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Chapter 21. Ecology (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)

Chapter 21. Ecology (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)

1. Consider the following animals of India:(2003)
1. Crocodile
2. Elephant
Which of these is/are endangered species?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
2. The concept of carbon credit originated from which one of the following?(2009)
(a) Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro
(b) Kyoto Protocol
(c) Montreal Protocol
(d) G-8 Summit, Heiligendamm
3. Consider the following statements:(2008)
1. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in respect of carbon credits is one of the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms.
2. Under the CDM, the projects handled pertain only to the Annex-I countries.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
4. Consider the following statements:(2005)
1. Kyoto protocol came into force in the year 2005.
2. Kyoto protocol deals primarily with the depletion of the ozone layer.
3. Methane as a green house gas is more harmful than carbon dioxide.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 1 only
(d) 3 only
5. Due to their extensive rice cultivation, some regions may be contributing to global warming. To what possible reason/reasons is this attributable ?(2010)
1. The anaerobic conditions associated with rice cultivation cause the emission of methane.
2. When nitrogen based fertilizers are used, nitrous oxide is emitted from the cultivated soil.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
6. Consider the following pairs :(2010)
Protected areaWell-known for
1. Bhiterkanika, Orissa—Salt Water Crocodile
2. Desert National Park,—Great Indian Bustard
Rajasthan
3. Eravikulam, Kerala—Hoolak Gibbon
Which of the pairs given above is / are correctly matched ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
7. Consider the following statements :(2010)
1. Biodiversity hotspots are located only in tropical regions.
2. India has four biodiversity hotspots i. e. , Eastern Himalayas, Western Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
8. Consider the following statements :(2010)
1. The boundaries of a National Park are defined by legislation.
2. A Biosphere Reserve is declared to conserve a few specific species of flora and fauna.
3. In a Wildlife Sanctuary, limited biotic interference is permitted.
Which of the statements given above is / correct ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
9. A pesticide which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon is sprayed on a food crop. The food chain is : Food crop – Rat – Snake – Hawk. In this food chain, the highest concentration of the pesticide would accumulate in which one of the following ?(2010)
(a) Food crop
(b) Rat
(c) Snake
(d) Hawk
10. Regarding “carbon credits’’, which one of the following statements is not correct ?(2011 – I)
(a) The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol.
(b) Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota.
(c) The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission.
(d) Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the United Nations Environment Programme.
11. Consider the following programmes:(1996)
1. Afforestation and development of wastelands
2. Reforestation and replantation in existing forests
3. Encouraging the wood substitutes and supplying other types of fuel
4. Promotion of wide use of insecticides and pesticides to restrict the loss of forest area from degradation caused by pests and insects.
The National Forest Policy of 1988 includes:
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4(b) 2 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4(d) 1, 2 and 3
12. As a result of their annual survey, the National Geographic Society and an international polling firm Globe Scan gave India top rank in Greendex 2009 score. What is this score?(2010)
(a) It is a measure of efforts made by different countries in adopting technologies for reducing carbon footprint.
(b) It is a measure of environmentally sustainable consumer behaviour in different countries.
(c) It is an assessment of programmes/ schemes undertaken by different countries for improving the conservation of natural resources.
(d) It is an index showing the volume of carbon credits sold by different countries.
13. India is a party to the Ramsar Convention and has declared many areas as Ramsar sites. Which of the following statements best describes as to how we should maintain these sites in the context of this convention?(2010)
(a) Keep all the sites completely inaccessible to man so that they will not be exploited.
(b) Conserve all the sites through ecosystem approach and permit tourism and recreation only.
(c) Conserve all the sites through ecosystem approach for a period without any exploitation, with specific criteria and specific period for each site, and then allow sustainable use of them by future generations.
(d) Conserve all the sites through ecosystem approach and allow their simultaneous sustainable use.
14. What are the possible limitations of India in mitigating the global warming at present and in the immediate future?(2010)
1. Appropriate alternate technologies are not sufficiently available.
2. India cannot invest huge funds in research and development.
3. Many developed countries have already set up their polluting industries in India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
15. Consider the following which can be found in the ambient atmosphere :(2010)
1. Soot
2. Sulphur hexafluoride
3. Water vapour
Which of the above contribute to the warming up of the atmosphere?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
16. Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of
1. its escape into the outer stratosphere.
2. the photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.
3. the trapping of air in the polar ice caps. (2011 – I)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only
17. In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the (2011 – I)
1. decomposer microorganisms to the surface.
2. nutrients to the surface.
3. bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3(d) 3 only
18. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty drawn at(2010)
(a) United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972
(b) UN ‘Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992
(c) World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002
(d) UN Climate’ Change Conference, Copenhagen, 2009
19. The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole ?(2011 – I)
(a) Presence of prominent tropo-spheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons.
(b) Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons.
(c) Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons.
(d) Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming.
20. Two important rivers–one with its source in Jharkhand (and known by a different name in Odisha) , and another, with its source in Odisha–merge at a place only a short distance from the coast of Bay of Bengal before flowing into the sea. This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity and a protected area. Which one of the following could be this ?(2011 – I)
(a) Bhitarkanika
(b) Chandipur-on-sea
(c) Gopalpur-on-sea
(d) Simlipal
21. Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats, Sri Lanka and Indo Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity : (2011 – I)
1. Species richness
2. Vegetation density
3. Endemism
4. Ethno-botanical importance
5. Threat perception
6. Adaption of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions
Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?
(a) 1, 2 and 6
(b) 2, 4 and 6
(c) 1, 3 and 5
(d) 3, 4 and 6
22. The Himalayan range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this phenomenon ? (2011 – I)
(a) It has a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth
(b) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones.
(c) Exotic and invasive species have not been introduced in this region.
(d) It has less human interference.
23. There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon ?
1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.
2. Run-off from the land during the monsoon.
3. Upwelling in the seas. (2011 – I)
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
24. Consider the following :(2011 – I)
1. Photosynthesis
2. Respiration.
3. Decay of organic matter
4. Volcanic action.
Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on earth ?
(a) 1 and 4 only(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only(d) 1 and 4
25. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no predators in that area but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal ?(2011 – I)
(a) Indian wild buffalo(b) Indian wild ass
(c) Indian wild boar
(d) Indian gazelle
26. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways :(2011 – I)
1. Soil formation
2. Prevention of soil erosion
3. Recycling of waste
4. Pollination of crops
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
(a) 1,2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
27. Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora ?(2011 – I)
(a) Biosphere Reserve
(b) Botanical Garden
(c) National Park
(d) Wildlife Sanctuary
28. The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge ? (2011 – I)
(a) The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live nor venture out
(b) The mangroves provide both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural disaster
(c) The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as an excellent shelter during a cyclone or tsunami
(d) The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots.
29. The “Red Data Books’’ published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) contain lists of ?(2011 – I)
1. Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.
