INDIAN GEOGRAPHY MISC
|Tribal Group||Found in||Tribal Group||Found in|
|Adivasi||AP, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Some Northeastern States, West Bangal, Andaman and Nicobar||Khasi||Meghalaya|
|Apatani||Arunachal Pradesh||Kol||Madhya Pradesh|
|Baiga||Madhya Pradesh||Kolam||Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telengana, MP|
|Bakarwal||Jammu and Kashmir||Kota||Karnataka|
|Bhil||M.P and Rajasthan||Kuki||Mizoram|
|Birhor||M.P and Bihar||Lahaula||Himachal Pradesh|
|Chenchuas||Telengana, Karnataka||Lushai||Mizoram, Manipur|
|Garo||Meghalaya||Munda||West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattishgarh|
|Gond||M.P and Bihar||Nishi||Assam|
|Irula||Tamil Nadu||Oraon||MP, Bihar and Odisha, Chhotanagpur, WB,|
|Jaintia||Meghalaya||Onges||Andaman & Nicobar|
|Jarawa||Andamans||Singpho||Assam, Arunachal Pradesh|
|Kanikar||Tamil Nadu and Kerala||Santhal||WB, Odisha & Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam|
|Sentinelese||Andaman & Nicobar||Wancho||Arunachal Pradesh|
|Shompen||Andaman & Nicobar||Warli||Maharashtra, Daman and Diu, Bihar, Madhaya Pradesh, West Bengal Dadra, Nagar Haveli|
Major Industries And Its Centres
➤ Cotton Textiles : Mumbai, Sholapur, Nagpur, in Maharashtra; Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara in Gujarat and Indore in M.P.; Chennai, Madurai and Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu; Kanpur in U.P. and Kolkata in West Bengal.
➤ Jute Textiles : West Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, U.P. and M.P.
➤ Silk Textiles : Assam, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Odisha, U.P., M.P., W. Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra and Punjab.
➤ Woollen Textiles : The chief centres of woollen textiles are Punjab, U.P., Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal.
➤ Sugar Industry : U.P., Bihar and some centres are there in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Punjab.
➤ Cement Industry : M.P., Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, U.P. and Odisha have some factories also.
➤ Paper Industry : West Bengal, Maharashtra, U.P., Bihar, Odisha, Punjab, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
➤ Iron and Steel Industry : Jamshedpur, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Durgapur, Hirapur, Kulti, Burnpur (West Bengal), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhadrawati (Karnataka) and Neyveli (Tamil Nadu).
➤ Leather Industry : Chennai, Agra, Kolkata, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai.
➤ Aluminium : Alwaye (Kerala), Hirakund (Odisha), Muri (Jharkhand), Renukoot (U.P.), Bailur (W. Bengal), Koyna Mettur (Tamil Nadu) and Odisha.
➤ Matches : Bareilly, Kolkata, Chennai, Gwalior and Hyderabad.
➤ Photo Film Industry : Octacamund (Tamil Nadu).
➤ Glass : Ferozabad, Shikohabad, Naini, Howrah, Bangalore, Bahjoi, and Belgaon.
➤ Chemical Industry : Delhi, Pimpri, Pune, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Rishikesh, Bangalore and Amritsar.
➤ Rubber-Goods Industry : Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ballabhgarh.
➤ Locomotive Industry : Chittaranjan (West Bengal), Varanasi in U.P., Perambur (Tamil Nadu).
➤ Automobile Industry : Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Jamshedpur.
➤ Antibiotic Industry : Rishikesh, Pimpri and Delhi.
➤ Aircraft Manufacturing Industry : Bangalore, Kanpur, Nasik, Koraput and Hyderabad.
➤ Fertilisers Industry : Durgapur, Kanpur, Foolpur (Uttar Pradesh), Haldia, Namrup, Rourkela, Vadodara, Barauni, Vishakhapatnam, Gorakhpur, etc.
➤ Plastic Industry : Mumbai, Kolkata, Amritsar, Kanpur, Hyderabad and Coimbatore.
➤ Petro-Chemical Industry : Vadodara and Mumbai Bongaigoan, Assam.
Towns Associated With Industries
➤ Agra : Stoneware, leather, carpets and marbles.
➤ Ahmedabad : Cotton-textiles.
➤ Aligarh : Cutlery, locks and dairy-industries.
➤ Ambala : Scientific goods.
➤ Amritsar : Cloth-printing, carpets, woollen goods, shawls.
➤ Bangalore : Watches, telephone, aircraft industry.
➤ Bareilly : Rubber factory, match factory, wood work.
➤ Chennai : Integral coach factory, leather, cigarette, cotton.
➤ Mumbai : Chemicals, oil refineries, fertilisers, film industry, woollen goods, cotton manufacturing.
➤ Chittaranjan : Electrical locomotives.
➤ Churk : Cement.
➤ Cochin : Coffee, coconut, oil, ship-building.
