Chapter 3. Democracy and Diversity

Social Differences
• Social diversity can take different forms in different societies.
• These social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. People around us are male or female, they are tall and short, have different kinds of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities. These are various reasons for differences in society.
• Some of our differences come from what we choose to do. Some people, for example, don’t believe in God. They have no faith in God or any other religion. Some people decide to follow a different religion than one they were born into. All of these things cause us to form social groups based on things we choose.
• social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.
• In our country, Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice. Situations of this kind produce social divisions when one kind of social difference becomes more important than other, and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

Politics of Social Division
• Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer some parties more than others. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community. Yet all this does not lead to disintegration of country.
• People who feel marginalised, deprived, & discriminated have to fight against injustices. Such a fight often takes democratic path, voicing their demands peacefully and constitutionally and seeking a fair position through elections.

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