2. Threatened plant and animal species.
3. Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only
30. Consider the following statements :
1. Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.
2. Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes. (2011 – I)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
31. With reference to India, consider the following Central Acts :
1. Import and Export (Control) Act, 1947
2. Mining and Mineral Development (Regulation) Act, 1957
3. Customs Act, 1962
4. Indian Forest Act, 1927
Which of the above Acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conservation in the country ?(2011 – I)
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2,3 and 4 only
(c) 1,2,3 and 4
(d) None of the above Acts
32. How does National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting the Indian agriculture?(2012 – I)
1. NBA checks the biopiracy and protects the indigenous and traditional genetic resources.
2. NBA directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants.
3. Application for Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?
(a) 1only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
33. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India?(2012 – I)
1. Right to healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to life under Article 21
2. Provision of grants for raising the level of administration in the Scheduled Areas for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes under Article 275(1)
3. Powers and functions of Gram Sabha as mentioned under Article 243 (A)
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
34. If National Water Mission is properly and completely implemented, how will it impact the country?(2012 – I)
1. Part of the water needs of urban areas will be met through recycling of wastewater.
2. The water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of water will be met by adopting appropriate technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.
3. All the rivers of Himalayan origin will be linked to the rivers of peninsular India,
4. The expenses incurred by farmers for digging bore-wells and for installing motors and pump-sets to draw groundwater will be completely reimbursed by the Government.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1 only(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 and 4 only(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
35. Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2012 – I)
1. Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification.
2. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only.
3. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
36. The acidification of oceans is increasing. Why is this phenomenon a cause of concern?(2012 – I)
1. The growth and survival of calcareous phytoplankton will be adversely affected.
2. The growth and survival of coral reefs will be adversely affected.
3. The survival of some animals that have phytoplanktonic larvae will be adversely affected.
4. The cloud seeding and formation of clouds will be adversely affected.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
37. The increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the air is slowly raising the temperature of the atmosphere, because it absorbs(2012 – I)
(a) the water vapour of the air and retains its heat
(b) the ultraviolet part of the solar radiation
(c) all the solar radiations
(d) the infrared part of the solar radiation
38. Consider the following protected areas:(2012 – I)
1. Bandipur
2. Bhitarkanika
3. Manas
4. Sunderbans
Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only(d) l, 2, 3 and 4
39. In which one among the following categories of protected areas in India are local people not allowed to collect and use the biomass?(2012 – I)
(a) Biosphere Reserves
(b) National Parks
(c) Wetlands declared under Ramsar Convention
(d) Wildlife Sanctuaries
40. Which one of the following groups of animals belongs to the category of endangered species?(2012 – I)
(a) Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass
(b) Kashmir Stag, Cheetal, Blue Bull and Great Indian Bustard
(c) Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey and Saras (Crane)
(d) Lion-tailed Macaque, Blue Bull, Hanuman Langur and Cheetal
41. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services-provisioning, supporting, regulating, preserving and cultural. Which one of the following is supporting service?(2012 – I)
(a) Production of food and water
(b) Control of climate and disease
(c) Nutrient cycling and crop pollination
(d) Maintenance of diversity
42. What is the difference between the antelopes Oryx and Chiru?(2012 – I)
(a) Oryx is adapted to live in hot and arid areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semi-desert areas of cold high mountains
(b) Oryx is poached for its antlers whereas Chiru is poached for its musk
(c) Oryx exists in western India only whereas Chiru exists in north-east India only
(d) None of the statements (a) , (b) and (c) given above is correct
43. Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?(2012 – I)
1. Global warming
2. Fragmentation of habitat
3. Invasion of alien species
4. Promotion of vegetarianism
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
44. Consider the following agricultural practices :(2012 – I)
1. Contour bunding
2. Relay cropping
3. Zero tillage
In the context of global climate change, which of the above helps/help in carbon sequestration/storage in the soil?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of them
45. What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason?(2012 – I)
1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.
2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected.
3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
46. Vultures which used to be very common in Indian countryside some years ago are rarely seen nowadays. This is attributed to(2012 – I)
(a) the destruction of their nesting sites by new invasive species
(b) a drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle
(c) scarcity of food available to them
(d) a widespread, persistent and fatal disease among them
47. Due to improper/ indiscriminate disposal of old and used computers or their parts, which of the following are released into the environment as e-waste?(2013 – I)
1. Beryllium
2. Cadmium
3. Chromium
4. Heptachlor
5. Mercury
6. Lead
7. Plutonium
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 only
(b) 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 only
(c) 2, 4, 5 and 7 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7
48. With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements:(2013 – I)
1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.
3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None
49. In which of the following States is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural habitat?(2013 – I)
1. Tamil Nadu
2. Kerala
3. Karnataka
4. Andhra Pradesh
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
50. Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional role in the community of organisms?(2013 – I)
(a) Ecotone
(b) Ecological niche
(c) Habitat
(d) Home range
51. Consider the following:(2013 – I)
1. Star tortoise
2. Monitor lizard
3. Pygmy hog
4. Spider monkey
Which of the above are naturally found in India?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
52. Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India?(2013 – I)
1. Arsenic
2. Sorbitol
3. Fluoride
4. Formaldehyde
5. Uranium
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 3 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
53. Consider the following pairs:(2013 – I)
1. Nokrek Bio-sphere Reserve : Garo Hills
2. Logtak (Loktak) Lake:Barail Range
3. Namdapha National Park:Dafla Hills
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None
54. In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of(2013 – I)
(a) insects and fungi
(b) limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients
(c) water limits and fire
(d) None of the above
55. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of ecosystems in the order of decreasing productivity?(2013 – I)
(a) Oceans, lakes, grasslands, mangroves
(b) Mangroves, oceans, grasslands, lakes
(c) Mangroves, grasslands, lakes, oceans
(d) Oceans, mangroves, lakes, grasslands
56. Consider the following fauna of India:(2013 – I)
1. Gharial
2. Leatherback turtle
3. Swamp deer
Which of the above is/are endangered?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None
57. With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/organisms?(2013 – I)
1. Virus
2. Fungi
3. Bacteria
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
58. Consider the following international agreements :
(2014 – I)
1. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
3. The World Heritage Convention
Which of the above has/have a bearing on the biodiversity?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
59. Consider the following statements regarding ‘Earth Hour’ :(2014 – I)
1. It is an initiative of UNEP and UNESCO.
2. It is a movement in which the participants switch off the lights for one hour on a certain day every year.
3. It is a movement to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
60. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of a food chain?(2014 – I)
(a) Diatoms-Crustaceans-Herrings
(b) Crustaceans-Diatoms-Herrings
(c) Diatoms-Herrings-Crustaceans
(d) Crustaceans-Herrings-Diatoms
61. If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?(2014 – I)
(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference
(b) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a law to prohibit any human activity within five kilometres from the edge of the wetland
(c) The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed
(d) It is given the status of ‘World Heritage Site’
62. With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) , consider the following statements :(2014 – I)
1. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
2. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness.
3. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
63. With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’’, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2014 – I)
(a) It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’
(b) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level
(c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment
(d) Both (a) and (b)
64. Consider the following pairs :(2014 – I)
1. Dampa Tiger Reserve:Mizoram
2. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary:Sikkim
3. Saramati Peak :Nagaland
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
65. With reference to a conservation organization called “Wetlands International’, which of the following statements is/ are correct?(2014 – I)
1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
66. Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges River Dolphins?(2014 – I)
1. Construction of dams and barrages on rivers
2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers
3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally
4. Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
67. Brominated flame retardants are used in many household products like mattresses and upholstery. Why is there some concern about their use?(2014 – I)
1. They are highly resistant to degradation in the environment.
2. They are able to accumulate in humans and animals.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
68. Consider the following :(2014 – I)
1. Bats
2. Bears
3. Rodents
The phenomenon of hibernation can be observed in which of the above kinds of animals?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) Hibernation cannot be observed in any of the above
69. Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?(2014 – I)
1. Volcanic action
2. Respiration
3. Photosynthesis
4. Decay of organic matter
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
70. If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses. (2014 – I)
Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?
1. Painted Stork
2. Common Myna
3. Black-necked Crane
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only
71. With reference to ‘Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2014 – I)
1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities in those zones except agriculture.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
72. Consider the following statements :(2014 – I)
1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
73. Which of the following have coral reefs?(2014 – I)
1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
2. Gulf of Kachchh
3. Gulf of Mannar
4. Sunderbans
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
74. In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with which of the following?(2014 – I)
1. Terrace cultivation
2. Deforestation
3. Tropical climate
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
75. The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of(2014 – I)
(a) biosphere reserves
(b) botanical gardens
(c) national parks
(d) wildlife sanctuaries
76. The scientific view is that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2 °C above pre-industrial level. If the global temperature increases beyond 3 °C above the pre-industrial level, what can be its possible impact/impacts on the world?(2014 – I)
1. Terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source.
2. Widespread coral mortality will occur.
3. All the global wetlands will permanently disappear.
4. Cultivation of cereals will not be possible anywhere in the world.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
77. Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecological succession even on a bare rock, are actually a symbiotic association of(2014 – I)
(a) algae and bacteria
(b) algae and fungi
(c) bacteria and fungi
(d) fungi and mosses
78. Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?(2014 – I)
1. Oxides of sulphur
2. Oxides of nitrogen
3. Carbon monoxide
4. Carbon dioxide
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
79. Every year, a monthlong ecologically important campaign/festival is held during which certain communities/ tribes plant saplings of fruit-bearing trees. Which of the following are such communities/tribes?(2014 – I)
(a) Bhutia and Lepcha(b) Gond and Korku
(c) Irula and Toda(d) Sahariya and Agariya
80. With reference to two non-conventional energy sources called ‘coalbed methane’ and ‘shale gas’, consider the following statements :(2014 – I)
1. Coalbed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
2. In India, abundant coalbed methane sources exist, but so far no shale gas sources have been found.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
81. Which one of the following National Parks has a climate that varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic?(2015-I)
(a) Khangchendzonga National Park
(b) Nandadevi National Park
(c) Neora Valley National Park
(d) Namdapha National Park
82. ‘BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes’ is managed by the(2015-I)
(a) Asian Development Bank
(b) International Monetary Fund
(c) United Nations Environment Programme
(d) World Bank
83. With reference to ‘Forest Carbon Partnership Facility’, which of the following statements is/ are correct?(2015-I)
1. It is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society and indigenous peoples.
2. It provides financial aid to universities, individual scientists and institutions involved in scientific forestry research to develop eco-friendly and climate adaptation technologies for sustainable forest management.
3. It assists the countries in their ‘REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+) ‘ efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
84. With reference to an organization known as ‘Birdlife International’, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2015-I)
1. It is a Global Partnership of Conservation Organizations.
2. The concept of ‘biodiversity hotspots’ originated from this organization.
3. It identifies the sites known/referred to as ‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas’.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
85. In India, in which one of the following types of forests is teak a dominant tree species?(2015-I)
(a) Tropical moist deciduous forest
(b) Tropical rain forest
(c) Tropical thorn scrub forest
(d) Temperate forest with grasslands
86. Which one of the following is the best description of the term ‘ecosystem’?(2015-I)
(a) A community of organisms interacting with one another.
(b) That part of the Earth which is inhabited by living organisms.
(c) A community of organisms together with the environment in which they live
(d) The flora and fauna of a geographical area
87. With reference to the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) , which of the following statements is/are correct?(2015-I)
1. It is a Public Limited Government Company.
2. It is a Non – Banking Financial Company.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 or 2
88. Which of the following National Parks is unique in being a swamp with floating vegetation that supports a rich biodiversity?(2015-I)
(a) Bhitarkanika National Park
(b) Keibul Lamjao National Park
(c) Keoladeo Ghana National Park
(d) Sultanpur National Park
89. With reference to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) , which of the following statements is/are correct?(2015-I)
1. IUCN is an organ of the United Nations and CITES is an international agreement between governments.
2. IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments.
3. CITES is legally binding on the States that have joined it, but this Convention does not take the place of national laws.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
90. With reference to ‘dugong’, a mammal found in India, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2015-I)
1. It is a herbivorous marine animal.
2. It is found along the entire coast of India.
3. It is given legal protection under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 3 only
91. Which one of the following is the national aquatic animal of India?(2015-I)
(a) Saltwater crocodile
(b) Olive ridley turtle
(c) Gangetic dolphin
(d) Gharial
92. Which one of the following is associated with the issue of control and phasing out of the use of ozone-depleting substances?(2015-I)
(a) Bretton Woods Conference
(b) Montreal Protocol
(c) Kyoto Protocol
(d) Nagoya Protocol
93. What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in the news?(2015-I)
(a) It is the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
(b) It is a Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization
(c) It is a Conference of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
(d) It is a Conference of the Member Countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity
94. Which of the following statements regarding ‘Green Climate Fund’ is/are correct?(2015-I)
1. It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
2. It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
95. Consider the following pairs : (2016-I)

img_ext_export_7JqS0t3wgi_803.png
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
96. With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) ’, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2016-I)
1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.
2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.
3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only(d) 1, 2 and 3
97. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(2016-I)
Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to
1. protection of biodiversity
2. resilience of forest ecosystems
3. poverty reduction
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
98. What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’? (2016-I)
(a) It is an international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions
(b) It is an initiative of the United Nations to offer financial incentives to developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies
(c) It is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of the United Nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022
(d) It is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the World Bank
99. With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements : (2016-I)
1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development
2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
100. Consider the following statements:(2016-I)
(1) The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
(2) The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
101. With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2016-I)
1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2 °C or even 1. 5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
102. Consider the following statements:(2016-I)
1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
103. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of(2016-I)
(a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East
(b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change
(c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
(d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals
104. What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’?(2016-I)
1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programs and supportive inter-national partnerships.