➤ Dalmianagar : Cement.
➤ Delhi : Textiles, chemicals, electronics, sewing machines.
➤ Dhariwal : Woollen goods.
➤ Ferozabad : Glass-bangles.
➤ Hardwar : Heavy electricals.
➤ Jamshedpur : Iron and steel works, train coaches locomotives.
➤ Jalandhar : Sports articles and surgical goods.
➤ Jaipur : Ivory work, brass work, jewellery, pottery, cloth painting.
➤ Kolkata : Iron and steel, jute, paper, pottery.
➤ Kanpur : Leather, cotton, aircraft factories, woollen mills, soap, iron, flour mills.
➤ Kolar : Gold-fields.
➤ Lucknow : Embroidery, gold, silver, lac work.
➤ Ludhiana : Hosiery, cycle.
➤ Mirzapur : Carpet, pottery, stoneware and brass.
➤ Moradabad : Brassware, cutlery, enamel industry.
➤ Karnataka : Sandalwood oil, ivory work, silk goods.
➤ Renukoot : Hindustan Aluminium Works.
➤ Saharanpur : Paper mill.
➤ Srinagar : H.M.T. factory, woodwork, embroidery, paper machine, woolen shawls.
➤ Surat : Cotton textiles.
➤ Tarapur : Atomic power plant.
➤ Titagarh : Paper and jute.
➤ Trombay : Oil refineries, atomicreactors.
➤ Varanasi : Diesel-locomotives, brass-wares, lac bangles.
➤ Vishakhapatnam : Ship-bulding.
Lakes Of India
Andhra Pradesh Kolleru Lake, Pulicat Lake
Arunachal Pradesh Sela Lake, Gango Lake
Assam Chandubi Lake, Deepor Beel, Son Beel
Bihar Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary
Chandigarh Sukhna Lake
Gujarat Hamirsar Lake, Kankaria, Nal Sarovar, Narayan Sarovar, Sardar Sarovar, Thol lake, Vastrapur lake.
Haryana Badkhala Lake, Blue Bird Lake, Brahma Sarovar, Damdama Lake, Karna Lake, Sannihit Sarovar, Surajkund, Tilgar Lake.
Himachal Pradesh Maharana Pratap Sagar, Pandoh Lake, Gobind Sagar, Renuka Lake, Macchial Lake, Khajjar Lake, Kumarwah Lake, Prashar Lake, Dehnasar Lake, Nako Lake, Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal, Dhankar Lake, Dashair, Bringhu Lake, Manimahesh Lake, Ghadhasaru Lake, Mahakali Lake, Lama Dal, Chander Naun, Kareri Lake, Rewalsar
Jammu and Kashmir Anchar Lake, Dal Lake, Manasbal Lake, Mansar Lake, Pangong Tso Sheshnag Lake, Tso Moriri, Wular Lake
Karnataka Hebbal Lake, Ulsoor Lake, Bellandur Lake, Agara Lake, Shanti Sagar, Karanji, Honnamana Kere, Pampa Sarovar.
Kerala Ashtamudi Lake, Kuttanand Lake, Manaanchira, Padinjarechira, Paravcirkayal, Punnamada Lake, Shasthamkotta Lake, Vadakkechira, Vanchikulam, Vellayani Lake.
Madhya Pradesh Bhojtal, Lower Lake, Upper Lake, Tawa Reservoir
Maharashtra Gorewada Lake, Khindsi Lake, Lonar Lake, Pashan, Powai Lake, Rankala, Salim Ali Lake, Shivasagar Lake, Tolao Poli, Upvan Lake, Venna Lake
Manipur Loktak Lake (Keibul Lamjao National Park)
Meghalaya Umiam Lake
Mizoram Palak dil, Tam dil
Odisha Anshupa Lake, Chilka Lake, Kanjia Lake
Puducherry Bahour Lake
Punjab Harike Wetland, Kanjili Wetland, Ropar Wetland
Rajasthan Ana Sagar, Balsamand Lake, Dhebar Lake, Jaisamand Lake, Jal Mahal Lake, Kalyana Lake, Lake Foy Sagar, Loonkaransar, Nakki Lake, Pachpadra Lake, Pushkar Lake, Rajsamand Lake, Ramgarh Lake, Sambhar Lake, Talwara Lake, Ummed Sagar.
Sikkim Gurudongmar Lake, Khecheopalri Lake, Lake Cholamu, Lake Tsongmo
Tamil Nadu Berijam Lake, Chembaram bakkam Lake, Kaliveli Lake, Kodaikanal Lake, Ooty lake, Perumal Eri, Red Hills Lake, Sholavaram Lake, Singanallur Lake, Veeranam Lake
Telangana Durgam cheruvu, Himayat Sagar, Hussain Sagar, Mir Alam Tank, Osmar Sagar, Shamirpet Lake
Uttar Pradesh Barua Sagar Tal, Belasagar Lake, Amakhera Lake, Keetham Lake, Ramgarh Tal Lake, Bhadital Lake, Sheikha Lake, Nachan Tal
Uttarakhand Skeleton Lake, Sattal, Bhimatal, Nainital, Naukuchiatal, Dodital
West Bengal Debar Lake, East Calcutta Wetlands, Jore Pokhri, Mirik Lake, Rabindra Sarobar, Rasikbil, Santragacchi Lake, Senchal Lake.
