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Chapter 18. World Geography (Geography Notes)


Racial Groups and Their Distribution Pattern

Continents Major Ethnic Group/Race Distribution Remarks
AsiaArabian (Middle East)Bahrain, State of Palestine, Lebanon, Comoros, Kuwait, Qatar, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Tunisia, Yemen, Djibouti, Sudan, Algeria, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Libya, MauritaniaThis is a major Pan ethnic Group which is primarily habited in Western Asia. The primary language spoken by Arabian group is Arabic. Besides 15 other languages are spoken among Arabians in different parts of the World
Indian (Indo-aryan & Dravidian)Most part of Indian Sub continents (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh)On the basis of ethno linguistic composition the group is highly diversified, still the majority of population is restricted within two major linguistic groups such as Indo-Aryan and Dravidian.
MongoloidsThis group is primarily concentrated in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and gradually spreading towards Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hebei, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan and BeijingThey speak mainly the dialect of Atlantic Language family. The major three of them are Inner Mongolian, Barag-Buryat and Uirad Largest populated race of the world.
AfricaPygmiesRwanda, Burundi, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Republic of Congo (ROC), the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Madagascar, and Zambia are populated by these groupA short height tribal group who lives on hunting, gathering fruits, nuts and honey from dense jungles and they are primarily confined to rain forests only. Most primitive Tribe of Africa
BushmenThey are the huge inhabitant of Kalahari desert. Other than this they spread along Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Angola, with loosely related groups in Tanzania.They are basically yellow-skinned nomads whose primary food intake in plant products collected from jungles which accounts for 70% of their diet and for the rest 20%-30% they depend on hunting.
ZulusThey are mainly concentrated in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Some are also scattered throughout the other provinces. KwaZulu-Natal borders on Mozambique in the north, Eastern Cape in the south, the Indian Ocean in the east, and Lesotho in the west. They are highly concentrated in South Africa.They are the descendants of Nguni-speaking people and best known African tribes who were exploited by Britishers during the late 1800s. The most spoken languages are Zulu and English.
MassaiThey are the semi nomadic tribes who originated from the lower Nile valley north of Lake Turkana (Northwest Kenya) and began migrating south around the 15th century, and finally settled in Kenya around 17th and 18th CenturyThey commonly use Kenya and Tanzania, Swahili and English language for communication as well as education.
BantusThe Bantus are primarily found in Rwanda, Angola, Burundi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, with some among other nations in the Southern part of Africa.As these tribes are highly resourceful and adaptable their occupancy in the total continent is also the highest. They mainly speak bantu language which gave them their nomenclature. They live on agriculture and metal working which give opportunity to adopt colonization.
North AmericaGroups of Indigenous peoplesThey mostly confined to Canada and some part of U.S.A.The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the descendants of the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America.
Native HawaiiansMost Native Hawaiians reside in State of Hawaii and the American SouthwestNative Hawaiians are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.
South AmericaMestijoMainly concentrated in Latin America. (Mexico, central America and No. of Island)They emerged due to extensive intermixing between Europeans and Native Americans early in the colonial period
MullattoBrazil is home to Latin America’s largest mulatto population. Other than Brazil they spread in Dominican Republic, Cuba, Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Puerto Rico, and Ecuador.Mulattoes are people of mixture of European and African.
ZambolZambos are the small minorities in the northwestern South American countries such as Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Ecuador.This is a small yet noticeable group resulting from unions of Amerindian women to Afro-Ecuadorian men are not uncommon in major coastal cities of Ecuador.
EuropeNordicThe Nordics are inhabited in the countries around North and Baltic Seas.As a sub group of Caucasian race this group is a set of people having distinct physical characteristics such as concurrence of fair, colour, somewhat wavy hair, light eyes, reddish skin, tall stature and a dolichocephalic skull

Major Trenches

Name Location
Mariana Trench Pacific Ocean Kurile Trench Pacific Ocean Java Trench Indian Ocean Kermadec Trench Pacific Ocean Japanese Trench Pacific Ocean Aleutian Trench Pacific Ocean Tonga Trench Pacific Ocean Mindanao Trench Pacific Ocean Peru-Chile Trench Pacific Ocean Puerto Rico Trench Atllantic Ocean Nares Trench Atlantic Ocean

