|Iron||Magnetite—the best quality of iron ore and contains 72% pure iron. Haematite-contains 60 to 70% pure iron. Limonite-contains 40 to 60% pure iron. Siderite-contains many impurities and has just 40 to 50% pure iron.||Odisha (Sonai, Mayubhanj, Keonjhar), Jharkhand and Bihar (Singhbhum Hazaribagh, Palamau, Shahbad), Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (Raipur, Durg, Bastar, Raigarh, Bilaspur, Jabalpur, Balaghat), Andhra Pradesh (Krishna, Kurnool, Chittor, Cuddapha, Warangal, Guntur), Tamil Nadu (Salem, Tiruchirapalli), Karnataka (Ballary, Chitradurg, Chikmagalur), Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Chanda), Goa||India has the world’s largest reserves, approximately one fourth of world’s known reserves; Jharkhand has the largest reserves accounting for about 25% of the total reserves of iron ore in India.|
|Coal (Black Gold)||Anthracite Coal—the best quality of coal and contains 80 to 95% carbon. It is found only in Jammu and Kashmir in small quantity. Bituminous coal—The most widely used coal and contains 40 to 80% carbon. It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Lignite– Also known as brown coal. It is a lower grade coal and contains about 40 to||Bihar-Jharkhand-Bengal belt (Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro, Karanpur), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh belt (Singrauli, Korba, Raigarh, Sonhat, Sohagpur. Umaria), Odisha (Desgarh, Talcher), Maharashtra (Chand), Andhra Pradesh (Singreni), Assam (Makum, Lakhimpur); in small quantities in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, and Nagaland||“About one-fourth of India’s coal reserves lie in the DamodarValley, across Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. India is the fourth largest coal producing country in the world according to 1992 coal production in the country.”|
|Manganese||India has the second largest manganese ore reserves in the world after Zimbabwe. India is the fifth largest producer in the world after Brazil, Gabon, South Africa and Australia.||Odisha (Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Mayurbhaj, Talcher) Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Seoni, Chhindwara, Jabalpur), Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Panchmahal), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Tumkur, Shimoga, Chikmagalur, Belgaum, North Canara, Dharwar), Jharkhand (Singbhum), Andhra Pradesh (Visakhapatnam), Rajasthan (Udaipur, Bansawara)||Orissa is the leading producer of manganese in the country. India ranks third in world in manganese production.|
|Mica||The three major types of mica found in India are – Muscovite, Phlogopite and Biotite.||Bihar (Gaya), Jharkhand (Hazaribagh), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Shahpur, Tonk, Bhilwara, Jaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore)||India has largest deposits of mica in world India alone contributes about two-thirds of the world’s production|
|Bauxite (aluminium ore)||Jharkhand (Palamu), Gujarat (Kaira), Madhya Pradesh (Katni, Jabalpur, Balaghat, Bilaspur, Bastar), Tamil Nadu (Salem), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Belgaum), Maharashtra (Kolhapur), Jammu and Kashmir (Kotli)||Third largest producer in the world.|
|Copper||India contributes to about 3.5 to 4% of the world’s total production of copper.||Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Hazaribagh), Rajasthan (Khetri, Alwar, Bhilwara, Jhunjhunu, Sirohi), Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Khamman, Agnigundala), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Hassan, Chikmagalur, Raichur), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Gujarat (Banaskantha); some quantities also found in Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.||Very meager reserves; almost all copper comes from Singbhum and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand and Khetri in Rajasthan.|
|Crude oil||51.08 crore tones||Assam, Tripura, Manipur, West Bengal, Ganga Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch of West Bengal coast, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.|
|Lignite||429 crore tones||Tamil Nadu (Neyveli fields) Some deposits also found in Gujarat, Punducherry, Rajasthan (Palana fields), Jammu and Kashmir (Riasi fields).||Maximum deposits of about 383 crore tones, are found in Tamil Nadu.|
|Gold||India’s contribution to gold production across the world is less than one percent (0.75%).||Karnataka (Kolar gold fields, Hutti Mines), in small quantities in Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri gold fields and Anantpur).||Karnataka was the leading producer of gold accounting for 99% of the total production. The remaining production came from Jharkhand.|
|Magnesite||23.91 crore tones||Tamil Nadu (Salem), Uttranchal (Almora, Chamoli, Pithoragarh), Karnataka (Mysore, Hassan)|
➤ It is of Organic Compounds (Material).
➤ It is found in sedimentary basins.
➤ Assam is the oldest oil producer of India.
