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Chapter 06. India Minerals (Geography Notes)

INDIA MINERALS

Mineral Ore Found in Features
IronMagnetite—the best quality of iron ore and contains 72% pure iron. Haematite-contains 60 to 70% pure iron. Limonite-contains 40 to 60% pure iron. Siderite-contains many impurities and has just 40 to 50% pure iron.Odisha (Sonai, Mayubhanj, Keonjhar), Jharkhand and Bihar (Singhbhum Hazaribagh, Palamau, Shahbad), Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (Raipur, Durg, Bastar, Raigarh, Bilaspur, Jabalpur, Balaghat), Andhra Pradesh (Krishna, Kurnool, Chittor, Cuddapha, Warangal, Guntur), Tamil Nadu (Salem, Tiruchirapalli), Karnataka (Ballary, Chitradurg, Chikmagalur), Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Chanda), GoaIndia has the world’s largest reserves, approximately one fourth of world’s known reserves; Jharkhand has the largest reserves accounting for about 25% of the total reserves of iron ore in India.
Coal (Black Gold)Anthracite Coal—the best quality of coal and contains 80 to 95% carbon. It is found only in Jammu and Kashmir in small quantity. Bituminous coal—The most widely used coal and contains 40 to 80% carbon. It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Lignite– Also known as brown coal. It is a lower grade coal and contains about 40 toBihar-Jharkhand-Bengal belt (Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro, Karanpur), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh belt (Singrauli, Korba, Raigarh, Sonhat, Sohagpur. Umaria), Odisha (Desgarh, Talcher), Maharashtra (Chand), Andhra Pradesh (Singreni), Assam (Makum, Lakhimpur); in small quantities in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, and Nagaland“About one-fourth of India’s coal reserves lie in the DamodarValley, across Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. India is the fourth largest coal producing country in the world according to 1992 coal production in the country.”
ManganeseIndia has the second largest manganese ore reserves in the world after Zimbabwe. India is the fifth largest producer in the world after Brazil, Gabon, South Africa and Australia.Odisha (Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Mayurbhaj, Talcher) Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Seoni, Chhindwara, Jabalpur), Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Panchmahal), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Tumkur, Shimoga, Chikmagalur, Belgaum, North Canara, Dharwar), Jharkhand (Singbhum), Andhra Pradesh (Visakhapatnam), Rajasthan (Udaipur, Bansawara)Orissa is the leading producer of manganese in the country. India ranks third in world in manganese production.
MicaThe three major types of mica found in India are – Muscovite, Phlogopite and Biotite.Bihar (Gaya), Jharkhand (Hazaribagh), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Shahpur, Tonk, Bhilwara, Jaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore)India has largest deposits of mica in world India alone contributes about two-thirds of the world’s production
Bauxite (aluminium ore)Jharkhand (Palamu), Gujarat (Kaira), Madhya Pradesh (Katni, Jabalpur, Balaghat, Bilaspur, Bastar), Tamil Nadu (Salem), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Belgaum), Maharashtra (Kolhapur), Jammu and Kashmir (Kotli)Third largest producer in the world.
CopperIndia contributes to about 3.5 to 4% of the world’s total production of copper.Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Hazaribagh), Rajasthan (Khetri, Alwar, Bhilwara, Jhunjhunu, Sirohi), Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Khamman, Agnigundala), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Hassan, Chikmagalur, Raichur), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Gujarat (Banaskantha); some quantities also found in Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.Very meager reserves; almost all copper comes from Singbhum and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand and Khetri in Rajasthan.
Crude oil51.08 crore tonesAssam, Tripura, Manipur, West Bengal, Ganga Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch of West Bengal coast, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.
Lignite429 crore tonesTamil Nadu (Neyveli fields) Some deposits also found in Gujarat, Punducherry, Rajasthan (Palana fields), Jammu and Kashmir (Riasi fields).Maximum deposits of about 383 crore tones, are found in Tamil Nadu.
GoldIndia’s contribution to gold production across the world is less than one percent (0.75%).Karnataka (Kolar gold fields, Hutti Mines), in small quantities in Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri gold fields and Anantpur).Karnataka was the leading producer of gold accounting for 99% of the total production. The remaining production came from Jharkhand.
Magnesite23.91 crore tonesTamil Nadu (Salem), Uttranchal (Almora, Chamoli, Pithoragarh), Karnataka (Mysore, Hassan)