Vantang Water falls : Mizoram
Nohkalikai Water falls : Shilong
Sadthum Water falls : Meghalaya
Karansuri Water falls : Meghalaya
Tyarchi Water falls : Meghalaya
Munri Water falls : Meghalaya
Elephant Water falls : Meghalaya
Akashiganga Water falls: Assam
Champawati Water falls: Assam
Shivakundra Water falls: Assam
Arvalam Falls : Goa
Dudhsagar Falls : Goa
Karnataka Apsarakonda Falls, Abbey Falls, Barkana Falls, Bennehole Falls, Burude Falls, Chunchana katte Falls, Chelavaram Falls, Dabbe Falls, Dondole Falls, Gokak Falls, Godchinamalaki Falls, Hebbe Falls, Irupa Falls, Jog Falls, Lalguli Falls, Mallali Falls, Nisargadhana Falls, Shanti Falls
Kerala Ananthoni Falls, Kaalakkayam Falls, Meenmutty Falls, Nyayanad Falls, Soochipare Falls
Tamil Nadu Aintharuvi Falls, Catherine Falls, Elk Falls, Fairy Falls, Fairy Falls, Hogenakal Falls, Kolakambai Falls, Palar Falls, Perriyar Falls, Suruli Falls, Vattaparai Falls,
Maharashtra Amboli Ghat Falls, Dudhsar Falls, Dhobi Falls, Lingamala Falls, Mandakini Falls, Ramtirtha Falls
Madhya Pradesh Dhuandhar Falls, Dugdhadhara Falls, Kabildhar Falls, Pandav Falls, Pawa Falls, Keoti Falls
Jharkhand Dassam Falls, Dharagiri Falls, Gur Falls, Hirni Falls, Lodh Falls, Sits Falls, Hundru Falls
Himachal Pradesh Budla Waterfalls, Bhagsu Waterfalls, Badri Waterfalls, Chadwick Waterfalls, Rahla Waterfalls, Sissu Waterfalls, Machhrial Waterfalls
Bihar Kakolat Falls, Madhuvdhandam Falls, North Tank Falls
Chhattisgarh Chitrakoot Falls, Teerathgarh Falls
Tribes And Racial Groups
➤ The present day population of the Indian Sub-continent is supposed to have affinity to the following racial groups :
1. The Negrito
2. The Proto-Australoids
3. The Mongoloids
4. The Mediterraneans
5. The Brachycephalic
6. The Nordics
Top Ten Longest National Highways Of India
1 NH-7(44) 2,369 Varanasi- Kanyakumari Varanasi Jabalpur Nagpur Hyderabad BengaluruMadurai Kanyakumari
2. NH-6 1,949 Hajira – Kolkata HajiraSurat Dhule NagpurRaipurSambalpur Kolkata
3. NH-5 1,533 Cuttak-Chennai Bhubaneswar Vishakhapatnam Vijayawada Nellore Chennai
➤ India has one of the largest road networks in the world. The total length of the roads is approximately 46.9 lakh km.
➤ National Highways is the responsibility of the central Government. These have about 96,214 km length, according to the survey of India 2014-15 and comprise only 2% of the total traffic.
➤ The longest NH in India is 375 km long NH–44(Srinagar – Kanyakumari).
➤ The new NH-44 is the combination of NH – 1A, 1, 2, 3, 7, 26 and NH – 75.
➤ It passes through 12 states J & K, HP, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, UP, MP, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
➤ Earlier NH-7 was the largest highway of India. (Varanasi-Kanya Kumari : 2369 km).
➤ NH-7 passes through UP (120 km), MP (504 km), Maharashtra (232 km), Telangana (504 km.), Andhra Pradesh (250 km.), Karnataka (125 km) Tamil Nadu (627 km).
Transport System In India
➤ NH 1 & 2 is called G.T. Road.
➤ Jawahar Tunnel is located in NH1A.
➤ 47A is the smallest highway of India. Its length is only 6 km. This is in Kerala.
➤ NH-15 passes through the desert of Rajasthan.
➤ Recently NH-7 renamed as NH-44.
➤ Golden Quadrilateral (5846 km) : High quality road joining the four megacities of the country (Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai) is called as Golden Quadrilateral Connecting National Highways.