➤ Oil was first discovered at Makum in 1867 in Assam.
➤ Bombay High : ONGC has discovered oil in 1974
➤ 2/3 oil is produced here.
➤ It is the largest petroleum production oil field in India.
➤ Basin deposits of oil and natural gas.
➤ Gujarat coast : 3rd largest oil producing of the country.
Ankleshwar : Gujarat Lune : Gujarat Mehsana : Gujarat Kalol : Gujarat Kosamba : Gujarat
The Brahmaputra Valley
➤ Crude oil was first discovered in the Brahmaputra valley.
➤ The oil bearing rocks are spread from the Dehang Basin up to the Swime
➤ The Nahorkatia oil field : This oil field lies the south west of Digboi.
➤ Arunachal Pradesh : Manabhum, Kharasang and Charali.
➤ Rajasthan : In Rajasthan, oil discoveries were made by British Agency cairn in Burmen district.
Power Resources in India
➤ There are three major means of electrical energy production in Indiathermal energy, hydro-electrical energy and atomic energy. Also Renewable Energy is emerging as the major source of electricity which contribute about 10% energy production of India.
Use of Resources for Electricity production in India.
1. Thermal (total) 64.98 %
(a) Coal 54.09%
(b) Gas (Natural Gas) 10.20%
(c) Oil 0.69%
2. Hydro-electricity (Renewable) 21.64%
3. Nuclear 2.75%
4. Renewable Energy Sources 10.63%
Note : Renewable Energy sources, includes, Solar energy, Wind energy, Tidal energy, Geothermal energy, Small Hydro project, Biomass Gasifier, etc.
Sectorwise Consumption of Electricity (%) in India
1. Industrial 43.83%
2. Domestic 22.46 %
3. Agriculture 18.03%
4. Commercial 8.72%
5. Railways 1.72%
6. Others 5.23%
Atomic Power Stations in India
1. Tarapur Palghar district, Maharashtra
2. Rawatbhata Kota district, Rajasthan
3. Kalpakkam Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu.
4. Narora Bulandshahar district, U.P.
5. Kakrapara Surat District, Gujarat
6. Kaiga North Kanara district, Karnataka
7. Kudankulam Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu
Major Power Plants Thermal Power Plant
|Power Station||Operator||Year of Establishment||Location||District||State|
|Talcher Super Thermal Power Station||NTPC||1995||Kaniha||Angul||Odisha|
|Sipat Thermal Power Plant||NTPC||2008||Sipat||Bilaspur||Chhattisgarh|
|Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Station||NTPC||2013||Singrauli||Vindhya Nagar||Madhya Pradesh|
|Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project||Tata Power||2009||Mundra||Kutch||Gujarat|
|Korba Super Thermal Power Plant||NTPC||1983||Jamani Palli||Korba||Chhattisgarh|
|Bhusawal Thermal Power Station||MAHAG ENCO||1968||Deepnagar Jalgaon||Jalgao||Maharashtra|
|Satpura Thermal Power Station||MPPGCL||1967||Sarni||Betul||Madhya Pradesh|
|Sterlite Jharsuguda Power Station||Vedanta||2006||Jharsuguda||Jharsuguda||Odisha|
|Durgapur Thermal Power Station||DVC||1996||Durgapur||Bardhaman||West Bengal|
Nuclear Power Plant
|Power Station||Operator||Establishment Year of||Location||District||State|
|Tarapur Atomic Power Station||NPCIL||1969||Tarapur||Thane||Maharashtra|
|Rajasthan Atomic Power Station||NPCIL||1973||Rawatbhata||Chittorgarh||Rajasthan|
|Kakrapar Atomic Power Station||NPCIL||1993||Kakrapar||Surat||Gujarat|
|Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant||NPCIL||2013||Kudankulam||Tirunelveli||Tamil Nadu|
|Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant||NPCIL||2000||Kaiga||Uttara Kannada||Karnataka|
|Madras Atomic Power Station||NPCIL||1984||Kalpakkam||Kancheepuram||Tamil Nadu|
|Narora Atomic Power Station||NPCIL||1991||Narora||Bulandshahar||Uttar Pradesh|
|Gorakhpur Atomic Power Station||NPCIL||Fatehabad||Fatehabad||Haryana|
Hydro Power Plant
|Power Station||Operator||Establishment Year of||Location||State|
|Bhakra Dam||BBMB||1963||Bilaspur||Himachal Pradesh,|
|Tehri Dam||THDC India Limited||2006||Tehri||Uttarakhand|
|Hirakund – I||OHPC||1957||Burla||Odisha|
Wind Power Plant
|Power Station||Operator||Year of Establishment||Location||State|
