakurdas, who had remained indifferent to the nationalist struggle in 1921, demanded Indian control over finance, currency, fiscal policy and railways. However, from September 1930, there was a sharp decline in support from the industrialists and traders; with the prominent businessmen having differences of opinion with the Congress.
Chandraprabha Saikiani instigated the aboriginal Kachari villagers in Assam to break forest laws.
Subhash Bose and J.M. Sengupta led the faction group in Bengal Congress and set up rival organisations to conduct civil disobedience. Bose criticised Gandhi, when the latter suspended the movement in May 1933. He was supported by Vithalbhai Patel.
Bonga Majhi
and Somra Majhi led the movement in Hazaribagh along the sanskritising lines with the Congress.
Kalka Prasad, a local leader in Rai Bareilly, promoted the no-rent campaign.
Santi and Suniti Chaudhari assassinated the district magistrate of Tippera, Stevens. Their action marked the entry of women in the revolutionary movement.
Seth Achal Singh, a nationalist landlord, financed the Gram Seva Sangh in Agra and remained indifferent to riots in the area, while strictly following the policy of nonviolence.
Sheikh Abdullah, a Muslim graduate, started an agitation and attacked the Srinagar jail on July 31, 1931 where 21 persons were killed in police firing. He also developed close contacts with a group of anti-autocratic Jammu Hindus led by P.N. Bazaz.
Mohammed Yasin Khan, a Muslim leader in Punjab, organised the Meos (semi-tribal peasant community with leanings towards Islam) to protest against Maharaja Jaisingh Sawai’s hike in revenue, begar, and reservation of forests for the purpose of hunting.
K.M. Ashraf, who became India’s first Marxist historian, was associated with the movement.
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, who was an upholder of Gandhian policies since 1920’s, began to drift away with the launch of Harijan campaign by Gandhi. He started a breakaway Congress Nationalist Party.
Satyamurthy, Bhulabhai Desai, M.A. Ansari and
B.C. Roy demanded a return to electoral politics by way of a revived Swarajya Party.
Jayaprakash Narayan, Achhut Patwardhan, Yusuf Mehrali, Ashok Mehta and Minoo Masani wanted the Congress to have affinity with left-wing.
Sampurnanand formulated ‘A Tentative Socialist Programme’ for India and a Congress Socialist Party was started in 1934, which was supported by Narendra Dev.
K.F. Nariman
and Yusuf Meher Ali led the Congress youth wing and later emerged as socialist leaders.
Swami Govindanand led the movement in Karachi and Sindh.
N.V. Gadgil with his socialist leanings lent support to a temple entry movement in 1929 and established friendly ties with the non-brahmin Satyashodhak Samaj (represented by Keshavrao Jedhe of Poona).
B.R. Ambedkar, who was the leader of the untouchable Mahars, attended the Round Table Conference in 1930.
However, the Congress failed to win over the political agitation of the Mahars.
Gopabandhu Chaudhuri popularised the movement in Orissa and led the salt satyagraha in the coastal areas of Balasore, Cuttack and Puri districts.
Tarunaram Phookan and N.C. Bardoloi, two prominent Congress leaders, were against the movement in Assam. They refused to take up forest satyagraha officially.
Jadunandan Sharma activated the Kisan Sabha Movement in Gaya district of Bihar.
Duggirala Balaramakrishnaya of the Krishna district initiated a no-revenue campaign in 1931 in coastal Andhra.
He also wrote a Telugu ballad Gandhi Gita which aroused patriotic sentiments.
N.V. Rama Naidu and N.C. Ranga organised a forest satyagraha in Venkatagiri estate in Nellore in 1931.
A.K. Gopalan, a school teacher, was a popular activist at Guruvayoor in Kerala and later became Kerala’s most popular communist peasant leader.
Mannu Gond and Chaitu Koiku offered forest satyagraha in Betul in Central Provinces.
Maulana Bhasani, organised a large praja sammelan at Sirajgunj and demanded abolition of zamindari and reduction in debts.