2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions.
3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
105. Which of the following best describes/ describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?(2016-I)
1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the ‘green accounting’
2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future
3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
106. ‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the (2016-I)
(a) production and use of solar energy by the households/consumers
(b) use of piped natural gas in the kitchens of households
(c) installation of CNG kits in motor-cars
(d) installation of water meters in urban households
107. ‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to(2016-I)
(a) constitutional reforms
(b) Ganga Action Plan
(c) linking of rivers
(d) protection of Western Ghats
108. On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label?(2016-I)
1. Ceiling fans
2. Electric geysers
3. Tubular fluorescent lamps
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
109. In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?(2016-I)
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Carbon monoxide
3. Nitrogen dioxide
4. Sulfur dioxide
5. Methane
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
110. Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) ’?
(2016-I)
1. River basin is the unit of planning and management.
2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level.
3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on rotation basis.
Select the correct answer using the code given Below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
111. What is/are unique about ‘Kharai camel’, a breed found in India?(2016-I)
1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometers in seawater.
2. It survives by grazing on mangroves.
3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
112. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered? (2016-I)
(a) Andaman Islands
(b) Anaimalai Forests
(c) Maikala Hills
(d) Tropical rain forests of northeast
113. With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:(2016-I)
1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India.
2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rain forest areas of South India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
114. Which of the following statements best describes the term ‘Scheme for Sustainable Structuring of Stressed Assets (S4A) ‘, recently seen in the news?
(a) It is a procedure for considering ecological costs of developmental schemes formulated by the Government.
(b) It is a scheme of RBI for reworking the financial structure of big corporate entities facing genuine difficulties.
(c) It is a disinvestment plan of the Government regarding Central Public Sector Undertakings.
(d) It is an important provision in ‘The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code’ recently implemented by the Government.
115. The term M-STRIPES’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of(2017-I)
(a) Captive breeding of Wild Fauna
(b) Maintenance of Tiger Reserves
(c) Indigenous Satellite Navigation System
(d) Security of National Highways
116. Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites ?(2017-I)
(a) Corbett National Park
(b) KunoPalpur Wildlife Sanctuary
(c) Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
(d) Sariska National Park
117. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply ?(2017-I)
(a) It enjoys the same level of protection as the tiger.
(b) It no longer exists in the wild, a few individuals are under captive protection; and now it is impossible to prevent its extinction.
(c) It is endemic to a particular region of India.
(d) Both (b) and (c) stated above are correct in this context.
118. According to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which of the following animals cannot be hunted by any person except under some provisions provided by law?(2017-I)
1. Gharial
2. Indian wild ass
3. Wild buffalo
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
119. If you want to see gharials in their natural habitat, which one of the following is the best place to visit?
(a) Bhitarkanika Mangroves(2017-I)
(b) Chambal River
(c) Pulicat Lake
(d) DeeporBeel
120. From the ecological point of view, which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats?
(a) Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve(2017-I)
(b) Nallamala Forest
(c) Nagarhole National Park
(d) Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve
121. Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC) :(2017-I)
1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) .
2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
122. Due to some reasons, if there is a huge fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences?(2017-I)
1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected.
2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants.
3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
123. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a standard criterion for(2017-I)
(a) Measuring oxygen levels in blood
(b) Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems
(c) Pollution assay in aquatic ecosystems
(d) Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions
124. In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage/advantages of bioremediation technique?(2017-I)
1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature.
2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using micro-organisms.
3. Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
125. In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be the potential sites for carbon sequestration?(2017-I)
1. Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams
2. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs
3. Subterranean deep saline formations
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
126. It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry?(2017-I)
1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents.
2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/technology until the construction is completed.
3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
127. With reference to ‘Global Climate Change Alliance’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
(2017-I)
1. It is an initiative of the European Union.
2. It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets.
3. It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) .
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
128. Consider the following statements:(2017-I)
1. Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of G20 group of countries.
2. The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
129. What is the application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Technology?(2017-I)
(a) Production of biolarvicides
(b) Manufacture of biodegradable plastics
(c) Reproductive cloning of animals
(d) Production of organisms free of diseases
130. Consider the following pairs:(2017-I)
Commonly used material vs. Unwanted or controversial chemicals found in them
1. Lipstick: Lead
2. Soft drinks: Brominated vegetable oils
3. Chinese fast food: Monosodium glutamate
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
131. Consider the following statements:(2017-I)
1. In tropical regions, Zika virus disease is transmitted by the same mosquito that transmits dengue.
2. Sexual transmission of Zika virus disease is possible.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
132. Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are used to create digital display in many devices. What are the advantages of OLED displays over Liquid Crystal displays?(2017-I)
1. OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates.
2. Roll-up displays embedded in clothing can be made using OLEDs.
3. Transparent displays are possible using OLEDs.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of the above statements is correct
 

Solutions

1. (a) Only crocodile is kept in the Red book or endangered species list.
2. (b) The Kyoto Protocol invented the concept of carbon emissions trading, whereby carbon credits were a “flexibility mechanism”. Under this flexibility mechanism Annex 1 (developed countries) could use the carbon credits to meet their emission reduction commitments.
A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.
3. (c) The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the Flexible Mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol (IPCC, 2007) that provides for emissions reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes. The CDM is defined in Article 12 of the Protocol and is intended to meet two objectives: (1) to assist parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) , which is to prevent dangerous climate change; and (2) to assist parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments (greenhouse gas (GHG) emission caps) .
4. (b) The protocol was initially adopted on 11th December 1997. But it entered into force on 16th February 2005, after Kyoto, Japan. So, it is called Kyoto protocol.
Kyoto protocol deals with reducing the green house gases emission to a level at least 5% below 1990 level. Methane is more effective or harmful green house gas than carbon dioxide.
5. (c) Methane and nitrous oxide are the two green house gases emitted from rice field. In rice field, flooding cuts off the oxygen supply from atmosphere resulting in anaerobic condition which emits methane and nitrogen fertilizer which generally used in rice field for high production, emits nitrous oxide by reacting with atmospheric oxygen.
6. (b) • Bhiterkanika, Orissa is a protected area for salt water crocodile, where breeding is the main purpose of that protected area.
•Great Indian Bustard is protected in desert area of Rajasthan.
•The Eravikulam National Park was established to protect the Nilgiri tahir (wild goat) species.
7. (d) Biodiversity hot spots are not confined to tropical regions and Indian hotspots are present in eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman Islands.
8. (c) The fix boundary of national park is described in Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 and the actual area of the national park is notified by state government.
A biosphere reserve conserves an ecosystem and not just few specific species of plants and animals.