(1) Delhi-Kolkata : NH-2
(2) Mumbai -Delhi : NH-8
(3) Mumbai -Chennai : NH-4
(4) Chennai-Kolkata : NH -5
North South and East-West corridor
➤ Under National Highways Development Project (NGDP) North- South corridor will join from Srinagar to Kanyakumari and East-west corridor from Silchar to Porbandar composing and laning of 7522 km of National Highway.
Length of North-South corridor and East-West corridor is 4,000 km and 3,500 km respectively.
➤ Jhansi is the junction of North- South and East-West Corridors.
Rank National Length In Between Major cities on Route Highway km.
4. NH-5 – Pathankot-Samakhioli Pathankot Amritsar Bhatinda Bikaner JaisalmerSamakhioli
5. NH-2 – Delhi-Dankuni (Kolkata) Faridabad Mathura Agra Allahabad Varanasi Aurangabad DhanbadDurgapur Kolkata
6. NH-8 – Delhi-Mumbai Delhi GurgaonJaipur UdaipurGandhinagarAhmedabad VadodaraSurat Silvassa Mumbai
7. NH-17 – Panvel-Kochi Panvel PanajiAnkola Manglore Kozhikode Kochi
8. NH-4 – Mumbai – Chennai Mumbai PuneKolhapur Bangalore Vellore Chennai
9. NH-3 – Agra – Mumbai Agra GwaliorIndore Mumbai
10. NH-31 – Barhi-Guwahati Barhi BegusaraiDalkhola SiliguriKokrajhar Guwahati
➤ State Highway is the responsibilty of State Government.
➤ At Present, the total length of State Highways is 1,42,687 km.
➤ State having maximum roads (length wise) Maharashtra > Uttar Pradesh > Odisha
➤ State having maximum road density is Kerela.
➤ State having minimum road density is Jammu and Kashmir.
➤ In UTs Delhi has maximum road density.
➤ Manali-Leh passes through Bara Lacha La is world’s highest motorable road.
➤ Asia’s biggest rop road way is in Gharahwal (Uttrakhand) this joins Joshmath and Auli. Its total length is 500 m.
Border Road Organisation (BRO)
➤ It is istablished in 1960.
➤ It is under Home Ministry, Central Government.
➤ It is established for the development of roads of strategic importance in the northern and north eastern borders of the country.
➤ At present this organisation is constructing bridge, airfield and flats.
➤ BRO made roads in naxalite areas of Maharashtra under ‘Project Hirak’.
➤ Road were made by BRO in Bhutan under ‘Project Dantak’.
➤ These highways are formed under the agreement of the Economic and Social Commission on Asia and Pacific (ESCAP).
➤ These highways are financed by the World Bank.
➤ It connects India with its neighbouring countries .
➤ They are of two types :
1. The main arterial routes linking the capitals of neighbouring countries like _____.
(i) The Lahore – Mandalay (Myannar) route passing through Amritsar- Delhi-Agra-Kolkata-Golaghat-Imphal.
(ii) The Agra-Gwalior-Hyderabad-Bangalore-Dhanushkodi road.
(iii) The Barhi-Kathmandu road.
2. Route linking major cities—
(i) Agra-Mumbai road (ii) Delhi-Multan road
(iii) Bangalore-Chennai road (iv) Golaghat-Ledo road.
Super National Highway Project
➤ Connecting major ports and cities in the country.
➤ To increase the traffic flow and accelerate the means of transport. These are —
(i) Super National Highway No.1 (Maharaja Agrasen marg) : Delhi- Kanyakumari via Jaipur-Udaipur-Ahmedabad-Mumbai-Pune- Bangaluru-Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram.
(ii) Super National Highway No. 2 (Guru Gobind Singh Marg) : Amritsar to Chennai via Chandigarh-Delhi-Kanpur-Patna-Dhanbad-Kolkata- Bhubaneshwar-Channai.
(iii) Super National Highway No. 3 (Sant Ravi Das Marg) : Pathankot to Jalandhar.
(iv) Super National Highway No. 4 (Ravindra Nath Tagore Marg) : Patna to Guwahati
(v) Super National Highway No. 5 (Bhagwan Mahavir Marg) : Delhi to Bengaluru via Agra-Nagpur-Hyderabad
(vi) Super National Highway No. 6 (Bhagwan Parshuram Marg) :
Mumbai to Dhanbad via Nagpur-Rourkela
(vii) Super National Highway No. 7 (Swami Dayanand Marg) : Bengaluru to Chennai
➤ The ministry of civil Aviation is responsible for the formulation of national policies and programmes for the development and regulation of civil aviation.
➤ There are 33 international and 450 airports in India (2016)
➤ In the Public sector there are Air India, Indian Airlines, Air India Charters Ltd., and Alliance Air.
➤ The Air India was constitued in 1947.
➤ In 1952 ; the Planning Commission recommended the nationalization of Air Transport Industry which was effected in 1953 with the creation of nationalized corporations.
➤ Indian Airlines was setup under the Air Corporation Act, 1953 with its Head Quarters at Delhi.