B.T. Ranadeve and S.V. Deshpande in Bombay and Abdul Halim, Somnath Lahiri and Ranen Sen in Calcutta were the young communist militants who organised several labour strikes. V.B. Karnik, Maniben Kara, Rajani Mukherji
and Niharendu Dutta were other leaders who started trade union activities.
M.N. Roy and his followers popularised socialist ideas in the villages and a no-tax campaign was started in Awadh.
Quit India Movement M.K. Gandhi planned an all-out campaign to compel British withdrawal from India, after the failure of the Cripps Mission to reach a compromise. At the historic August meeting at Gowalia Tank in Bombay, Gandhi proclaimed his mantra—’do or die’. He was arrested on August 9, 1942.
He undertook a 21-day fast in February 1943 to protest against the Government actions against Indians involved in the movement.
Jayaprakash Narayan was a member of the Congress Socialist group and played a prominent role in the movement.
Ram Manohar Lohia, Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kripalani, Chhotubhai Puranik, Biju Patnaik, R.P. Goenka
and Achyut Patwardhan were leaders associated with the underground movement and revolutionary activities in support of Quit India Movement.
Chittu Pande, who called himself a Gandhian, formed a parallel government and captured all the ten police stations in Ballia, in east UP in August 1942.
Usha Mehta actively supported the movement and was an important member of a small group which ran the Congress Radio.
Jawaharlal Nehru initially supported the arch Moderates, who were opposed to Gandhi’s plan, but later, he moved the Quit India Resolution on August 8, 1942.
Sumati Morarjee helped Achyut Patwardhan in his underground activities. She later became India’s leading woman industrialist.
Rashbehari Bose, a revolutionary activist, was elected the president of the Indian Independence League (formed in March 1942) in June 1942. He was living in Japan since 1915 as a fugitive. He mobilised Indian soldiers taken as prisoners of war by the Japanese forces (after the British was defeated in South East Asia) for an armed rebellion against the British colonial rule.
Captain Mohan Singh, an Indian soldier fighting on behalf of the British was taken as prisoner of war by the Japanese. He was persuaded by a Japanese army officer to work with the Japanese for India’s freedom. He was appointed the commander of the Indian National Army.
Subhash Chandra Bose joined the Indian National Army in 1943. One of his most famous declarations was “Tum mujhe khoon do mai tumhe azadi doonga” (You give me blood, I will give you freedom). The INA played a significant role in the independence struggle under the leadership of Subhash Bose.
C. Rajagopalachari and Bhulabhai Desai were the arch-Moderates, who were in favour of recognising the rights of Muslim majority provinces to secede through plebiscites after independence had been gained. They resigned from the AICC in July 1942.
K.G. Mashruwalla brought out two militant issues of Harijan (after the arrest of Mahadev Desai) to arouse the sentiments of people.
K.T. Bhashyam, a Congress leader in Bangalore, played an active role in the trade union field and organised strikes by about 30,000 workers.
Satish Samanta, a local Congress leader and the first sarbadhinayak of the Tamluk Jatiya Sarkar, helped in establishing a rebel ‘national government’ in Tamluk subdivision of Midnapore.
Matangini Hazra, a 73-year-old peasant widow in Tamluk, was killed in violence on September 29, 1942, when the Sutahata police-station was captured. Matangini kept the national flag aloft even after being shot.
Lakshman Naik, an illiterate villager, led a large tribal population from Koraput to protest against the Jeypore zamindari and attack police-stations. Lakshman Naik was hanged on November 16, 1942 for allegedly murdering a forest guard.
Nana Patil headed a rebellion in Satara.
2. Governors-General and Viceroys of India: Significant Events in their Rule Governors-General
1. Warren Hastings 1773-1785
(i) Regulating Act of 1773.
(ii) Act of 1781, under which the powers of jurisdiction between the governor-general-in-council and the Supreme Court at Calcutta, were clearly divided.
(iii) Pitt’s India Act of 1784.
(iv) The Rohilla War of 1774.
(v) The First Maratha War in 1775-82 and the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.
(vi) Second Mysore War in 1780-84.
(vii) Strained relationships with Chait Singh, the Maharaja of Benaras, which led to Hastings’ subsequent impeachment in England. (viii) Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784).