9. (d) Biomagnification is the phenomenon of increasing concentration of compound in the tissue of organism, as the compound passes up a food chain, usually as a result of food intake. In this case, the concentration of compound will increase with increasing the tropic level. Biomagnifying pollutants which increases in concentration from producers
img_ext_export_7JqS0t3wgi_808.png
Primary consumers
img_ext_export_7JqS0t3wgi_813.png
Secondary consumers
img_ext_export_7JqS0t3wgi_818.png
Tertiary consumers
img_ext_export_7JqS0t3wgi_823.png
Top consumer. Hawk is the top consumer, so the pesticide concentration will be highest in Hawk.
10. (d) Under the Kyoto Protocol, the ‘caps’ or quotas for Greenhouse gases for the developed Annex 1 countries are known as Assigned Amounts and are listed in Annex B. The quantity of the initial assigned amount is denominated in individual units, called Assigned amount units (AAUs) , each of which represents an allowance to emit one metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent, and these are entered into the country’s national registry.
11. (d) National Forest Policy, 1988 describes the protection of forest and development of forest. It does not describe the use of insecticide and pesticide in forest areas.
12. (b) In the third annual survery of National Geographic Society and Globe Scan, Indian top ranked in Greendex 2009 due to environmentally sustainable consumer behaviour.
13. (d) Ramsar convention describes to conserve all the sites through ecosystem approach and allow their simultaneous sustainable use.
14. (a) Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface air and oceans by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation. Climate change mitigation is action to decrease the potential effects of global warming. At a time rate of mitigation is less in India because appropriate technologies are limited and costly. Moreover India don’t have huge funds required for research and development in that area.
15. (d) Ambient temperature simply means “the temperature of the surroundings” and will be the same as room temperature. Indoor the common range of 20°C (68°F) to 27°C (80 °F) . Similarly, ambient pressure on an object is the pressure of the surrounding medium, such as a gas or liquid, which comes into contact with the object. The soot, sulphur hexaflouride, and water vapour all three can be found at ambient atmosphere which corresponds to ambient temperature and pressure, and subsequently warming up of atmosphere.
16. (c) Since CO2 is heavier than air, it sinks in ocean than moving up. Also, during winter, it is observed that CO2 is trapped in ice caps.
17. (b) Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. This is to do with the phytoplankton’s and nothing to do with the decomposer microorganisms.
18. (b) The United Nations framework convention on climate change is an international treaty drawn at UN conference on Environment and development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992.
19. (b) The nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds reacts with CFCs to form chlorine, which catalyzes the photochemical destruction of ozone.
20. (a) The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in India’s Orissa state. The Bhitarkanika Mangroves cover an area of 650 km2 in the river delta of the Brahmani and Baitarani rivers.
21. (c) To qualify as a hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0. 5 percent of the world’s total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. So we choose Species richness as well as Endemism. Along with this Threat perception is necessary to take , because it makes the base of this concept. Adaptation of flora is an arbitrary option, Ethno-botanical importance does nothing with the Biodiversity Hotspot selection criteria, vegetation Density is also discarded.
22. (b) Himalayas and its adjoining areas are marked as a confluence of several biogeographical realms. It has varity of forest type and is rich in zoo-biogeographic region.
23. (d) Algae multiply rapidly when nutrients are present. So, discharge of nutrients favour algae and subsequently algal bloom growth from estuaries to sea. The run off from the land during the monsoon bring salts which favours the growth of algae. Upwelling of the sea water brings the nutrients to top level leading to rapid algae multiplication.
24. (c) Photosynthesis by plants removes about 120 billion tons of carbon from the air per year, but plant decomposition returns about the same amount. When the organic matter is oxidized through respiration, the reverse of photosynthesis takes place. Respiration releases CO2 into the atmosphere. Respiration and photosynthesis occur at nearly equal rates over one year. Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic gases are primarily water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
25. (b) The Indian wild ass are also called as ghudkhur in local Gujarati language, is a subspecies of the onager native of South Asia. It is unknown how they disappeared though they have never been hunting target during any emperors in India. The history speaks that their number has been declining after due to diseases such as surra and horse sickness. The process related to salt activities have also been a reason behind it.
26. (d) Biological diversity helps in the formation and maintenance of soil structure and the retention of moisture and nutrient levels. Biodiversity supports ecosystem services including air quality, climate water purification, pollination, and prevention of erosion.
27. (b) Zoo and botanical gardens are the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation, rest all options are natural habitats so are of in-situ conservation.
28. (d) The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots.
29. (b) The red data book contains only 8 lists of threatened plant and animal species.
30. (c) Biodiversity is higher in the low latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes as the habitat tolerance level is very narrow at greater latitude.
Mountains have high range of species at the low altitude as they can support larger number of species due to climatic condition.
31. (c) There are 35 acts of Indian Government which have relevance to Biodiversity conservation and includes all the four option given in this question.
32. (c) National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) checks the biopiracy and protects the indigeneous and traditional genetic resources. Intellectual property Rights related to genetic biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.
33. (a) The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with the Right to healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to life under Art. 21.
34. (b) If National Water Mission is properly and completely implemented, then the part of the water needs of urban areas will be met through recycling of waste water and the water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of water will be met by adopting appropriate technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.
35. (c) The combustible gas produced during gasification process includes carbon monoxide hydrogen, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrocarbons like methane (CH4) .
36. (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.
Marine organisms like coral and phytoplankton are affected by ocean acidification. It decrease growth, reproduction and survival of these species. The acidification of ocean may lead to cloud formation as.
Sulfuric acid seeds the cloud formation which is emitted from ocean in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS) produced by phytoplankton. These phytoplanktons produce less DMS when ocean water is acidified and result in less cloud formation.
37. (d) Carbon dioxide absorbs the Infrared part of Solar Radiation
38. (b) Bandipur, Manas and Sunderbans are declared Tiger Reserves
39. (b) In national parks, local people are not allowed to collect and use the biomass available in the area.
40. (a) Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass, are endangered species.
41. (c) Supporting services of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are necessary for production of all other ecosystem services including soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis to name a few.
42. (a) Oryx has adapted to live in hot and arid areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semi-desert areas of cold high mountains.
43. (a) Except promotion of vegetarianism all other acts are threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area.
44. (c) All the given agricultural practices help in carbon sequestration.
45. (a) If phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason then
(i) The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.
(ii) The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected as the fishes live on them.
46. (b) A drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle.
47. (b) Electronic waste or E-waste has ferrous and non-ferrous metals both. Non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium, silver, gold, platinum, palladium etc. The presence of elements like lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and hexavalent chromium are classified as hazardous waste.
48. (a) A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community to obtain nutrition.
Sample:- Grassland Biome
GRASS > GRASS HOPPER > RAT> SNAKE > HAWK
49. (a) Lion-tailed Macaques are found in the mountainforests scattered across three Indian states stated above. The lion-tailed Macaques are endangered as per IUCN.