Bab-al- Mandeb— Red sea of Arabian Sea
Bering— Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea
Bosphorus— Black Sea and Marmara Sea
Dover— North sea and Atlantic Ocean
Florida— Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean
Gibralter— Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean
Malacca— Java Sea and Bay of Bengal
Palk— Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean
Magellan— South Pacific Sea and South Atlantic Ocean
Sunda— Java sea and Indian Ocean
Yucatan— Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.
Hudson— Canada and Bafin Island
Denmark— Greenland and Iceland
Bass— Tasmania and Australia
Luzon— Philippines and Taiwan
Mozambique— Mozambique and Madagascar
Cook— North Island and Southern Alps of Newzeland
Bonifacio— Ajaccio and Sardinia (Italy)
English Channel— Bay of Biscay and North Sea
Makassar— Borneo and Celebes
Malacca— Singapore and Sumatra

World Highways

Pan American highways : It is extended from Alaska of North America to Southern Parts of Chile of South America.
Trans-Canadian highways : It joins the Eastern corner of Canada with the western borders of Canada. This highway goes from Saint John to Vancouver via Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Winnipeg and Calgary.
Alaska highways : This highways joins Admont Town with Alaska.
Inter continental highways
Trans-Siberian highways : Russian Federation has constructed the Trans-Siberian highways which joins the Eastern Parts of the country with Western Parts of the country.
Indian Sher Shah Suri Marg :
This highway was joining Kolkata with Peshawar earlier, but now it goes up to Amritsar, after the partition of country.
This road in India is known as ‘Grand Trunk Road’ (G.T. Road).
➤ Railways are the greatest contribution to the humanity of modern times.
➤ The railways came into existence in 1785 as small route in Europe and United States of America.
➤ In India the first railway line was laid in 1854 from Mumbai to Thane by Lord Dalhousi during the British time.

Pattern Of Railways Network

1. Intensive Railways : When many railways tracks are constructed in an area, that type of railways are called intensive railways.
➤ This type of railway was first constructed in 1825 from Stockton to Darlington in England.
2. Trans-Continental Railways :
This type of railways joins the distant places of thin population.
Trans-Siberian railways, Trans- Caspian railways, Canadian- Pacific railways, Chile-Argentina railways are the examples of such railways.
3. Intragressive Railways :
Intragressive railways start from the centre of the continent and goes up to the coastal areas.
➤ Such railways are found in hot deserts and cold regions.
Major Railways of the World
Trans-Siberian Railways : Trans- Siberian railways are the longest and the most important railway line of the world.
➤ Its length is approximately 9232 km.
➤ This railway is extended from Leningrad, Moscow to Vladivostok.
➤ This railway joins Western Part of Russian Federation with the Eastern Part of Russian Federation.
➤ The Construction of Trans- Siberian railways was started in 1891 and was completed in 1905 for traffic.
Canadian-Pacific Railways : The Canadian-Pacific railways start from Halifax and St. John on Atlantic Ocean and reaches Vancouver located on the coasts of Pacific Ocean via Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Fort William and Winnipeg.
➤ Its length is 5600 km.
➤ It is called the backbone of Canada.
Chile-Argentina Railways : This railway route joins Valparaiso Port of Chile with Buenos Aires of Argentina.
➤ This railway line is only 1600 km. long.
➤ It was for transportation in 1910.
Trans-Australian Railway :
Trans-Australian railways move along the eastern coasts of Australia in a North-South direction in Australia.
➤ This railways starts from Chairs in the North and reaches Canberra in the south.
➤ This railway route passes through Sydney Broken hills, Port Augusta and Kalgoorli centres.
Cape to Cairo Railway : This railway track join Cape Town of South Africa to Cairo the capital of Egypt.
➤ This railway track is about 14,400 km. long.
➤ The whole railway track is divided into three parts —
1. Cape Town to Alabo
2. Makbar to Wadi Haffa
3. Swan to Cairo
Union Pacific Railway : This is a well known railway route of USA.
➤ This route joins SanFrancisco and New York.

