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Chapter 11. Laws Related To Deprived And Disadvantaged Sections (Child Development & Pedagogy for CTET & TET Exams)

Laws Related To Deprived And Disadvantaged Sections

The deprived and disadvantaged sections of the society often lack opportunities to enjoy a quality life. Children belonging to these sections need proper attention and care. Many times, these children start working in factories or at shops at a very early age in order to earn their livelihood. The Indian government has introduced many provisions for protecting the rights of these children. Some of them are:
Right to education: The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6 to 14 years in such a manner as the State, by law, may determine.
Prohibition of employment of children in factories: No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed in work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.
The government has made various statutory provisions and schemes to protect the rights of these sections, such as:
► National Child Labour Projects (NCLP) Scheme
► National Resource Centre on Child Labour (NRCCL)
Addressing The Needs Of Children With Learning Difficulties, ‘Impairment’, Etc. India Has A Huge Population Of Disabled People. Although Many Schemes And Provisions Have Been Introduced For Disabled Children, They Are Always Neglected And Marginalised At The Ground Level. The Disability Differs From One Society To Another The Three Terms ‘Disability’, ‘Impairment’ And Handicap Have Often Been Used Synonymously. However, The World Health Organisation (WHO) Has Defined These Three Terms Differently.
► Impairment: It can be defined as any abnormality that is psychological or physical in nature.
► Disability: It can be defined as an individual’s inability to perform an activity as what is expected from a normal human being.
► Handicap: It refers to a disadvantage for a given individual due to an impairment or disability. As per the provisions of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995, of the Government of India, a person with a disability is a person suffering from not less than 40% of any disability as certified by a medical authority. The conditions included as disability are blindness, low vision, hearing impairment, loco motor disability, mental retardation, leprosy and mental illness.
Education and training of children with disabilities
Children with disabilities can be offered education through various models such as segregation, inclusive classroom, etc.
As per a recent research, in India, there are more than 3000 special schools. These schools have facilities for children with hearing disabilities, visual impairments, locomotor disabilities and cognitive deformities.
In rural India, there are no special schools; therefore, focus is laid on integrated education for children with special needs. Apart from this, the government has also taken measures towards providing training and rehabilitation education through Vocational Rehabilitation Centres in cities and districts for the rural population.
Legislative Actions
In the last decade of the 20th century, three legislations have been enacted for the welfare of children with disabilities. Let us discuss about these three legislations:
► Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act: This Act was passed in 1995 and covers various aspects of preventive and promotional rehabilitation, such as education, employment and vocational training, inclusion and independent living, etc.
► The Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992: This Act is under the control of the Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), which is responsible for conducting training courses for rehabilitation professionals. The Act was amended in 2000 according to which an additional responsibility was given to the RCI to promote research in rehabilitation and special education.
► The National Trust Act, 1999: This Act has a provision for promoting care and protection of people with disabilities such as autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, etc.
These three legislations together deal with all aspects related to rehabilitation of people with disabilities.
Concessions and Schemes of the Indian Government
In the Indian constitution, there are provisions for concessions for disabled people.
Let us discuss some of them:
► Travel: People with disabilities are eligible to avail 75% discount on the fare for all classes and 50% on season tickets. However, it is important for a person to present a valid certificate of disability.
► Communication: Blind literature and packages are exempted from postage and postal fees under prescribed conditions.
► Customs concessions: Customs duty is exempted in case of import of special learning and mobility aids for personal use.
► Income tax concessions: The parents of a disabled person are eligible for a deduction up to ` 40,000 in tax on their income.
► Bank loans and subsidy: People with disabilities can avail loans from central banks at lesser rates of interests.
Apart from this, the Government of India has started various schemes to promote rehabilitation of the disabled. Some of these schemes are vocational training schools, community-based rehabilitation projects, residential homes, leisure and recreation centres, etc.

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