# Chapter 3. Population Composition

Overview
• In many ways, people of any country are varied. Each individual is distinct in his or her own manner. Age, sex, & location of residence may all be used to differentiate people.
• Occupation, education, and life expectancy are population’s other defining characteristics.

Sex Composition
• ratio between number of women and men in population is known as Sex Ratio. This is calculated as a sex ratio, which is number of males divided by number of females.
• In many countries, Sex ratio is calculated by formula: Sex ratio = Male Population Female Population ´ 1000 But in India, This is calculated by: Sex ratio = Female Population Male Population ´ 1000
• world’s sex ratio is 102 males per 100 females, with Latvia [85 males per 100 females] having highest and Qatar having [311 males per 100 females].
• In 72 nations all over world, sex ratio is unfavourable due to gender discrimination, which leads to female foeticide, female infanticide, and low economic standards for women.
• In general, Asian nations with low sex ratios, such as China and India, have a greater sex ratio than European countries.

Age Structure
• number of persons in different age groups makes up a population’s age structure. This is separated into three categories: children [0-14 years], adults [15-59 years], and elderly [60 years and above].

Age-sex Pyramid
• age-sex structure of a population refers to number of females and males in different age groups. A population pyramid is used to show age-sex structure of population.
• shape of population pyramid reflects characteristics of females. left side shows percentage of males while right side shows percentage of women in each age group.
pyramid can be interpreted in several ways:
(1) Expanding Population: Because of their high birth rates, developing nations such as Nigeria, Mexico, & Bangladesh have a triangular pyramid with a wide base.
(2) Constant Population: In Australia, a bell-shaped pyramid of tapering top reflects nearly equal birth and mortality rates.
(3) Declining Population: Low birth and death rates are represented as a pyramid with a small base and a broader core portion at top. In wealthy countries such as Japan, this is case.

Rural Urban Composition
• pattern of vocations and social circumstances is indicated by split between rural and urban areas depending on residency. In rural regions, people are mostly engaged in primary activities, whereas in urban areas, bulk of working population is involved in non-primary activities.
• Females outweigh men in urban areas in industrialised nations such as Canada and West European countries, however, in developing countries such as Nepal and Pakistan, reverse is seen.

Occupational Structure
• occupational structural graph depicts proportionate distribution of working-age people [ages 15 to 59] in various jobs. Primary activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, & mining.
• Manufacturing is a secondary activity, transportation, communication, and other services are tertiary, and research and development professions are quaternary. In industrialised economies, secondary, tertiary, & quaternary sectors employs a greater number of people than primary sector.

Literacy
• literate population of a nation reflects country’s level of life, social standing of women, and educational opportunities.
• literacy rate in India is defined as proportion of population aged 7 and above who can read, write, & perform basic mathematical calculations.