Waterways :

Waterways are divided into two types —
1. Inland Waterways
2. Oceanic Waterways.
1. Inland Waterways : There are following Inland waterways.
Rhine River : Rhine river is the major waterways of Europe.
➤ This river is known as the ‘Life Line’of European trade.
➤ This is the world’s busiest river.
➤ Mainly coal is transported from ‘Ruhr Valley’ through the Rhine river.
➤ Due to coal transportation, this river is also called ‘coal river’.
➤ This river falls into the North Sea.
Denube River : This is the longest river of the European
➤ This river flows through eight countries of Europe.
St. Lawrence River : This is the famous river of Canada.
➤ This river joins North America with Atlantic Ocean.
➤ This river is approximately 1400 km.
Mississippi River : This is the major river of USA.
➤ It has many branches.
➤ Total length is about 3200 km.
Volga River : Volga river is mainly Russian river.
➤ This river contributes about 80% to the total trade of the country.
➤ This river falls into Caspian sea.
Nile River : This river is called the ‘life line of Egypt’.
➤ This river flows in the continent of Africa.
➤ The mouth of this river lies in Mediterranean sea.
2. Oceanic water ways :
North Atlantic Oceanic routes :
These routes are much more important than any other waterways.
➤ This waterways joins the region of western Europe with the region of North America.
➤ Glasgow, Manchester, South Haiyxton, London, Rotterdam, Breman, Bordio, Lisben, Ouebec, Montreal, New York, Havana are the important Ports of the world on this oceanic route.
➤ The maximum goods are transported through these waterways.
South Atlantic Oceanic routes :
This routes join North America and Europe with South America.
➤ Goods are transported through this route from North America to South America and Europe.
North Pacific Oceanic routes :
These water ways join East Asia and North America with each other.
South Pacific Oceanic routes : This route joins Australia, New Zealand, North America and Western Europe with each other.
Routes of Indian Ocean : Indian oceanic waterways are used by the countries which fall in the vicinity of Indian Ocean.
➤ Countries of Indian Ocean exports jute, tea, mineral ores etc.
Routes of Mediterranean Sea : This water way joins Asia and Australia continents with North Atlantic Oceanic routes.
➤ Through this waterways the raw material of Eastern countries are being transported to western countries.
Cape of Good Hope Sea route :
Cape of Good Hope Sea route joins Eastern Asia and Europe to Southern parts of Africa.
Suez Canal : This is the world’s biggest canal constructed in the Senai peninsula of Egypt.
➤ This is the most important waterway.
➤ This canal is constructed by cutting the Isthmus of Suez.
➤ This canal joins Red sea with Mediterranean sea.
➤ The Northern bank of Suez canal is known as ‘Port Said’ of Mediterranean sea and Southern bank of Red sea is known as Port Suez.
➤ The distance between Port Said and Port Suez is 193 km.
➤ Due to construction of this canal, the distance between Europe and Asia has decreased.
Soo Canal : This canal joins the Lake Superior and Huran lakes of USA.
➤ There is a Saint Mary waterfall between both the lakes.
Welland Canal : This canal joins the lake Erie and Ontario.
➤ There is a famous Niagra water fall between both the lakes.
➤ Its lengths is 43 km.
Eric Canal : This canal joins Erie lake and Michigan lake. Its length is 584 km.
Panama Canal : This canal is between Pacific ocean and Carribean ocean.
➤ Gatun lake is situated near this canal.
➤ This canal is constructed in Panama, a country of central America.
➤ This canal joins Atlantic Ocean with Pacific Ocean.
➤ The length of Panama is about 80 km.
Kiel Canal : This canal falls in Germany.
➤ This canal joins Baltic sea with North sea.
➤ This canal is about 98 km in length.

