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Chapter 10. Population : 2011 Census (Geography Notes)

POPULATION : 2011 CENSUS

The study of population is called Demography.
Population Trend in India
➤ 1891-1921 Period of stagnant population
➤ 1921-1951 Period of steady growth
➤ 1951-1981 Period of high growth
➤ 1981-2011 Period of declining rate
➤ The year, 1921 is known as the year of Great Divide.
National Population Policy 2000
This policy outlined the following objectives to be achieved
➤ To lower down the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to achieve replacement level by 2010.
➤ Population stabilisation by 2045.
➤ Reduce MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate) to below 100 per 100000 births.
➤ Reduce IMR (Infant Mortality Rate) to below 30 per thousand live births.
➤ Making school education compulsory.
➤ Promote delayed marriage of girls.
➤ Promote and control communicable diseases.
Demographics
➤ First synochronized census in India took place in 1881. Since 1901, it has been taking place after every decade.
➤ Census 2011 is the 15th Census, and 7th after Independence.
➤ The slogan of census 2011 is “Our Census, Our Future”.
➤ India was the first country to adopt family planning in world.
➤ According to the census 2011, there are 50 million plus cities in India as compared to 35 in census 2001.
➤ ‘Cafeteria approach’ to family planning was adopted during Janta Party Government Rule in 1978.
CENSUS 2011
➤ Total Population of India — 1,21,08,54,977
➤ Sex Ratio (females per thousand males) — 943
➤ Crude Birth Rate (2009) — 22.5
➤ Crude Death Rate (2009) — 7.3
➤ Infant Mortality Rate (2006) — 57 per thousand live births
➤ Maternal Morality Rate — 407 per lakh live births
➤ Literacy rate of the country — 73 per cent. (Male — 80.9 per cent, Female — 64.6 per cent)
➤ State with highest literacy — Kerala (94.0%)
➤ State with lowest literacy — Bihar (61.8%)
➤ State with highest female literacy — Kerala (92.1%)
➤ State with lowest female literacy — Bihar (51.5%)
➤ State having highest decadal growth — Meghalaya (27.9%)
➤ State having highest Population — Uttar Pradesh 19,98,12,341
➤ State having lowest Population — Sikkim 6,10,577
➤ State with highest Population Density — Bihar (1106)
➤ State with lowest Population Density — Arunachal Pradesh (17)
➤ State having highest Sex Ratio — Kerala (1,084)
➤ State having lowest Sex Ratio — Haryana (879)
➤ India accounts for a meagre 2.4 per cent of the world surface area of 135.79 million sq km.
➤ India supports 17.5 per cent of the World Population.
➤ Life Expectancy at Birth — 63.5 years, Male — 62.6 years, Female —64.2 years

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