Chapter 10. Law and Social Justice

Law and Social Justice
• Laws are necessary for many situations, whether it is market, office, or factory to protect people from unfair practices.
• Private companies work for profits, and they do not follow government guidelines that cause harm to workers and environment due to their working conditions.
• A major role of government is to control activities of private companies by making, enforcing, and upholding laws to prevent unfair practices and ensure social justice.
• Right against Exploitation is a Fundamental Right in Indian Constitution which says that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.
• Constitution lays down ‘no child below age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mines or engaged in any other hazardous employment.’
• In 2016, Parliament amended Child Labour [Prohibition and Regulation] Act, 1986, & made a complete prohibition on employment of child labour [i.e., a person below age of 14 years] in any establishment whether hazardous or not.
• Supreme Court held that Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of constitution, and it includes Right to Enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full enjoyment of life.
• government is responsible for setting up laws and procedures that can check pollution, clean rivers, and introduce heavy fines for those who pollute.

Bhopal Gas Tragedy
• world’s worst industrial tragedy took place in Bhopal 38 years ago.
• Union Carbide [UC] an American company had a factory in city in which it produced pesticides.
• On 2 December 1984 at midnight, methyl-isocyanate [MIC], a highly poisonous gas started leaking from this UC plant.
• More than 8,000 people were dead within three days.
• Those who survived, many developed severe respiratory disorders, eye problems, and other disorders, children developed peculiar abnormalities.
• tragedy happened because company ignored guidelines to cut costs.

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