Major Industrial Cities

Boston — Shipbuilding Pittsburgh — ‘Iron and steel’ Buffalo — Chemicals, metal goods and flour mills Akron — Synthetic rubber Ciatel — Aeroplane Kansas — Seal packing meat Chicago — Seal packing meat Baltimore — Shipbuilding Plymouth — Shipbuilding Los Angeles — Aeroplane, film Detroit — Automobiles Birmingham — Cotton textiles, chemical and metal work
Hamilton — Iron and steel, cars, porcelain Toronto — Automobiles, chemicals, textiles Windsor — Automobiles and tyre making industries Sarnia — oil refineries
South America
Buenos Aires — Meat packing, flour milling Brasilia — Steel mills, chemicals Montevideo — Packing industry Rio-de Janeiro — Shipbuilding, aircraft engineering, Cotton,coffee Sao Paulo — Coffee industry
The Midland
Birmingham — Steel industry Conventry — Automobile industry Derby — Textile and engineering Leicestershire — Coal field Nottingham — Hosiery, cigarettes, tobacco, pharmaceuticals
North East England
Bellingham — Chemicals Darlington — Locomotives Gateshead — Engineering Middlesbrough — Iron and steel New Castle — Shipbuilding South Shield — Port industry
The Lancashire Region
Manchester — Major textile centres Port sunlight — Soap factory St. Helens — Glass industry Bolton and Bury — Spinning Blackburn — Weaving
Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire
Bradford — Worsted textile Huddersfield — Woolen textile Leeds — Garments industries Sheffield — Cutlery
Central Scotland
Dumbartion — Engineering Glasgow — Iron and steel industry Port Glasgow — Ship building Great London — Industrial region, Cement and oil refineries.
South wales — Coal mining
Antwerp — Diamond cutting Liege — Iron and steel industry Mons — Textiles Namur — Agriculture engineering
Clermont-Ferrand — Michelin tyres Greater Paris — Wide range of goods Lorraine — Iron and steel production Limoges — Pottery Lyons — Silk textiles Marseilles — Oil refineries Germany
Essen — Iron and steel centre Dortmund — Iron and steel centre Krefeld — Textiles Rulr-westaphila — Industrial region Wappertal — Textiles Frankurt — Railway engineering Hamburg — Shipbuilding Hannover — Metal and chemical industries Jena — Photographic equipment Dresden — China clay Munich — Shipbuilding Leipzig — Optical instrument
Milan — Textiles Turin — Automobiles, aircraft industries
Gorki — Heavy engineering steel mills Tula — Steel industries Moscow — Textiles, machines, chemicals Ivanovo — Cotton industries Leningrad — Shipbuilding Vladivostok — Shipbuilding Chelyabinsk — Steel industries, machine tools
Tokyo — Electrical engineering Kawasaki — Glass work, cement, marine engineering Kobe — Shipbuilding Kyoto — Porcelaine toys and Handicrafts work Nagoya — Textiles Osaka — Textiles Yokohama — Shipbuilding Nagasaki — Shipbuilding
Manchuria — Heavy industry Shanghai — Cotton textile mills Wuchang — Iron and steel industry Hayang — Iron and steel industry Hankou — Iron and steel industry Sichuan — Automobiles, machine tools Changchung — Automobiles, machine tools Wuhan — Cotton, shipbuilding, steel industry
Adelaide — Agriculture industries Melbourne — Chemicals, shipbuilding, aircraft engineering New Castle — Iron and steel, locomotive, aircraft, chemicals Port Kembla — Iron and steel, locomotive, aircraft, chemicals
Valparaiso — Oil refineries, wine industries Santiago — Wine industries
South Africa
Johannesburg — Gold mining
Kharkov — Machinery, engineering Kiev — Engineering Krevagrog — Iron and steel, ship building
Rotterdam — Marine engineering, shipbuilding Amsterdam — Diamond polish
Important Cities on River Banks (City – River)
London — Thames New York — Hudson Budapest — Danube Delhi — Yamuna Rome — Tiber Baghdad — Tigris Washington — Potamac Alexandria — Nile Montreal — Ottawa Paris — Seine Shanghai — Chang Jiang Vienna — Danube Bangkok — Menam Belgrade — Danube Bonn — Rhine Cairo — Nile Lahore — Ravi Linz — Danube Calcutta — Hooghly Moscow — Moskava Karachi — Indus Quebec — St. Lawrence Tokyo — Sumida Yangoon — Irrawady
Type Line (representing) Connects points of Equal.
Isobath equal depth
Isobar equal atmospheric pressure
Isobathy Therm depth of water with equal temperature
Isocheim equal mean winter temperature
Isodose equal intensity of radiation
Isohel equal amounts of sunshine
Isohyet equal precipitation
Isoplat equal acidity in precipitation
Isostere equal atmospheric density
Isothere equal mean summer temperature
Isodrosotherm equal dew point
Isogonal equal magnetic declination
Isohaline equal salinity
Isohume equal humidity
Isoneph equal amaunt of cloud cover
Isophene biological events occurs at the same time.
Isotach equal wind speed.
Isotherm equal temperature
Isogloss Separating linguistic features.

