Chapter 1. Geography as a Discipline

Overview Geography as an Integrating Discipline
• Geography is a discipline of synthesis. It attempts spatial synthesis, whereas history attempts temporal synthesis.
• present world is being perceived as a global village. distances have been reduced by better means of transportation increasing accessibility.
• Geography helps in understanding reality in totality in its spatial perspective. Geography, thus, not only takes note of differences in phenomena from place to place but it rather integrates them holistically which may be different in other places or aspects.
• In India, Himalayas have acted as great barriers and provided protection but passes provided routes to migrants and invaders from Central Asia.

Physical Geography and Natural Sciences
• traditional physical geography is linked with geology, meteorology, hydrology & pedology, and thus, geomorphology, climatology, oceanography and soil geography respectively have a very close link with natural sciences as these derive their data from these sciences.
• Maps are prepared through artistic imagination. Making sketches, mental maps and cartographic work require proficiency in arts.

Geography and Social Sciences
• Every discipline has a philosophy which is raison d’etre for that discipline.
• Philosophy provides roots to a discipline and in process of its evolution, it experiences distinct historical processes.
• Maps are very effective tools for geographers in which tabular data is converted into visual form to bring out spatial pattern.

Branches of Geography
• study of every subject is done according to some approach.
• major approaches to study geography have been [i] Systematic and [ii] Regional.
• Dualism is one of main characteristics of geography which got introduced from very beginning. This dualism depended on aspect emphasised in study.

Branches of Geography [Based on Systematic Approach]
(1) Physical Geography
• Geomorphology is devoted to study of landforms, their evolution and related processes.
• Climatology encompasses study of structure of atmosphere and elements of weather and climate and climatic types and regions.
(2) Human Geography
• Social/Cultural Geography encompasses study of society and its spatial dynamics as well as cultural elements contributed by society.
• Population and Settlement Geography [Rural and Urban] studies population growth, distribution, density, sex ratio, migration & occupational structure.
(3) Biogeography
• Plant Geography studies spatial pattern of natural vegetation in their habitats.

Branches of Geography [Based on Regional Approach]
• Regional Studies/Area Studies involves Macro, Meso & Micro Regional Studies.
• Regional Planning involves Country/Rural and Town/ Urban Planning.
• Regional Development
• Regional Analysis: There are two aspects which are common to every discipline namely philosophy and methods and techniques. Branches of Geography [Based on Regional Approach] Meso Regional Studies Regional Development Regional Studies/ Area Studies Regional Analysis Regional Planning Macro Regional Studies Micro Regional Studies Country/Rural Planning Town/Urban Planning

Physical Geography And Its Importance
• Landforms provide base on which human activities are located. plains are utilised for agriculture.
• Climate influences our house types, clothing & food habits. climate has a profound effect on vegetation, cropping pattern, livestock farming and some industries.
• Temperature and precipitation ensure density of forests and quality of grassland. In India, monsoonal rainfall sets agriculture rhythm in motion.

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