Petroleum
➤ It is of Organic Compounds (Material).
➤ It is found in sedimentary basins.
➤ Assam is the oldest oil producer of India.
➤ Oil was first discovered at Makum in 1867 in Assam.
Oil fields
Bombay High : ONGC has discovered oil in 1974
➤ 2/3 oil is produced here.
➤ It is the largest petroleum production oil field in India.
➤ Basin deposits of oil and natural gas.
➤ Gujarat coast : 3rd largest oil producing of the country.
Ankleshwar : Gujarat Lune : Gujarat Mehsana : Gujarat Kalol : Gujarat Kosamba : Gujarat
The Brahmaputra Valley
➤ Crude oil was first discovered in the Brahmaputra valley.
➤ The oil bearing rocks are spread from the Dehang Basin up to the Swime
The Nahorkatia oil field : This oil field lies the south west of Digboi.
Arunachal Pradesh : Manabhum, Kharasang and Charali.
Rajasthan : In Rajasthan, oil discoveries were made by British Agency cairn in Burmen district.
Power Resources in India
➤ There are three major means of electrical energy production in Indiathermal energy, hydro-electrical energy and atomic energy. Also Renewable Energy is emerging as the major source of electricity which contribute about 10% energy production of India.
Use of Resources for Electricity production in India.
1. Thermal (total) 64.98 %
(a) Coal 54.09%
(b) Gas (Natural Gas) 10.20%
(c) Oil 0.69%
2. Hydro-electricity (Renewable) 21.64%
3. Nuclear 2.75%
4. Renewable Energy Sources 10.63%
Note : Renewable Energy sources, includes, Solar energy, Wind energy, Tidal energy, Geothermal energy, Small Hydro project, Biomass Gasifier, etc.
Sectorwise Consumption of Electricity (%) in India
1. Industrial 43.83%
2. Domestic 22.46 %
3. Agriculture 18.03%
4. Commercial 8.72%
5. Railways 1.72%
6. Others 5.23%
Atomic Power Stations in India
1. Tarapur Palghar district, Maharashtra
2. Rawatbhata Kota district, Rajasthan
3. Kalpakkam Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu.
4. Narora Bulandshahar district, U.P.
5. Kakrapara Surat District, Gujarat
6. Kaiga North Kanara district, Karnataka
7. Kudankulam Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu
Major Power Plants Thermal Power Plant

Power Station Operator Year of Establishment Location District State
Talcher Super Thermal Power StationNTPC1995KanihaAngulOdisha
Sipat Thermal Power PlantNTPC2008SipatBilaspurChhattisgarh
Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power StationNTPC2013SingrauliVindhya NagarMadhya Pradesh
Mundra Ultra Mega Power ProjectTata Power2009MundraKutchGujarat
Korba Super Thermal Power PlantNTPC1983Jamani PalliKorbaChhattisgarh
Bhusawal Thermal Power StationMAHAG ENCO1968Deepnagar JalgaonJalgaoMaharashtra
Satpura Thermal Power StationMPPGCL1967SarniBetulMadhya Pradesh
Sterlite Jharsuguda Power StationVedanta2006JharsugudaJharsugudaOdisha
Durgapur Thermal Power StationDVC1996DurgapurBardhamanWest Bengal