Major Crops, Geographical Conditions

CropClimatic Conditions SoilsLeading ProducerProduction in India
WheatCool and moderately moist during growing period and warm diy and shiny during harvesting period.
T: mild 13 to 19.
R: moderate 25 to 75; with irrigation in areas having R less than 25.
—Sandy loams, alluvial and black —Requires manuring every alternate year.—Cool Temperate Grassland Region is the world’s greatest producing region Reasons —Fertile soil —Sparsely populated and. therefore, large and abundant holdings —Suitable climate —Former USSR. U.S.A. China. India. Canada. Australia. Argentina —Wheat most important crop in Australia in terms of area, production and exports—The alluvial plains of Sutlej— Ganga basin comprising Punjab, ffaryana and Western Uttar Pradesh —Black soil region of Gujarat. Maharashtra. Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh —Varieties: Kalyana. Shera. Moti. sonalika. Lerma. Sonara- 64
Rice—Hot and moist —Flooding in early period of growth
T: average 27.
R: 100-150
—Loams with high silt and clay content as these prevent rain water from seeping to under ground.
—Constant use of fertilisers and manure.
Well-drained deep loam
Tropical Monsoon Region is the principal producing region along with Equatorial Lowland Region —China. India. Indonesia. Japan. Thailand —In Japan, principal crop—India second largest producer but still an importer.
—West Bengal largest producer. Bihar. Orissa. Assam. Coastal plains. Punjab. Haiyana. U.P. Production low because
—crop dependent upon rainfall. Varieties: Ratna. Padma. Jaya. etc..
MaizeHumid subtropical
T: 20 to 24 in summer. 8 to 14 in autumn
Rich fertileU.S.A. China. In U.S.A. maize is used as an animal feed.U.P. Bihar. Punjab. M.P.. Karnataka. A.P.. Varieties- sartaz. Deccan- 103. Arun
Barley—Similar to wheat
T: mild 13 to 19
R: moderate 75 to 100
—Grows in wide range of climate: hot. temperate, cold.
Can grow in poor sandy soilsFormer USSR. U.S.A. Canada. China. West European countriesU.P. Bihar. Rajasthan. M.P. Maharashtra.
PulsesModerate ClimateVarieties of SoilsIndia. China. U.S.AM.P.. Maharashtra. U.P.. Rajasthan
MilletsHot and semi-arid climate
T: 24 to 29
R: 50 to 75
Can grow in poor sandy soilsChina. India. Former USSRTamil Nadu. Maharashtra. Rajasthan.
Gujarat. Uttar Pradesh
CottonWarm moderately moist dry summer days in the later part.
T: 21 (average)
R: 60-110 (moderate)
Grown on variety of soils; light sandy, loams, heavy clay, bottom sands, yield increasing in that orderU.S.A. Former USSR. China. India. Egypt. Also these countries are largest producer of cotton seeds—India has largest acreage under cotton cultivation in the world, but she is fourth largest producer.
—Important growing areas: Black Cotton belt of Deccan consisting of Plateau of Malwa. Southern and north eastern Gujarat, almost whole of Maharashtra, northern Andhra Pradesh, north eastern and south eastern Karnataka. Central Tamil Nadu Sujata II is best quality cotton grown. India exports short staple cotton and imports long staple Cotton.
TobaccoTemp. -15-38° C Rainfall. – 50 (avg.)— regularly fertilized soilChina. Brazil. India. U.S.A.A.P.. Karnataka. Gujarat
JuteHot and moist
T: 24-27
R: 200 well distributed over
—Well-drained loamy and clayee —Delta and flood plains are bestIndia and Bangladesh hold virtual monopoly.—West Bengal (50 per cent of total output); Assam. Bihar. Orissa
the growing periodsince soil fertility is recouped every year by natural processMymensingh area in Bangladesh alone produces 70 per cent of raw jute production of the countiy.‘Mesta’ is a variety of Jute
Rubber—Hot and humid
T: 25-35°C
R: 175-250; well distributed throughout the year
Deep well- drained loamyWild rubber: Brazil and some other S. American countries Plantation rubber: SE Asian countries. Sri Lanka. India. Myanmar. SE Asian region possesss virtual monopoly Malaysia Indonesia. ThailandSouthern States: Kerala (90 per cent of total production). Tamil Nadu. Karnataka
SugarcaneTropical climate. 20-27°C. 75-120 cmAlluvial soilIndia. Brazil. Uganda. CubaU.P.. Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu
Coconut Palm—Hot wet
T: 24-28
R: over 200
Flourishes in coastal belts of tropical CountriesPhilippines.
Groundnut—High Temperature
—Moderate rainfall
clayey soilIndia. China. USAMaharashtra. Gujarat. AP.. Karnataka Tamil Nadu. Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh
Tea—Warm and humid throughout the year
T: 27 (average)
R: ffeayy. about 200 cm coming in frequent sh-owers
Fertile well drained soil rich in organic matter and iron—Virtual monopoly of Monsoon Region —India. China. Sri LankaNE India and S. India NE India: Assam Valley Surma Valley. Darjeeling. Terai. Tripura S. India: Tamil Nadu. Kerala.
Coffee—Warm to hot and moist
T: 21 to 27
R: 125 to 250. well distributed throughout the growing period
—Fertile, well drained soil, rich in iron and potash
—Terra Roxa soil is ideal
Brazil. Colombia (S. America); Ivory Coast (Africa)Darjeeling produces the best quality tea. —Karnataka. on Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu, on Cardamom Hills in Kerala
India. China.Largest producer black pepper-Kerala. red chilli- Andhra Pradesh. Turmeric – Tamil Nadu. Ginger- Kerala. Cardamom -Kerala. Safforn – Jammu & Kashmir

