Chapter 2. Migration: Types, Causes & Consequences

• In Census of India, Migration is enumerated on two bases:(i) place of birth, if place of birth is different from place of enumeration (known as life-time migrant); (ii) place of residence, if place of last residence is different from place of enumeration (known as migrant by place of last residence).
• As per 2011 census, out of 1,210 million people in country, 455.8 million (about 37%) were reported as migrants from place of last residence.

Streams of Migration
• The distribution of male and female migrants in different streams of intra-state and inter-state migration is presented in Fig. (a) and (b). It is clearly evident that females predominate streams of short distance rural to rural migration in both types of migration. Contrary to this, men predominate rural to urban stream of inter-state migration due to economic reasons.

Figure (a): Inter-state Migration Figure (b): Intra-state Migration
• Apart from these streams of internal migration, India experiences immigration migration in which four streams are identified- a) rural to urban b) rural to rural c) urban to urban d) urban to rural.

Spatial Variation in Migration
• States like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat & Haryana attract migrants from other states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, etc. Maharashtra occupied first place in migrants, followed by Delhi, Gujarat & Haryana. Uttar Pradesh is state, which had largest number of net out-migrants from state.

Causes of Migration
• The reason for migration can be categorized into two categories (i) push factors- which cause people to leave their place of residence or origin; and (ii) pull factors, which attract people from different places.
• In India, push factors for migration include poverty, high population pressure on land, and lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc. Apart from these factors, natural disasters such as, floods, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquakes, tsunami, wars & local conflicts give an extra push to migrate.
• The most important pull factor for majority of rural migrants to urban areas is better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages.
• The reasons for migration of males and females are different. For example, work & employment have remained main cause of male migration (26 percent) while it is only 2.3 percent for females. Contrary to this, about 67 percent of females move out of their parental houses following their marriage. This is most important cause in rural areas of India except in Meghalaya where reverse is case.

Consequences of Migration
• Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political & demographic terms:
1. Economic Consequences: Punjab, Kerala & Tamil Nadu receive a very significant amount of remittances from their international migrants. Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, and Agricultural inputs. For thousands of poor villages of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, etc. remittance works as lifeblood of their economy.
2. Demographic Consequences: Migration leads to redistribution of population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of important factors contributing to population growth of cities. 3. Social Consequences: Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girls’ education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures.
4. Environmental Consequences: Due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.
5. Others: Migration (even excluding marriage migration) affects status of women directly or indirectly. In rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well as mental pressure on women. Migration of ‘women’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in economy.

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