The term ‘remedial teaching’ has been an integral part of the teaching-learning process for a long time.
In June 1963, a seminar was conducted by National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT) on the topic “Education of the Backward Children”. The seminar described a new educational formula to remove the problems of backward children and help them be at par with the other children in the class.
Remedial teaching is also known as compensatory or corrective teaching. It is an approach that focusses on the needs of an individual child. Remedial teaching helps backward children to cope up with their problems. Here, the teacher teaches the lesson in order to help slow learners understand what they couldn’t in the course of regular learning in the class.
In remedial teaching, after diagnosing the problematic areas of a child, the required remedial programme is framed for solving the problem and restoring self-confidence in the child.
The main principles of remedial teaching are as given below:
► Rapport: A good personal relation must be established between the teacher and the student at the very beginning; otherwise, no amount of hard work, either by the teacher or by the student, will be of any use.
► Motivation: Motivation is a key factor in remedial teaching. It is the duty of a teacher to make the lessons interesting for the students according to their age and level of understanding. For example, play and story-telling can be used to motivate young children.
► Individuality: Remedial teaching is fruitful if the students are targeted individually or in small groups. This will also ensure fast learning and progress.
► Involvement: Students must be fully involved in the remedial programme. The progress of the student has to be measured according to his/her previous level of understanding. The use of progress charts and report cards can prove to be helpful in this.
A few suggestions to make remedial teaching more effective are as given below:
► Educational psychologists working with training institutes should help schools organise remedial programmes.
► Training colleges should organise in-service programmes for teachers interested in remedial teaching at the primary and secondary levels of school.
► Remedial groups should be small so that individual attention can be assured. This type of teaching can be done either during school hours or after school hours.
► Teachers should make efforts to make a rapport with VIDEO LESSON students so as to help them in a better way.
► Children should not be made to feel disgraced for being part of such programmes. They should be made aware of the positive outcomes of such programmes.
The remedial teaching can be broadly classified into the following categories:
1. Teaching Process
(a) Tutorial System of Teaching
(b) Mastery Learning Strategy
(c) Supervised Study or Assimilation
2. Instructional Process or Remedial Instruction
(a) Branching Programme
(b) Adjusted Devices
(c) Action Research or Remedial Device Let us discuss some of them.
► Tutorial Strategy: This is a highly individualised teaching strategy where a small homogeneous group is formed by the teacher. The problems are solved through one-to-one interaction. The teacher is able to build a good rapport with the students as the group size is small. Weak learners can thus get proper guidance through tutorials, which are of the following three types:
i. Group Tutorial
ii. Practical Tutorial
iii. Supervision Tutorial
► Mastery Learning Strategy: This strategy was proposed by
B.S. Bloom (1968) and Block. It takes into account differences among learners with reference to their individual rates of learning.
► Supervised Study: This is a student-centred teaching strategy in which the students organise the content according to their learning speed and comfort, and the teacher helps them with any problem they face.
Supervised study is also known as assimilation.
► Branching Programme Strategy: It helps to bring a desirable change in the cognitive domain of the child. It describes a programming team, which tries to finish a defined task. This type of task or work can be completed within a short time period. Generally, branching is a taskbased strategy.
► Action Research: The term ‘action research’ was introduced by Stephen M. Corey. According to him, “The process by which practitioners attempt to study their decision and action is what a number of people have called action research.” It helps the teaching staff improve the quality of educational practices. It also improves the classroom teaching strategies.
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As we have already discussed, the concept of remedial teaching focusses on the education of backward children. The concept of exceptional children is a very important part of remedial teaching. Therefore, it is important to understand the concept in some detail. We will discuss exceptional children, their type, and the problems faced by such children.
An exceptional child deviates from a normal child at mental, physical, emotional or social level. W.M. Cruickshank defines a special child as “one who deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally so markedly from what is considered to be normal growth and development that he cannot receive maximum benefit from a regular school program and requires a special class or supplementary instruction and services.” On the basis of this definition, an exceptional child is grouped into different categories: physical, mental and social.
Generally, exceptional children can be classified into the following ways:
1. Mentally Exceptional
► Gifted children
► Backward children
► Mentally retarded children
2. Socially Exceptional
► Drug addicts
3. Physically Exceptional
► Deaf and dumb
► Crippled/disabled children
► Children with vision impairment
► Children with defective speech
The children who are unable to keep pace with the class in which they study are considered to be backward. These children are weak in studies and get poor marks in the exams.
According to Burt, “A backward child is the one who, in the middle of his school career, is unable to do the work of the class below that which is normal for his age.”
The main characteristics of backward children are as given below:
► A backward child is a slow learner in his/her class.
► Educationally, he/she is not able to attain what he/she should.