Important Tables


Mt. EverestNepal-TibetHimalayas
K2 (Godwin Austin)IndiaKarakoram
Nanga ParvatIndiaHimalayas
Nanda DeviIndiaHimalayas
McKinley (Denali)Alaska (U.S.A.)Rockies
Mt LoganCanadaRockies
Mt WhitneyUSARockies
Mt ElbruzRussiaCaucasus
Mont BlancFranceAlps
Mt KosciuskoAustraliaAustralian Alps


(Snow eater) KalbaisakhiWarmNorth India
BergWarmS Africa
LooWarmIndian sub-
Santa AnaWarmcontinent
SoutherlyColdSouthern California New South
HarmattanWarmGuinea Coast
MistralColdS E France
PamperoColdS. America
SimoonWarmArabian Peninsula
NorwesterWarmNew Zealand
BoraColdNorth Italy
SiroccoWarmSahara to Mediterranean Sea


NameLength (sq. km.)Country
1. Caspian Sea (Largest)3,71,800Russia-Iran
2. Superior82,350USA-Canada
3. Victoria69,500Kenya-Uganda
4. Aral64,500Russia
5. Hudson59,600USA-Canada
6. Michigan58,000USA
7. Tanganyika32,900Tanzania-Zambia
8. Baikal30,500Russia
9. Erie25,700USA-Canada
10. Winnipeg24,500Canada
11. Malawi23,310Malawi Mozambique
12. Ontario19,500USA-Canada
13. Chad16,300Nigeria-Chad
14. Eyre (Salt)9,580Australia
15. Rudolf9,065Kenya
16. Titica8,300Peru-Bolivia
17. Athabasca8,100Canada
18. Nicaragua8,000Nicaragua
19. Reindeer6,389Canada
20. Kuko5,957China
21. Torrens5,775Australia
22. Victoria Nyanza26,640East Africa
23. Nyasa30,044Africa


OceanWater area (%)Deepest pointDepth (m)
Pacific46Mariana Trench11,034
Atlantic23Puerto Rico Trench9,200
Indian20Java Trench7,450
7South Sandwich Trench7,236


Temperate GrasslandTropical Grassland
DownsAustraliaSelvasAmazon Basin
VeldSouth AfricaKagonPhilippines
CanteburyNew Zealand
TaigaPolar region


CountryName of shifting cultivationCountryName of shifting cultivation
Sri LankaChenaBrazilRoca


KafirS. AfricaBejaSudan
FellahEgyptKurdIran, Iraq
BoraSouth EastFullaniNigeria
YugeerNorth East AsiaBuryatsCentral Aisa
InuitN. AmericaYuit :Siberia
Ainu :JapanAlacalufChile
AndmaneseIndiaPapua New Guinea

BantuSouth AfricaBasquesSpain and France
BushmenKalahari desert in Africa, Botswana
DelawareUSAEskimosCanada & Greenland
GiriamaTanzaniaGurumbaPapua Newguines
KirghizKirghizir, Kazakhstan
MaoriNew zealandMasaiKenya
NayarKerela, IndiaOnaArgentina
PapuansNew GuineaPygmiesZaire Basin
Red IndianNorth AmericaSamoans :Samoa Island
TartarsSiberiaTutsiZaire, Rwanda, Burundi
VeddasSri LankaWashoUSA
YanaUSAZuluSouth Africa

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