2. Lord Cornwallis 1786-1793
(i) Third Mysore War (1790-92) and Treaty of Seringapatam (1792).
(ii) Cornwallis Code (1793) incorporating several judicial reforms, and separation of revenue administration and civil jurisdiction.
(iii) Permanent Settlement of Bengal, 1793.
(iv) Europeanisation of administrative machinery and introduction of civil services.
3. Sir John Shore 1793-1798
(i) Charter Act of 1793.
(ii) Battle of Kharda between the Nizam and the Marathas (1795).
4. Lord Wellesley 1798-1805
(i) Introduction of the Subsidiary Alliance System (1798); first alliance with Nizam of Hyderabad.
(ii) Fourth Mysore War (1799).
(iii) Second Maratha War (1803-05).
(iv) Took over the administration of Tanjore (1799), Surat (1800) and Carnatic (1801).
(v) Treaty of Bassein (1802).
5. Sir George Barlow 1805-1807
Vellore Mutiny (1806).
6. Lord Minto I 1807-1813
Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh (1809).
7. Lord Hastings 1813-1823
(i) Anglo-Nepal War (1814-16) and the Treaty of Sagauli, 1816.
(ii) Third Maratha War (1817-19) and dissolution of Maratha Confederacy; creation of Bombay Presidency (1818).
(iii) Strife with Pindaris (1817-1818).
(iv) Treaty with Sindhia (1817).
(v) Establishment of Ryotwari System by Thomas Munro, governor of Madras (1820).
8. Lord Amherst 1823-1828
(i) First Burmese War (1824-1826).
(ii) Capture of Bharatpur (1826).
9. Lord William Bentinck 1828-1835
(i) Abolition of sati and other cruel rites (1829).
(ii) Suppression of thugi (1830).
(iii) Charter Act of 1833.
(iv) Resolution of 1835, and educational reforms and introduction of English as the official language.
(v) Annexation of Mysore (1831), Coorg (1834) and Central Cachar (1834).
(vi) Treaty of ‘perpetual friendship’ with Ranjeet Singh.
(vii) Abolition of the provincial courts of appeal and circuit set up by Cornwallis, appointment of commissioners of revenue and circuit.
10. Lord Metcalfe 1835-1836
New press law removing restrictions on the press in India.
11. Lord Auckland 1836-1842
(i) First Afghan War (1838-42).
(ii) Death of Ranjit Singh (1839).
12. Lord Ellenborough 1842-1844
(i) Annexation of Sindh (1843).
(ii) War with Gwalior (1843).
13. Lord Hardinge I 1844-1848
(i) First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) and the Treaty of Lahore (1846).
(ii) Social reforms including abolition of female infanticide and human sacrifice.
14. Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856
(i) Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) and annexation of Punjab (1849).
(ii) Annexation of Lower Burma or Pegu (1852).
(iii) Introduction of the Doctrine of Lapse and annexation of Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1854) and Awadh (1856).
(iv) “Wood’s (Charles Wood, President of the Board of Control) Educational Despatch” of 1854 and opening of Anglo-vernacular schools and government colleges.
(v) Railway Minute of 1853; and laying down of first railway line connecting Bombay and Thane in 1853.
(vi) Telegraph (4000 miles of telegraph lines to connect Calcutta with Bombay, Madras and Peshawar) and postal (Post Office Act, 1854) reforms.
(vii) Ganges Canal declared open (1854); establishment of separate public works department in every province. (viii) Widow Remarriage Act (1856).
15. Lord Canning 1856-1857
(i) Establishment of three universities at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in 1857.
(ii) Revolt of 1857.
1. Lord Canning 1858-1862
(i) Transfer of control from East India Company to the Crown, the Government of India Act, 1858.
(ii) ‘White Mutiny’ by European troops in 1859.
(iii) Indian Councils Act of 1861.
2. Lord Elgin I 1862-1863
Wahabi Movement
3. Lord John Lawrence 1864-1869
(i) Bhutan War (1865) (ii) Setting up of the High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras (1865).