50. (b) Ecological Niche is a term that describes the way of life of a species. Each species is thought to have a separate unique niche. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors. A niche is the sum of the habitat requirements that allow a species to persist and produce offspring.
51. (a) Star tortoise is found in India in the dry and scrub forests. Pygmy Hog is an endangered species found in Assam. Only 150 animals are left. Monitor Lizard is found in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Spider Monkey is the inhabitant of tropical forests of Central and South America.
52. (a) Drinking water in some parts of India has contaminants like Arsenic, Fluoride other than many other contaminants. The sources of Arsenic are run off from orchards. The sources of fluoride are erosion of natural deposits, discharge from fertilizers and aluminum factories.
53. (a) Nokrek Biosphere Reserve is situated in Garo Hills in Meghalaya. Loktak Lake is in Manipur. Barail Range is in Assam. Though Namdapha National Park and Dafla Hill both are in Arunachal Pradesh, the two are separate entities.
54. (c) The trees cannot replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of water limits and fire.
55. (c) The productivity of Mangroves > grasslands > lakes > oceans.
56. (c) Gharial is critically endangered according to IUCN. Overhunting for skin and trophies, habitat loss due to construction of dams and barrages has been the reason for their decline. Leather back turtles are endangered due to human carelessness. Swamp deer occupies a place in the list of the endangered species of the world. Deforestation, draining of swamps and marshes for farming has led to the destruction of their natural habitat.
57. (b) Bacteria and Fungi both are known as decomposer organisms. Bacteria are important decomposers; they can break down any kind of organic matters. Fungi are primary decomposers, they not only decompose the surface organisms but they can also penetrate deep into the organic matters.
58. (d) The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is a Convention to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. The World Heritage Convention is concerned with the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. All three of them have a bearing on the biodiversity.
59. (c) Earth Hour is a worldwide movement for the planet organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) . The event is held worldwide annually encouraging individuals, communities, households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights for one hour, from 8:30 to 9:30 p. m. to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.
60. (a) Diatoms are autotrophs which prepare their own food. Crustaceans are herbivorous animals which feed on diatoms. Herrings are carnivorous animals which feed on Crustaceans. This completes the food chain.
Diatoms are autotrophs, prepare their own food. Crustaceans eats diatoms. Crustaceans are members of zooplankons and are eaten by Herring fish when small.
61. (a) The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
62. (c) The Bombay Natural History Society is one of the largest non-governmental organizations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.
63. (a) It is an independent financial organization which works with countries on environmental issues.
64. (c) Dampa Tiger Reserve, the largest wildlife sanctuary in Mizoram. Saramati peak is in Nagaland. It is located near Tuensang town with a height of 3,826 m. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary is famous wildlife reserve in Tripura.
65. (b) This organization is in partnership but not formed by Ramsar convention. The organization was formed in 1954 and Ramsar convention was signed in 1971. “Wetlands International”, It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.
66. (c) Statement 1, 3 and 4 are correct as per wwf and environment ministry.
67. (c) Brominated flame retardants used in many household products are highly resistant to degradation in the environment and they are able to accumulate in humans and animals.
68. (c) Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endothermsis characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. It is found in Bat ,bear and rodents etc.
69. (c) Volcanic action, Respiration and decay of organic matter adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth. However, photosynthesis uses Carbon dioxide to produce food.
70. (b) Common Myna are birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses. The common myna is readily identified by the brown body, black hooded head and the bare yellow patch behind the eye.
71. (d) Eco-sensitive zones are ecological important area under environment protection Act 1986 around national parks and wildlife sanctuaries prohibiting resting certain human activities in the zone.
72. (b) The Animal Welfare Board of India was established in 1962 under Section 4 of The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. The National Tiger Conservation Authority is set up under the Chairmanship of the Minister for Environment and Forests and is a statutory body. National Ganga River Basin Authority was established by the Central Government of India, on 20 February 2009. The Prime Minister is the chair of the Authority.
73. (a) Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Andaman and Nicobar, Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Mannar have coral reefs. However Sunderbans do not have coral reef.
74. (b) In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with deforestataion. Terace cultivation helps in less erosion of soil.
75. (a) Biosphere reserves are established under UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. Biosphere Reserves Combine Protected areas with zones where sustainable development is nurtured by native dwellers.
76. (b) Rise in temperature by 3°C to that of pre-industrial level will led as per choice 1 and 2.
77. (b) In organisms called lichens, a chlorophy ll-containing partner, which is an alga, and a fungus live together. fungus provides shelter, water and minerals to the alga and, in return, the alga provides food which it prepares by photosynthesis.
78. (d) In steel furnace coke reacts with iron to release pollutants like Oxides of sulphur, Oxides of nitrogen, Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide.
79. (b) The festival starts with the green march celebrating the beginning of the rains and new sowing season during which planting of sapling of fruit bearing trees is done on mass scale.
80. (d) Shale gas contains methane. Shale gas resources exist in India.
81. (d) Namdapha National Park is located in Arunachal Pradesh. The climate of this area varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic. It is tropical and subtropical in southern regions and arctic type in northern part of the park.
82. (d) Housed within the Carbon Finance Unit of the World Bank, the BioCarbon Fund is a public-private sector initiative mobilizing finance to help for development of projects that sequester or conserve carbon in forest and agro-ecosystems. It was created in 2004.
83. (c) The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (activities commonly referred to as REDD+) .
84. (c) BirdLife international is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global biodiversity. It is working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the World’s largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organizations. An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) is an area recognized as being globally important habitat for the conservation of bird populations. The program was developed and sites are identified by BirdLife International.
85. (a) The tropical moist deciduous forests are found in Sahyadris, the north-eastern parts of the peninsula and along the foothills of the Himalayas. Teak and sal are found in these forests.
86. (c) An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere) .
87. (c) IREDA is a Public Limited Government Company which was established as a Non-Banking Financial Institution in 1987 under the administrative control of MNRE to promote, develop and extend financial assistance for renewable energy and energy efficiency /conservation projects with the motto: “ENERGY FOR EVER”.
88. (b) The Keibul Lamjao National Park is a national park located in Manipur. It is 40 km in area and the only floating park in the world which is located in North East India, and an integral part of Loktak Lake.
89. (b) IUCN is not an organ of UN. It has observer and consultative status at the United Nations.
90. (c) The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal. Dugong is listed under schedule 1 of India Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. In 2008, a MoU was signed between the Ministry of Environment and Forests and the Government of India, in order to conserve dugongs. In fact the highest level of legal protection is accorded to dugongs in India.
91. (c) The Gangetic dolphins have been declared as the National Aquatic Animal of India . River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. The Ministry of Environment and Forests notified the Ganges River Dolphin as the National Aquatic Animal on 18th May 2010. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water.
92. (b) The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
93. (a) The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) , also known as the Rio Summit or Earth Summit. It was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012.