➤ Director General of Civil Aviation is the regulatory body for civil aviation in India.
➤ Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, Hyderabad is the first green Airport in Asia.
➤ Airport Authority of India was formed in 1995.
➤ AAI in responsible for providing safe and efficient Air Traffic Services; communication and navigational aids at all the airports.
Greenfield Airport and Brownfiled
Airport : Greenfield Airport is a new airport built from scratch in a new location because the existing airport is unable to meet the projected requirement of traffic.
The project which are modified or upgraded from existing facilities are called ‘brown field projects’.
➤ Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
➤ They provide 1% of total transport
➤ Central Inland water ways Authority was set up in 1986.
➤ The head office of the authority is located at Noida.
➤ There are two types of water ways— (1) Inland Water Ways, (2) Maritime Transport
Inland Water Ways : Navigated by river, canals and lakes
➤ Waterway from Haldia to Allahabad, was declared as NW1 by the central government in 22 October, 1986.
➤ There are 13 major and 185 medium and small airports in India.
➤ Major ports are under the jurisdiction of the central government while the minor and intermediate ports are managed and maintained by the respective state governments
➤ Minor ports are maximum in Maharashtra.
➤ Vishakhapattanam is the deepest land lock port in India.
➤ Chennai is the oldest artificial harbour.
➤ Ennore is India’s first corporate port.
➤ Natural port on west coast
➤ It is the biggest port of India in terms of cargo handling.
➤ It makes Mumbai the gatway of India.
➤ It handles 1/5th of India’s foreign trade.
➤ It is a tidal port
➤ Developed to release pressure on the Mumbai port.
➤ It is located on eastern end of Gulf of Kachchh.
➤ It is located in Goa.
➤ It has a naval base.
➤ It is India’s leading iron-ore port.
4. New Mangalore
➤ Called the ‘Gateway of Karnataka’.
➤ Located at southern tip of Karnataka coast.
➤ Handles the export of iron-ore from Kundremukh.
➤ It is a natural harbour.
➤ It is located on Kerala coast.
➤ It is a ship building centre
➤ Handles tea, coffee and spices.
➤ It come into existence during the region of Pandya kings.
➤ It is located in Tamilnadu.
➤ Artificial deep sea harbour.
➤ Developed to reduce pressure of traffic on Chennai Port.
➤ It is the latest port.
➤ It is country’s first corporate port.
➤ Oldest artificial harbour.
➤ Handles petroleum products, fertilizers and iron-ore.
➤ Deepest land lock port
➤ Export iron ore.
➤ Located in Andhra pradesh.
➤ Located on Odisha coast along the Bay of Bengal.
➤ Handles iron ore and coal.
➤ It is deep water sea port.
➤ It is a riverine port.
➤ Located on the bank of river Hooghly in West Bengal.
➤ This port located in West Bengal.
➤ This port has made for reducing pressure on Kolkata port.
➤ It is the harbour for those largesized ship which do not reach Kolkata.
➤ Handles petroleum products, coal, iron and steel.
13. Jawaharlal Nehru Port
➤ Located in Maharashtra
➤ Occupies the 5th position in the world’s fastest growing ports.
14. Port Blair
➤ Added in the list of major ports in June, 2010.
➤ It is the 13th major port.
➤ The port is of stratagic importance to India.
➤ It is closer to two international shipping lines— Saudi Arabia — Singapore and US — Singapore.
➤ The rail transport in India began in 1853 when the first train was run between Mumbai and Thane (34 km).
➤ The first section of the East India Railway, from Howrah to Hooghly was inaugurated on 15 August 1854.
➤ Indian railways is world’s second largest rail network under the single management. (USA is the largest one).
➤ It is the largest public sector undertaking of the country.
➤ Of the two main segments -freight and passenger-the freight segment accounts for roughly two – third of revenues.