4. Lord Mayo 1869-1872
(i) Opening of the Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo College at Ajmer for political training of Indian princes.
(ii) Establishment of Statistical Survey of India.
(iii) Establishment of Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
(iv) Introduction of state railways.
5. Lord Northbrook 1872-1876
(i) Visit of Prince of Wales in 1875.
(ii) Trial of Gaekwar of Baroda.
(iii) Kuka Movement in Punjab.
6. Lord Lytton 1876-1880
(i) Famine of 1876-78 affecting Madras, Bombay, Mysore, Hyderabad, parts of central India and Punjab; appointment of Famine Commission under the presidency of Richard Strachey (1878).
(ii) Royal Titles Act (1876), Queen Victoria assuming the title of ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ or Queen Empress of India.
(iii) The Vernacular Press Act (1878).
(iv) The Arms Act (1878).
(v) The Second Afghan War (1878-80).
7. Lord Ripon 1880-1884
(i) Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882).
(ii) The first Factory Act (1881) to improve labour conditions.
(iii) Continuation of financial decentralisation.
(iv) Government resolution on local self-government (1882).
(v) Appointment of Education Commission under chairmanship of Sir William Hunter (1882).
(vi) The Ilbert Bill controversy (1883-84).
(vii) Rendition of Mysore.
8. Lord Dufferin 1884-1888
(i) The Third Burmese War (1885-86).
(ii) Establishment of the Indian National Congress.
9. Lord Lansdowne 1888-1894
(i) Factory Act (1891).
(ii) Categorisation of civil services into imperial, provisional and subordinate.
(iii) Indian Councils Act (1892).
(iv) Setting up of Durand Commission (1893) to define the Durand Line between India and Afghanistan (now between Pakistan and Afghanistan; a small portion of the line touches India in Pakistan occupied Kashmir).
10. Lord Elgin II 1894-1899
Two British officials assassinated by Chapekar brothers (1897).
11. Lord Curzon 1899-1905
(i) Appointment of Police Commission (1902) under Sir Andrew Frazer to review police administration.
(ii) Appointment of Universities Commission (1902) and passing of Indian Universities Act (1904).
(iii) Establishment of Department of Commerce and Industry.
(iv) Calcutta Corporation Act (1899).
(v) Ancient Monuments Preservation Act (1904).
(vi) Partition of Bengal (1905).
(vii) Curzon-Kitchener controversy. (viii) Younghusband’s Mission to Tibet (1904).
12. Lord Minto II 1905-1910
(i) Popularisation of anti-partition and Swadeshi Movements.
(ii) Split in Congress in the annual session of 1907 in Surat.
(iii) Establishment of Muslim League by Aga Khan (1906).
13. Lord Hardinge II 1910-1916
(i) Creation of Bengal Presidency (like Bombay and Madras) in 1911.
(ii) Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
(iii) Establishment of the Hindu Mahasabha (1915) by Madan Mohan Malaviya.
(iv) Coronation durbar of King George V held in Delhi (1911).
14. Lord Chelmsford 1916-1921
(i) Formation of Home Rule Leagues by Annie Besant and Tilak (1916).
(ii) Lucknow session of the Congress (1916).
(iii) Lucknow pact between the Congress and Muslim League (1916).
(iv) Foundation of Sabarmati Ashram (1916) after Gandhi’s return; launch of Champaran Satyagraha (1916), Kheda Satyagraha (1918), and Satyagraha at Ahmedabad (1918).
(v) Montagu’s August Declaration (1917).
(vi) Government of India Act (1919).
(vii) The Rowlatt Act (1919). (viii) Jallianwalla Bagh massacre (1919).
(ix) Launch of Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements.
(x) Foundation of Women’s University at Poona (1916) and appointment of Saddler’s Commission (1917) for reforms in educational policy.
(xi) Death of Tilak (August 1, 1920).
(xii) Appointment of S.P. Sinha as governor of Bihar (the first Indian to become a governor).
15. Lord Reading 1921-1926
(i) Chauri Chaura incident (February 5, 1922) and the subsequent withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement.
(ii) Moplah rebellion in Kerala (1921).