94. (a) The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund within the framework of the UNFCCC founded as a mechanism to redistribute money from the developed to the developing world, in order to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change. The Fund is governed by the GCF Board. The assets of the GCF will be administered by a trustee only for the purpose of, and in accordance with, the relevant decisions of the GCF Board. The World Bank was invited by the COP to serve as the interim trustee of the GCF, subject to a review three years after operation of the Fund.
95. (c) (i) The Kyoto Protocol separates countries into two groups. Annex I includes developed nations, while Non-Annex I refers to developing countries.
A CER is a certificate which is issued every time the United Nations prevents one tonne of CO2 equivalent being emitted through carbon projects registered with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) .
(ii) All three terms are associated with Kyoto Protocol. Therefore, answer “c” 3 only.
96. (c) (i) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a study led by Pavan Sukhdev. It is an international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity. Its objective is to highlight the growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions.
(ii) As per the official page of the organization. 2 and 3 are correct, but there is no mention of their association with UNEP, IMF. Hence 1st statement is wrong. Accordingly answer is “c”
97. (a) (i) Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is a mechanism that has been under negotiation by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since 2005, with the objective of mitigating climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in developing countries.
(ii) Under REDD+ Developing country will have to prove the ‘result’ they have fought deforestation without harming local communities or biological diversity. Only then, they’ll get the Money. Therefore, 1 and 2 are correct.
Although REDD+ has galvanized significant support internationally, among both developed and developing countries, its implications for poverty alleviation at the local level remain unclear. hence 3rd statement is wrong. Therefore Answer (a) .
98. (a) (i) The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. A decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) , the GHG Protocol is working with businesses, governments, and
(ii) A is correct according to their “ABOUT US” page
Ref : http://www. ghgprotocol. org/about-ghgp
99. (a) Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. Therefore, only first statement right.
100. (a) (i) The COP-21 Climate Conference was held in Paris, France from 30 November to 12 December 2015. During this conference, India and France have launched the International Solar Alliance (ISA) . International Solar Alliance includes an alliance of 121 countries located between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
(ii) While ISA was launched on Sidelines of Paris Summit, therefore first statement right but it includes only the 121 countries between Capricorn and Cancer receiving sunlight for 300 days or more. Hence 2nd statement is wrong.
101. (b) (i) The agreement emphasized on urgent need to address the significant gap between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of global annual emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above preindustrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1. 5°C above preindustrial levels.
(ii) Paris Summit – not all nations have signed the agreement and there is no deadline to ratify it. hence, statement 1 is wrong. This eliminates a and b. And developed countries committed to give $100 billion by 2020. But, for future, there is no mention of giving $1,000 billion dollars. Therefore, third statement wrong. We are left with Answer (b) only.
102. (b) At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030. The history of the SDGs can be traced to 1972 when governments met under the auspices of the United Nations Human and Environment Conference. The ‘Club of Rome’ is a global think tank that deals with a range of international political issues.
Ref: UNDP & The Hindu
http://www. undp. org/content/undp/en/home/…/post-2015-development-agenda. html
103. (b) (i) Countries across the globe committed to create a new international climate agreement by the conclusion of the U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015.
(ii) INDC are associated with UNFCCC-Climate change. Hence b) is the apt choice.
104. (c) (i) United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive international partnerships. UNCCD is committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating desertification.
(ii) As per of the convention, Statement 3 is right. But UNCCCD focuses on Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern Mediterranean and Central and Eastern Europe. Hence statement 2 is wrong. Therefore, answer (c) .
Ref:http://www. unccd. int/en/regional-access/Pages/default. aspx/
105. (c) (i) The National Mission for a Green India was announced by the Prime Minister as one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) . It recognizes that climate change phenomenon will seriously affect and alter the distribution, type and quality of natural resources of the country. GIM puts the “greening” in the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation, meant to enhance ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and storage (in forests and other ecosystems) , hydrological services and biodiversity; along with provisioning services like fuel, fodder, small timber.
(ii) Ref: India Yearbook 2016 page 338: Environment ministry has launched National Mission for a Green India through a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders, aimed at both increasing the forest and tree cover by 5 million ha, as well as increasing the quality of the existing forest cover in another 5 million ha. Hence only statement 3 fits.
106. (a) (i) A Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. Net metering allows residential and commercial customers who generate their own electricity from solar power to feed electricity they do not use back into the grid.
(ii) Under Net-metering system, Customer installs a solar or windpower plant on his premise, gets it grid-connected with the electricity distribution company (DISCOM) Hence (a) is the apt choice.
107. (d) (i) The Gadgil Commission was an environmental research commission appointed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests of India. The Commission submitted the report to the Government of India on 31 August 2011. The Kasturirangan Committee Report has sought to balance the two concerns of development and environment protection, by watering down the environmental regulation regime proposed by the Western Ghats Ecology Experts Panel’s Gadgil report in 2012.
(ii) They’re associated with Western Ghat conservation plan.
108. (d) (i) The Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an agency of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power created in March 2002 under the provisions of the nation’s 2001 Energy Conservation Act. The agency’s function is to develop programs which will increase the conservation and efficient use of energy in India. The government has proposed to make it mandatory for all appliances in India to have ratings by the BEE starting in January 2010.
(ii) According to centre for science and environment (CSE) , both 1 and 3 are correct. There is only option (d) whether such combination is possible.
Ref:http://cseindia. org/content/energy-efficient-appliances
109. (b) (i) The AQI level is based on the level of 8 atmospheric pollutants, namely sulfur dioxide (SO2) , nitrogen dioxide (NO2) , suspended particulates smaller than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) , suspended particulates smaller than 2. 5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2. 5) , NH3, Pb, carbon monoxide (CO) , and ozone (O3) measured at the monitoring stations throughout.
So by elimination we are left with option “b”.
Ref: Thehindu newspaper/ April 9, 2015;
http://www. thehindu. com/opinion/blogs/blog-datadelve/article7083985. ece
110. (a) (i) National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) is a financing, planning, implementing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganges River, functioning under the water resource ministry of India. The mission of the organisation is to spearhead the river conservation efforts at the national level.
(ii) In 2014, UPSC asked similar question, where one of the statement was- “PM is chairman of NGRBA”. That statement was right as per India Yearbook 2014. Therefore, here statement 3 is wrong, CM can’t be the chairman of NGRBA. By elimination, we reach answer (a) .
111. (a) These camels can swim up to three kilometers into the sea in search of mangroves – So, 1 and 2 are correct. Most families in Jatt and Rabari communities of Kachchh, are traditional rearers of Kharai camels. So, third statement also correct.