➤ Three types of rail gauges — Broad gauge – 1.676 m. — Metre gauge – 1.00 m —Narrow gauge – 0.762 m
1. Karakoram Pass Karakoram Range, J&K India’s highest pass
2. Zozila Pass Zaskar Range , J&K Srinagar to Leh
3. Baramula Pass Pirpanjal Rage, J&K Srinagar to Mujaffarabad
4. Pir Panjal Pass Pirpanjal Range, J&K Pahalgaon to Koshi
5. Banihal pass Pirpanjal Range, J&K Jammu to Srinagar, NH1A, Jawahar Tunnel
6. Baralacha La (J&K) Himachal Pradesh Mandi (H.P.) to Leh
7. Rohtang Pass Himachal Pradesh Manali to Leh
8. Shipkila Pass Himachal Pradesh Shimla to Tibet
9. Thangla Pass Himachal Pradesh —
10. Niti La Pass Uttarakhand, Kumaun Uttarakhand to Tibet Range and Mansarovar
11. Mana La Pass Uttarakhand, Kumaun Uttarakhand to Tibet Range and Mansarovar
12. Lipu Lekh Pass Uttarakhand, Kumaun Uttarakhand to Tibet Range and Mansarovar
13. Muling La Pass Uttarakhand, Kumaun Uttarakhand to Tibet Range and Mansarovar
15. Diphuk Pass Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh to Myanmar
16. Likha Pani pass Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh to Myanmar
17. Chaukan Pass Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh to Myanmar
18. Pangsad Pass Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh to Myanmar
19. Tuzu Pass Manipur Imphal to Myanmar
20. Nathu La Pass Sikkim Sikkim to Tibet
21. Jelep La Pass Sikkim Chumbi valley to Tibet
22. Palaghat Pass Kerala Palakkad to Coimbatore
23. Bhorghat Pass Maharashtra Mumbai to Pune
24. Thalaghat Maharashtra Mumbai to Nasik
25. Shenkotta Pass Kerala and T.N. Kollam to Madurai
Valleys Of India
➤ Nubra Valley — Leh (Jammu and Kashmir)
➤ Araku Valley — Andhra Pradesh
➤ Murkha Valley — Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir)
➤ Chumbi Valley — Sikkim
➤ Zuku Valley — Nagaland
➤ Sangla Valley — Himachal Pradesh
➤ Yuthang Valley — Sikkim (Valley of Flower)
➤ Kullu Valley — Himachal Pradesh
➤ Pangi Valley — Chamba, Himachal Pradesh
➤ Tons Valley — Himachal pradesh
➤ Dibang Valley — Arunachal Pradesh
➤ Neora Valley — West Bengal
➤ Ketti Valley — Tamil Nadu
➤ Charavati Valley — Karnataka
➤ Kangra Valley — Himachal Pradesh
➤ Duke Valley — Manipur
➤ Milam Valley — Uttarakhand
Major Cities Of India
➤ Agra : A Cultural, historical and industrial city of Uttar Pradesh located on the banks of the Yamuna river. The most popular tourist attraction and UNESCO World Heritage sites – Taj Mahal and Agra Fort are located here.
➤ Ahmedabad : Situated in the cotton belt of the Gujarat plains, it is the largest city of Gujarat and is known as the “Manchester of the East”. Located on the banks of river Sabarmati it is an important industrial, cultural and educational town.
➤ Ajmer : Situated in Taragarh hills in Aravallis, important railway junction & trade and a pilgrim centre. Famous for Pushkar Lake and Dargah of Moinuddin Chishti.
➤ Amritsar: Home to Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), spiritual and cultural centre of Sikh religion, commercial activities includes tourism, carpets manufacturing, farm produce
➤ Asansol : Located in the Bardhaman district of West Bengal, Important railway junction and famous for IISCO
(Indian Iron and Steel Company). Asbestos Industry & Automobile Industries located here.
➤ Bengaluru : Capital of Karnataka state, Bengaluru is a clean, spacious and well planned city of beautiful parks and is known as ‘Garden city of India’. One of the fastest growing city, this ‘city of the future’ is famous for BHEL, HAL, HMT, Indian Telephone industry and IT Industry and is known as ‘Silicon valley of India’.
➤ Baroda/Vadodra : Third most populated city of Gujarat. On Vishwamitri river, cultural capital of Gujarat and administrative headquarters of Vadodra district, Petrochemical, engineering, pharmaceuticals, plastic industries are located here. Gujarat refinery of IOC, Gujarat state fertilizers and chemicals IPCL. Gujarat Alkaline Chemicals Ltd. etc are also present here.
➤ Bhubaneswar : Capital of Odisha, popularly known as the ‘Temple city fo India’. It is a planned city, cultural and educational town, famous for its Khandagiri and Udayagiri cave and Dhaulagiri rock edict.
➤ Chennai : Capital of Tamil Nadu, centre of Dravidian culture, ancient city and the oldest artificial harbour on the east coast of India. India’s largest sea beach Marina beach is on its Bay of Bengal coast.
➤ Coimbatore : In Tamil Nadu, also called Koval, second largest city of Tamil Nadu, located at the foothills of Nilgiris. It is important for cotton textile, electric motors, pumps, automobile, iron and steel and aluminum castings. It is known as the Manchester of South India.
➤ Dalhousie : A hill station located on a spur of the Dhauladhar range of the Himalaya in Himachal Pradesh. It is famous for handicrafts industry and is a military base. It has spectacular scenic beauty and is the gateway to Chamba district.
➤ Darjeeling : A major hill resort of West Bengal and has strategic importance as a possible access to Nepal and Tibet. The Himalayan mountaineering institute is located on it. It is also famous for tea estates and handicrafts. Darjeeling Himalayan railways is UNESCO world heritage site.
➤ Dhanbad : Located near river Damodar in Jharkhand, it has coal mining centre and Indian Institute of Mining.