|Muppandal Wind Farm||Muppandal Winds||1985||Kanyakumri||Tamil Nadu|
|Jaisalmer Wind Farm||Suzlon Energy||2001||Jaisalmer||Rajasthan|
|Brahmanvel Wind Farm||Parakh Agro Industry||2006||Dhule||Maharashtra|
|Dhalgaon||Grade Mission Export||2008||Sangli||Maharashtra|
|Damanjodi wind Plant||Suzlon Energy||2014||Koraput||Odisha|
India’s Major Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power Plants
|Power Station||Operator||Year of Establishment||Location||State|
|Charanka Solar Power Plant||GMR group||2012||Patan||Gujarat|
|Neemuch Solar Power Plant||Welspun Solar.||2014||Neemuch||Madhya Pradesh|
|Sakri Power Plant||Maharashtra state power generation company||2013||Dhule||Maharashtra|
|GEDCOL Solar Power Plant||Green Energy Development Corporation Ltd.||2014||Boudh district||Odisha|
|Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Plant||Reliance Industries||2012||Jaisalmer||Rajasthan|
Major Hydro Projects
|1.||Bhakra-Nangal Project The project consists of: (i) Bhakra dam (second highest in the world) – 518 m long, 226 high (ii) Nangal dam (iii) Nangal hydel channels (iv) 4 power houses (Biggest in Asia)||Sutlej (Hoshiarpur district in Punjab)||Power and irrigation||Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan|
|2.||Damodar Valley Corporation Project The project consists of: (i) Tilaiya dam (ii) Konar dam (iii) Maithon dam (iv) Panchet Hill dam (v) Power houses at Bokaro, Durgapur, and Chandrapur||Damodar||Power, irrigation, flood control||Bihar and West Bengal, shared by Madhya Pradesh|
|3.||Hirakund This is a dam project. The main dam is 4,800 m long, 28.9 m high (World’s largest mainstream dam)||Mahanadi||Power and irrigation||Odisha|
|4.||Tungabhadra Project||Tungabhadra (tributary of river Krishna)||Power and irrigation||Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka|
|5.||Mayurakshi Project||Murali||Power and irrigation||West Bengal|
|6.||Nagarjunasagar Project||Krishna||Power and irrigation||Andhra Pradesh|
|7.||Gandak River Project||Gandak (tributary of Ganga)||Power and irrigation||Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal (Joint venture of India and Nepal)|
|8.||Kosi Project||Kosi||Flood control, power and irrigation||Bihar|
|9.||Farakka Project||Ganga, Bhagirathi||Power, irrigation, avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigation||West Bengal|
|10.||Beas Project Units : Beas-Sutlej link Beas dam at Pong Beas transmission system||Beas||Irrigation and power||Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh|
|11.||Rajasthan Canal Project||Sutlej in Punjab, Beas, and Ravi||Irrigation||Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana|
|12.||Chambal Project Units (a) Gandhisagar dam (b) Rana Pratap Sagar dam (c) Jawahar Sagar dam||Chambal||Power and irrigation||Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan|
|14.||Nagpur Power Station||Koradi||Thermal power Maharashtra|
|15.||Ukai Project||Tapti||Power and irrigation||Gujarat|
|16.||Tawa Project||Tawa (Narmada)||Irrigation||Madhya Pradesh|
|17.||Poochampad Project||Godavari||Irrigation||Andhra Pradesh|
|19.||Durgapur Barrage||Damodar||Irrigation, Navigation, between Kolkata and Raniganj||West Bengal and Bihar|
|21.||Mahanadi Delta Project||Mahanadi||Irrigation||Orissa|
|24.||Upper Krishna Project||Krishna||Irrigation||Karnataka|
|25.||Ramaganga Multipurpose Project||Chisot stream near kala||Power and irrigation||Uttar Pradesh|
|26.||Matatilla project||Betwa||Multipurpose power and irrigation||Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh|
|27.||Tehri Dam Project||Bhilangana, Bhagirath||Hydroelectricity||Uttar Pradesh|
|28.||Narmada Sagar Valley Project||Narmada||–||Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra|
|29.||Obra Power Station||Obra||Thermal power||Uttar Pradesh|
|30.||Rihand Scheme||Rihand||Hydroelectricity||Uttar Pradesh|
|31.||Kundah Project||Kundah||Hydroelectricity and irrigation||Tamil Nadu|