Kharai camels found in the Kutch region are very unique. They can can swim through deep sea waters and it feeds on mangroves and other saline plants. The breeders have meticulously followed the traditional grazing pattern in the coastal districts. They do not provide special housing or shelter to the camels. Given the breed’s ability to survive both on land and sea, the Kharai camel is one of the most preferred choices of graziers in the arid coastal region of Kachchh. People consume its milk, while male calves are sold for economic returns (females are not sold because they are considered sacred) . A male calf fetches anywhere between Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 14,000, says Ramesh Bhatti of Sahjeevan, an NGO working on livelihood issues of graziers in Kachchh. It can be domesticated also – so its not wild. They are reared in four blocks of Abdasa, Bundra, Lakhpat and Bachau of Gujarat.
Ref : DOWN TO EARTH (An important source for Env)
Rare Kharai camel species, found in Kutch district, is under threat due to the onslaught of industrialisation, post-2001 earthquake.
112. (a) Scientists at the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) have discovered a new species of banana from a remote tropical Krishna Nalah rain forest on the Little Andaman islands. The new species is about 11 metres high, whereas as the usual banana species is about three to four meters high. The fruit pulp is orange in colour, distinctive from the white and yellow color of regular bananas. Hence (a) is the correct answer.
Ref: TheHindu/October 11, 2015
http://www. thehindu. com/news/national/other-states/andamans-yield-a-sweet-banana-with-orange-pulp/article7750316. ece
113. (a) (i) Pterocarpus santalinus, with the common names Red Sanders, Red Sandalwood, and saunderswood, is a species of Pterocarpus endemic to the southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India. This tree is valued for the rich red color of its wood. The wood is not aromatic.
(ii) It was in national media during April 2015, when Andhra Pradesh police killed 20 Red Sander smugglers in an encounter. So first statement is right.
(iii) Red Sanders is associated with Tropical dry deciduous forest, as per environment ministry website, Hence 2nd statement wrong.
114. (b) S4A is RBI’s scheme for restructuring of corporate loans, hence “B” is the most appropriate among the given options.
115. (b) National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is planning to implement a new computerized tiger monitoring protocol in all tiger reserves of the country known as Monitoring System for Tiger, Intensive Patrolling and Ecological Status (MSTrIPES) .
116. (b) Even if you eliminate Corbett (Uttrakhand) and Mudumalai (Tamilnadu) for climatic reasons for Lion relocation, still you’re left with Sariska (Rajasthan) . Sariska being a tiger reserve, would sound unfit for lion immigration. So by elimination answer would be “B”. and Indianexpress report confirm it.
117. (a) Tiger is given as Schedule I animal. So “A” is correct.
118. (d) The schedule 5 vermin- crow, fruitbat, mice and rat can be killed. Since the animals given in above MCQ are outside that list hence answer is “D”.
119. (b) Gharials are river dwelling fish-eaters and their only viable population is in the Chambal Sanctuary. So “B” should be the answer.
120. (a) NCERT Class 11: India- Physical Geography.
A. Page 17: The Eastern and Western Ghats Meet at Nilgiri hills.
B. Page 16: Nilgiri hills are in Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
Now, If there is a place serving as Ecological link between Eastern and Western Ghats, then most likely it ought to be in Tamilnadu, than in Karnataka, because of the location. “A” is the most fitting answer because it’s located in Tamilnadu.
121. (b) First statement is wrong because TRAFFIC is joint program of WWF and IUCN and Second statement is correct because verbatim given in the organization’s official page.
122. (c) Statement 1 is right (by common knowledge) but for the sake of reference- NCERT Class 12 biology page 30 This eliminates “B”. Second statement should be wrong because of the extreme word “drastic”. This eliminates “D”. Besides I’m unable to find any specific reference that mentions linkage between butterfly population vs fungus infection. Birds and spiders tend to prey on butterflies (by common knowledge) so statement 3 is a possible outcome.
Hence answer “C”: 1 and 3 only.
123. (c) NCERT Class 11 Chemistry: Ch. 14-Environmental Chemistry, page 407
The amount of oxygen required by bacteria to break down the organic matter present in a certain volume of a sample of water, is called Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) . The amount of BOD in the water is a measure of the amount of organic material in the water, in terms of how much oxygen will be required to break it down biologically. Clean water would have BOD value of less than 5 ppm whereas highly polluted water could have a BOD value of 17 ppm or more.
124. (c) Biosparging is an in-Situ Bioremediation techniques in which we inject the air under pressure below the water table to enhance the rate of biological degradation of contaminants by naturally occurring bacteria. Hence statement 1 is right. In Google Scholar search engine is filled with academic papers on genetic engineering approaches to bioremediation. Hence 3 is also right. But not all compounds are susceptible to rapid and complete biodegradation, and bioremediation often takes longer time than other treatment processes. So, second statement unlikely to be correct. Hence, answer “C” 1 and 3 only.
125. (d) Carbon sequestration may be carried out by pumping carbon into carbon sinks of two types:
A. Natural sinks- ocean, forest, soil etc.
B. Artificial sink- depleted oil reserve, unminable mines. So statement 1 and 2 are correct.
And deep Saline Formations infact have highest capacity for this. So accordingly, answer is “D”.
126. (b) US National Research Council report on Algal Biofuel (2012) observed that
1. algae and cyanobacteria biomass production in the U. S. desert Southwest could be perceived as a good use of low-value land by some, but as an intrusion into pristine land by others. Similarly, the use of genetically modified organisms in production systems could affect social acceptability. So this is social concern. (and it also proves statement #1 wrong. )
2. Open Algal ponds will attract insect larvae invasion and affect predator-prey balance. This is ecological concern. Hence Statement 3 is right.
3. And the report discussed challenges production and technology. Hence answer 2 and 3.
127. (a) As per their organizations’ “About us” page:
EuropeAid (DG for International Cooperation and Development) drives and oversees the overall implementation of the GCCA. So third statement is wrong. By elimination we are left with “A”.
128. (b) As per the timeline given on their official “About us” page: CCAC was formed in 2012 by UNEP and Ghana, Bangladesh etc. countries. So first statement is wrong. Second statement is right- they focus on Short Lived Climate Pollutants such as methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons.
129. (c) Encyclopedia Britannica says SCNT technology was used for cloning the sheep “Dolly”. And over the years, theHindu has been running news of cloning of buffalos by Somatic Cell technology. So, “C” is the answer.
130. (d) Mono sodium Glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer in Chinese food, but leads to obesity and liver inflation. This was in news because of Maggie noodles controvery. So, 3 is right.
•Brominated vegetable oils are used as stabilizers in the baked goods, soft drinks, soups, jellies etc. but banned in UK after 1970. so, #2 is right.
There is only one combination where 1 and 3 are together i. e. answer “D”: 1, 2 and 3 are correct.
131. (c) Dengue, Zika and chikungunya are spread through a common vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. So first statement is right. Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through mosquitoes, it can also be sexually transmitted as well. So second statement also right.
132. (c) OLEDs can be formed on any substrate such as glasses, cloths, plastic and other bendable substrates. So accordingly, all three are possible. Answer “C”.
 

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