➤ Ghatshila/Ghatsila : It is a copper mining centre in the Singhbhum region of Chhottanagpur plateau. Located on the bank of river Subarnrekha near Jamshedpur.
➤ Guwahati : Oil refinery gateway to North Eastern States, biggest city of Assam on the bank of Brahmaputra river. Largest commercial, industrial and educational centre of Assam.
➤ Gwalior : A historical and cultural city with an expanding industrial base located in the agricultural heartland of Madhya Pradesh. Famous for palaces, forts, temples, tombs and handicrafts.
➤ Haldia : It is a port town recently been developed on the river Hooghly about 105 km downstream from Kolkata. Its main purpose is to release congestion at Kolkata. Haldia has an oil refinery. It receives larger vessels which otherwise would have gone to Kolkata.
➤ Hyderabad : Capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana located on the Bank of river Musi. It is the largest town leading industrial and trade centre, twin city is Secunderabad. Major industries are engineering goods, power generation, Indian drugs and pharmaceuticals factory and electronic industry.
➤ Imphal : Capital of Manipur, cultural and administrative centre, fertile plains of Manipur, cotton textile, handicraft, bamboo made goods, central university, NH-39.
➤ Jaipur : Surrounded on three sides by the rugged Aravalli hills, Jaipur is the picturesque capital of Rajasthan. It is a planned city, known as the gateway to Rajasthan and ‘Pink City’. It is famous for forts, palaces, ancient observatory, handicrafts and jewellery.
➤ Jaisalmer : The desert town founded on an oasis, palaces, fort, jain temple and camel and sheep’s fair, handicrafts made this city as the most important tourist destination. Every year ‘Desert Festival’ celebrated in January. It is the district headquarters of the largest district of Rajasthan.
➤ Jammu : Gateway to Kashmir, Jammu is also the winter capital of the state. Situated on the banks of the river Tawi, this busy, prosperous town is surrounded by lakes, hills, temples and fortresses. It is a cultural, commercial and a major tourist centre.
➤ Jharia : Located in Jharkhand, second in India in terms of coal reserves. The best in metallurgical store of India. Base for a number of Iron-steel industries and other metallurgical centres.
➤ Jodhpur : Situated close to the edge of the Thar desert, Jodhpur is a historical and cultural city. It is an important tourist destination due to beautiful forts, museum and handicraft industries.
➤ Kakinada : A deep water port with Special Economic Zone status, also known as fertilizer city of Andhra Pradesh. Hinterland have a great economic value due to the natural gas deposit in Krishna-Godavari basin.
➤ Kalol : Famous for oil refinery, crude-oil and natural gas reserve, crude-oil transported through pipeline to Koyali for refining.
➤ Kanyakumari : India’s southernmost mainland town. Important for Tourism. It is the meeting point of three great seas – the Indian ocean, the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal.
➤ Kochi : It is another natural harbour located on the coast of Kerala. Kochi has sheltered backwater bay. It handles the export of tea, coffee and spices and imports of mineral oil and chemical fertilisers. The Kochi Oil Refinery receives crude oil through this port.
➤ Kodaikanal : A quiet, charming hill station situated in the scenic Palni hills of Tamil Nadu. It has the solar physics observatory and orchidarium. It is famous for the Kurinji flower which blooms once in 12 years.
➤ Kolkata : India’s second largest city and capital of West Bengal.
Located in the jute producing centre of India, it is a major port city called the ‘Gateway to Eastern India’.
➤ Korba : Power hub of Chhattisgarh. land of black diamond, Kosa silk and Thermal power, a major mineral source of Chattisgarh. Half of total mineral income of state, one of largest treasure of coal in India. Other limestone, fireclay, etc. ‘Gavra project’ largest opencast mine of India is located here. Major industrial hub, Aluminium coal and power industries are located here.
➤ Kullu : Kullu town is situated on the banks of the winding river Beas, is famous for its orchards, temples, scenery and handloom shawls.
➤ Ladakh : A dry, mountainous land of the passes, sandwiched between the Karakoram range and Zaskar range, most often referred to as the “little Tibet”.
Ladakh is the highest altitude plateau region in India. Leh is the largest town in Ladakh.
➤ Leh : The ancient capital of Ladakh, lies in a fertile valley near the Indus river. It has many Buddhist monasteries, mosque and highest airport and golf course in the world. It is a quiet little township and tourist centre, overlooked by a hilltop palace and monastery.
➤ Madurai : One of the most pleasant cities, Madurai has a charming situation on the river Vaigai, fringed by lush paddy fields and coconut groves. It is famous for handloom, handicrafts the Meenakshi temple.
➤ Mahabaleshwar : One of the most popular hill station of western India, and at 1372 mt the highest of the region. Situated in the Sahyadri range of the Western Ghats in Satara district of Maharashtra. Mahabaleshwar is also blessed with spectacular views of the Krishna and Koyna valleys and also known as a holy place.
