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Chapter 08. India Agriculture (Geography Notes)

INDIA AGRICULTURE

Crop Classification : Indian crops can be divided into following categories :
1. Food Crops : Rice, Wheat, Maize, Millets-Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Pulses-Gram, Tur (Arhar).
2. Cash Crops : Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Oilseeds, Groundnut, Linseed, Sesame, Castorseed, Rapeseed, Mustard etc.
3. Plantation Crops : Tea, Coffee, Spices, Cardamom, Chillies, Ginger, Turmeric, Coconut, Arecanut and Rubber.
4. Horticulture : Fruits-Apple, Peach, Pear, Aprecot, Almond, Strawberry, Walnut, Mangao, Banana, Citrus Fruits and Vegetables.
CROPPING SEASON
1. Kharif Crops
➤ These are sown (in June or early July) with the commencement of south-west monsoon and are harvested by the end of monsoon or autumn (September/October).
➤ The major kharif crops are rice, jowar, maize, cotton, groundnut, jute, hemp, tobacco, bajra, sugarcane, pulses, forage grasses, green vegetables, chillies, gourd, lady finger etc.
2. Rabi Crops
➤ These crops, grown in winter, require relatively cool climate during growth and warm climate during germination of their seeds and maturation. Therefore, sowing is done in November and crops are harvested in April-May.
➤ The major rabi corps are wheat, gram, and oilseeds like mustard and rape seed.
3. Zaid Crops
➤ Besides these two dominant crops, a brief cropping season has been lately introduced in India mainly in irrigated areas where early-maturing crops, called zaid crops, are grown between March and June.
➤ The chief zaid crops are urad, moong, melons, water melons, cucumber, tuber vegetables etc.
LARGEST PRODUCERS OF MAJOR CROPS/AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
IMPORTANT CROPS AND THEIR PRODUCING AREAS
Rice : W. Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, A.P., U.P., Maharashtra, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh and Punjab.
Wheat : Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat.
Bajra : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, U.P., Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh.
Jowar : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, U.P., Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, and Maharashtra.
Millets : Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Haryana and the dry areas of Andhra Pradesh.
Maize : Bihar, U.P., Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Pulses : Punjab, Haryana, Rajashtan, Andhra Pradesh, M.P., U.P., Odisha, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Sugarcane : U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Bengal, Rajasthan and A.P.
Oilseeds : Bihar, Odisha, U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab.
Cotton : Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, W. Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
Jute : Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
Tobacco : Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, U.P. and Haryana.
Tea : Assam, W. Bengal, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, U.P., Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
Coffee : Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Coconut : Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha and West Bengal.
Rubber : Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. 95 per cent of the total output of rubber is produced in Kerala.
Spices (Pepper) : Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Major Crops

Crops Temp. (0°C)Rainfall (cm)Soil Distribution
Cash Crops
Cotton (Gossypium)21-3050-75Black soilGujarat, M.P., Kernataka, Maharashta, Punjab
Jute (Corchorus Capsularis)24-35125-200Sandy or clayed loams, deep richWest Bengal Odisha Bihar Assam Meghalaya
Sugarcane (saccnarum officinarum)20-2675-150Loamy soilUttar Pradesh Maharashtra, Tamil nadu, Karnataka
Tobacco (Nicotiana)15-3850-100Friable sandy soilUttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka
Food Crops
Rice (oryza sativa)24-27150Clayed and loamy soilWest Bengal, Karnataka, Andhara Pradesh, Assam Odisha, Uttar Punjab, Pradesh Telangana, Chhattisgarh
Wheat (triticum)10-1575Light, sandy, clayed loamy soilUttar Pradesh Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
Jowar (Sorghum)27-3230-65Black clayed loamy soilMaharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh
Bajra (Penisetu Typhoidum)25-3540-50Loamy soilRajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat
Plantation Crops
Tea (Camellia Thea)24-30150-250Loamy forest soilKerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam
Coffee (coffea)16-28150-250Friable forest loamy soilsKarnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis)25-35300Loamy soilsKerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

Major Fruit Crops

Fruit Crops Favorable Climate Distribution Relevant Information
AppleTemperate fruit crop- It requires average temperature from 21 °C to 4 C during the active growing season, 100-125 cm rainfall well distributed throughout the growing season. These conditions are found on the hill slopes at altitudes arranging from 1500-2700 m above sea level.Kullu and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir valley and hilly areas of Uttarakhand.Loamy soil, rich in organic matter, free from water logging are suitable for apple cultivation.
BananaPrimarily a tropical and sub-tropical crop requiring average temperature of 20°C to 30°C throughout the growing period and rainfall fairly above 150 cm.Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are the two main producersIndia is the largest producer of banana in the world.
MangoIt is native of monsoon land and is grown in areas with temperature 20°C to 30°C and rainfall 75 cm to 250 cm.Uttar Pradesh. Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Kerala, Tamil Nadu are the major producers.India is the largest producer of mango and contributes 54% of the world production of mango.
GrapesIt requires long summer, short winter and moderately fertile well drained soil.The major producing States are Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir.In Northern India, the plant gives only one crop during summer, but in South India, the plant grows throughout the year, one in March, April and the other in August and September.
StrawberryIt requires above 16°C temperature during its growing season and lots of water because its fields are sub-merges under 10 cm of fresh and slowly moving water for atleast three months.The main producers are the hilly areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand.Water retaining fertile soil is most suitable.

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