► He/she finds it difficult to keep pace with the normal school work.
► The IQ level of these children is always below that of a normal child of the same age.
The term ‘special education’ includes all the aspects of education that are applied on exceptional children. The National Policy of Education (NPE, 1986) suggested the following measures for the education of exceptional children:
► There should be at least one special school in every district of the country for special education of exceptional children.
► NPE assumes that each special school will require 8 to 10 special education teachers. All these teachers are to be trained according to norms or categories of exceptional children. NPE also suggested that this task could be undertaken by the Ministry of Human Resources.
► NPE suggested the opening of 5000 special schools at the sub-district level during the 8th Five-Year Plan (FYP). There was another proposal to increase the number of special education schools to 10,000 during the 9th FYP. Only 400 special schools were established till the 7th FYP.
► Vocational training centres also need to be developed for the education of exceptional children. These centres provide opportunity to students to choose vocations of their interest.
► NCERT should take the responsibility for preparing the curriculum for special schools and supply the curriculum guides and teacher’s handbooks to these schools.
The Ministry of Welfare and electronic media can collaborate to produce material for improving the learning of exceptional children. In other words, technology should be used in special education.
Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
15. While translating a subject and using the translation in the mainstream curriculum, the benefit is
(1) promoting national identity.
(2) enriching linguistic capability and appreciation.
(3) enabling teachers who are not competent in the mainstream language to take classes.
(4) standardising cultural identity.
1. The teacher’s role is shifting from “sage on the stage” to “guide on the side”. Technology integration helps this process when
(1) systems store more data and administer tests individually to students.
(2) students actively search for and explore answers instead of receiving standard inputs.
(3) easy retrieval of large quantities of stored data is used to facilitate preparation of notes.
(4) assessment of students’ online inputs is done quickly without supervision, at any time.
2. The aim of mechanical drills is to
(1) improve the fluency of learners.
(2) improve the accuracy of learners.
(3) strengthen the role learning capacity of learners.
(4) encourage creative use of language among learners.
3. Alexia affects
(1) Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).
(3) Central Nervous System (CNS).
4. A ‘schemata’ is a
(1) personalised method of advancement through a programme of study that provides individualised attention to students according to their own pace.
(2) statement about the behaviour to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter.
(3) mental model of aspects of the world or of the self that is structured to facilitate the processes of cognition and perception.
(4) teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson.
5. Which of the following is not considered a challenge in developing the English language in India?
(1) Ambiguities in comprehending the language
(2) Lack of facilities
(3) Lack of proper words while translating from English to Hindi or vice versa
(4) People’s unfamiliarity with English
6. Language acquisition
(1) is the memorisation and use of necessary vocabulary
(2) involves a systematic approach to the analysis and comprehension of grammar as well as to the memorisation of vocabulary
(3) refers to the process of learning a native or a second language because of the innate capacity of the human brain
(4) is a technique intended to simulate the environment in which children learn their native language
7. Match the following:
i. Sub-vocalisation a. Tendency to put the finger on words as they are read in order to improve concentration of the reader
ii. Regression b. Impairment of the CNS
iii. Alexia c. Involves saying words in your head while reading
iv. Finger pointing d. Tendency of the eyes to move backwards over printed material instead of moving forward when reading something.
i ii iii iv
(1) d c a b
(2) c d b a
(3) a b c d
(4) b a d c
8. According to RTE, Pupil-Teacher Ratio (PTR) at the upper-primary level should be
9. Sub-vocalisation is a
(1) psychological problem
(2) pronunciation problem
(3) neurological problem
(4) reading problem
10. What type of questions promote thinking skills in children?
(1) Personal response questions
(2) Closed-ended questions
(3) Factual questions
(4) Questions based purely on the reading text
11. According to DISE, the Pupil-Teacher Ratio (PTR) at the primary level is
12. Under the Constructivist Approach to language learning, learners are encouraged to
(1) avoid errors completely
(2) practise language drills mechanically
(3) learn the rules by rote
(4) discover the rules from examples
13. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 has included all-round development of the child’ as one of the aims of education because
(1) every child grows rapidly between six to fourteen years
(2) proper health care is essential
(3) it nurtures the physical, mental and emotional aspects of the child
(4) it ensures that every child is a part of a workforce
14. When young learners seem to lose interest in a lesson, the teacher should
(1) allow them to go out and play
(2) ask them to sleep for a while
(3) tell a story or conduct an interesting activity
(4) ask them to sit quietly for some time
15. Providing learning support to pupils who lag far behind their counterparts in school performance includes
(1) giving more activities for language practice
(2) providing extra notes and coaching
(3) allowing them to complete assignments without time limits
(4) initially adapting to school curriculum and teaching strategies