(iii) Repeal of the Press Act of 1910 and the Rowlatt Act of 1919.
(iv) Criminal Law Amendment Act and abolition of cotton excise.
(v) Communal riots in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, Aligarh, Arvi and Calcutta.
(vi) Kakori train robbery (1925).
(vii) Murder of Swami Shraddhanand (1926). (viii) Establishment of Swaraj Party by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru (1922).
(ix) Decision to hold simultaneous examinations for the ICS both in Delhi and London, with effect from 1923.
16. Lord Irwin 1926-1931
(i) Visit of Simon Commission to India (1928) and the boycott of the commission by the Indians.
(ii) An All-Parties Conference held at Lucknow (1928) for suggestions for the (future) Constitution of India, the report of which was called the Nehru Report or the Nehru Constitution.
(iii) Appointment of the Harcourt Butler Indian States Commission (1927).
(iv) Murder of Saunders, the assistant superintendent of police of Lahore; bomb blast in the Assembly Hall of Delhi (1929); the Lahore Conspiracy Case and death of Jatin Das after prolonged hunger strike (1929), and bomb accident in train in Delhi (1929).
(v) Lahore session of the Congress (1929); Purna Swaraj Resolution.
(vi) Dandi March (March 12, 1930) by Gandhi to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(vii) ‘Deepavali Declaration’ by Lord Irwin (1929). (viii) Boycott of the First Round Table Conference (1930), Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931) and suspension of Civil Disobedience Movement.
17. Lord Willingdon 1931-1936
(i) Second Round Table Conference (1931) and failure of the conference, resumption of Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) Announcement of Communal Award (1932) under which separate communal electorates were set up.
(iii) ‘Fast unto death’ by Gandhi in Yeravada prison, broken after the Poona Pact (1932).
(iv) Third Round Table Conference (1932).
(v) Launch of Individual Civil Disobedience (1933).
(vi) The Government of India Act of 1935.
(vii) Establishment of All India Kisan Sabha (1936) and Congress Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jayaprakash Narayan (1934). (viii) Burma separated from India (1935).
18. Lord Linlithgow 1936-1944
(i) First general elections (1936-37); Congress attained absolute majority.
(ii) Resignation of the Congress ministries after the outbreak of the Second World War (1939).
(iii) Subhash Chandra Bose elected as the president of Congress at the fifty-first session of the Congress (1938).
(iv) Resignation of Bose in 1939 and formation of the Forward Bloc (1939).
(v) Lahore Resolution (March 1940) by the Muslim League, demand for separate state for Muslims.
(vi) ‘August Offer’ (1940) by the viceroy; its criticism by the Congress and endorsement by the Mulsim League.
(vii) Winston Churchill elected prime minister of England (1940). (viii) Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India (1941) and organisation of the Indian National Army.
(ix) Cripps Mission’s Cripps Plan to offer dominion status to India and setting up of a Constituent Assembly; its rejection by the Congress.
(x) Passing of the ‘Quit India Resolution’ by the Congress (1942); outbreak of ‘August Revolution’; or Revolt of 1942 after the arrest of national leaders.
(xi) ‘Divide and Quit’ slogan at the Karachi session (1944) of the Muslim League.
19. Lord Wavell 1944-1947
(i) C. Rajagopalachari’s CR Formula (1944), failure of Gandhi-Jinnah talks (1944).
(ii) Wavell Plan and the Shimla Conference (1942).
(iii) End of Second World War (1945).
(iv) Proposals of the Cabinet Mission (1946) and its acceptance by the Congress.
(v) Observance of ‘Direct Action Day’ (August 16, 1948) by the Muslim League.
(vi) Elections to the Constituent Assembly, formation of Interim Government by the Congress (September 1946).
(vii) Announcement of end of British rule in India by Clement Attlee (prime minister of England) on February 20, 1947.
20. Lord Mountbatten 1947-1948
(i) June Third Plan (June 3, 1947) announced.
(ii) Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons.
(iii) Appointment of two boundary commissions under Sir Cyril Radcliff for the partition of Bengal and Punjab.

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