➤ Mahabalipuram : UNESCO world heritage site. Famous for Shore temple (Pancha temples) and is a port city.
➤ Manali : Situated in northern end of Kullu valley, a hill resort, good scenic beauty, tourist spot, famous for Yak Skiing.
➤ Marmagao : It is an important port of Goa and occupies fifth position in handling the traffic. For a long period, it handled the export of iron ore from Goa.
➤ Mathura : Ancient holy city, Iargest oil refinery of India, silver polishing industry and is famous for Eari printing and water-tap factories.
➤ Mount Abu : Rajasthan’s only hill station, located on the Aravalli hill, it is an important pilgrim centre.
Gurushikhar, the highest peak of Aravalli is near this town. Nakki lake and Dilwara temple are most important tourist attraction.
➤ Mumbai : It is the Gateway of India from the west, largest city, biggest port and commercial capital. Originally located on the salsette island, it is the state capital of Maharashtra and Hollywood of India.
➤ Murshidabad : Located in the left bank of Bhagirathi river in West Bengal, this city is famous for manufacturing utensil, handloom, weaving and silk industry.
➤ Mysuru : A cultural and industrial city, known for its palaces, garden, silk factory, and handicraft. It is also known as the ‘Sandalwood city’ and the ‘city of palaces’. It is the second largest city of Karnataka.
➤ Nainital : Town in Uttarakhand in Kumaon hills, present in a valley containing pear-shaped lake, famous tourist spot. India’s oldest national park. Corbett national park is located here.
➤ New Mangalore : It is situated on the coast of Karnataka and handles export of iron ore from Kudremukh. It also handles import of fertilizers, petroleum products, edible oils and other cargo.
➤ Neyveli : Thermal power centre in Tamil Nadu, famous for lignite coal, helped in development of industries.
➤ Ootacamund (Udhagamandalam)/ Ooty : Former summer capital of the Madras presidency
(now Tamil Nadu), Ooty is popularly known as the ‘Queen of Hill Station.’ It nestles in the Nilgiris (Blue mountain) near the junction of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Also famous for its Botanical garden and plantations.
➤ Paradip : A cultural, industrial and port city of Odisha, Paradeep is located on the Bay of Bengal coast. It handles iron ore and coal along with some other dry cargo.
➤ Porbandar : Located in Porbandar district of Gujarat, a coastal city on the extreme west coast of Arabian Sea, birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi, all weather port with direct berthing facilities.
➤ Pune : A cultural, military and an administrative town famous for palaces, temples, film and television institute and museum.
It is the birth place and one of the main estates of the Maratha hero Chhatrapati Shivaji.
➤ Puri : A minor seaport of Odisha, world famous for the Jagannath Temple. It is a cultural city and pilgrimage. Located on the continental shelf of Bay of Bengal, it has a beautiful natural sea-beach and chemicals, drugs & pharmaceutical industries.
➤ Ramchandrapuram : Located in Andhra Pradesh near Godavari delta. The central power distribution company of Andhra Pradesh is located here. It is famous for rice, betel and coconut cultivation.
➤ Ranchi : Capital of Jharkhand state. Industrial and cultural town famous for machine tools, spare parts and alumina. Dassam falls located nearby. River Subarnarekha flows near this city.
➤ Raniganj : One of the largest and most important coalfields of India situated in upper Damodar valley in West Bengal.
➤ Shimla : Former summer capital of British India, Shimla is the largest hill station in the world and capital of the state of Himachal Pradesh. This hill resort is famous for its meadows and forest and handicraft industry.
➤ Srinagar : Capital of Jammu & Kashmir, located on river Jhelum.
Cultural and industrial centre, famous for wood work, woolen, silk clothing, carpet manufacturing and handicrafts.
➤ Surat : Situated on river Tapi.(left bank). Climate is tropical and rain is abundant, industrial hub for production of synthetic, manmade fibers and diamond cutting industry.
➤ Talcher : Industrial town in Angul district (The industrial hubs of Odisha), rich in black diamond, NTPL power plant uses coal from Talcher coalfields and water from a small barrage reservoir on river Brahmani.
➤ Trivandrum : It is a busy seaside city built seven hills overlooking the peaceful valleys. It derives its name from Thiru-Anantha-Puram
(Home of the Serpent) and is also known as the city of the Sacred Geese.
➤ Tuticorin : A port city developed in the coast of Tamil Nadu which handles traffic of coal, foodgrains, edible oils, sugar and petroleum products.
➤ Varanasi (Benaras) : The centre of Hinduism and most important pilgrimage place in India. Located on the Bank of Ganga it is an important seat of learning. It is famous for temples, metal handicrafts and sarees.
➤ Visakhapatnam : It has the deepest landlocked and protected port. An important industrial, educational, medical and port city.
It has iron & steel, fertilizer, petroleum refinery and the shipbuilding and ship repair industry.