Chapter 1. Understanding Diversity

Inequality
• Inequality comes when a person does not have resources and opportunities that are available to other persons.
• The caste system is an example of inequality.
• The caste system divided society into different groups depending upon work that people did and they were supposed to remain in those groups. Example – potters only learnt pottery.
• This system was considered irreversible, and it created a situation of inequality.

Diversity
• People become diverse when they get influenced from different regions and cultures.
• The history of many places shows us that different cultural influences have helped to shape life and culture there.
• Regions became very diverse because of their unique histories.
• Diversity comes out when people adapt their lives to geographical area in which they live.
• Adaptation of people living in mountain areas will be different from people living near sea. Example – Mumbai and Kashmir.
• Therefore, history & geography both play roles in cultural life of a region.
• The influence of diverse culture is related to our present-day behaviour. Cultural tradition changes when we move from one place to another, and we adapt according to that place.

Unity In Diversity
• India is a country of many diversities.
• People in India speak different languages, celebrate different festivals, practise different religions.
• India’s diversity is a source of its strength.
• When British ruled India, women & men from different cultural, religious & regional backgrounds came together to oppose them.
• India’s freedom movement had thousands of people of different backgrounds in it. They all came together and fought for freedom struggle.
• Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru came up with phrase ‘Unity in Diversity’ to describe country’s diversity.
• ‘The Discovery of India’ is a book written by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru which shows that India is diverse but united.
• Songs and symbols that emerged during freedom struggle remind of our country’s rich tradition of respect for diversity.
• The Indian flag was used as a symbol of protest against British by people everywhere.
• India’s national anthem, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, is another expression of unity of India.

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