Nuclear Power Plant

Power Station Operator Establishment Year of Location District State
Tarapur Atomic Power StationNPCIL1969TarapurThaneMaharashtra
Rajasthan Atomic Power StationNPCIL1973RawatbhataChittorgarhRajasthan
Kakrapar Atomic Power StationNPCIL1993KakraparSuratGujarat
Kudankulam Nuclear Power PlantNPCIL2013KudankulamTirunelveliTamil Nadu
Kaiga Nuclear Power PlantNPCIL2000KaigaUttara KannadaKarnataka
Madras Atomic Power StationNPCIL1984KalpakkamKancheepuramTamil Nadu
Narora Atomic Power StationNPCIL1991NaroraBulandshaharUttar Pradesh
Gorakhpur Atomic Power StationNPCILFatehabadFatehabadHaryana

Hydro Power Plant

Power Station Operator Establishment Year of Location State
Bhakra DamBBMB1963BilaspurHimachal Pradesh,
Tehri DamTHDC India Limited2006TehriUttarakhand
MachkundAPGENCO1955JeyporeAndhra Pradesh
Hirakund – IOHPC1957BurlaOdisha
Saradar Sarovar-RBPHSSNNL2006NavagamGujrat

Wind Power Plant

Power Station Operator Year of Establishment Location State
Muppandal Wind FarmMuppandal Winds1985KanyakumriTamil Nadu
Jaisalmer Wind FarmSuzlon Energy2001JaisalmerRajasthan
Brahmanvel Wind FarmParakh Agro Industry2006DhuleMaharashtra
DhalgaonGrade Mission Export2008SangliMaharashtra
Damanjodi wind PlantSuzlon Energy2014KoraputOdisha

India’s Major Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power Plants

Power Station Operator Year of Establishment Location State
Charanka Solar Power PlantGMR group2012PatanGujarat
Neemuch Solar Power PlantWelspun Solar.2014NeemuchMadhya Pradesh
Sakri Power PlantMaharashtra state power generation company2013DhuleMaharashtra
GEDCOL Solar Power PlantGreen Energy Development Corporation Ltd.2014Boudh districtOdisha
Dhirubhai Ambani Solar PlantReliance Industries2012JaisalmerRajasthan

Major Hydro Projects
Multipurpose Projects

No. Project River Purpose Beneficiary States
1.Bhakra-Nangal Project The project consists of: (i) Bhakra dam (second highest in the world) – 518 m long, 226 high (ii) Nangal dam (iii) Nangal hydel channels (iv) 4 power houses (Biggest in Asia)Sutlej (Hoshiarpur district in Punjab)Power and irrigationPunjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan
2.Damodar Valley Corporation Project The project consists of: (i) Tilaiya dam (ii) Konar dam (iii) Maithon dam (iv) Panchet Hill dam (v) Power houses at Bokaro, Durgapur, and ChandrapurDamodarPower, irrigation, flood controlBihar and West Bengal, shared by Madhya Pradesh
3.Hirakund This is a dam project. The main dam is 4,800 m long, 28.9 m high (World’s largest mainstream dam)MahanadiPower and irrigationOdisha
4.Tungabhadra ProjectTungabhadra (tributary of river Krishna)Power and irrigationAndhra Pradesh and Karnataka
5.Mayurakshi ProjectMuraliPower and irrigationWest Bengal
6.Nagarjunasagar ProjectKrishnaPower and irrigationAndhra Pradesh
7.Gandak River ProjectGandak (tributary of Ganga)Power and irrigationBihar, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal (Joint venture of India and Nepal)
8.Kosi ProjectKosiFlood control, power and irrigationBihar
9.Farakka ProjectGanga, BhagirathiPower, irrigation, avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigationWest Bengal
10.Beas Project Units : Beas-Sutlej link Beas dam at Pong Beas transmission systemBeasIrrigation and powerRajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh
11.Rajasthan Canal ProjectSutlej in Punjab, Beas, and RaviIrrigationRajasthan, Punjab and Haryana
12.Chambal Project Units (a) Gandhisagar dam (b) Rana Pratap Sagar dam (c) Jawahar Sagar damChambalPower and irrigationMadhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
13.Kakrapara ProjectTaptiIrrigationGujarat
14.Nagpur Power StationKoradiThermal power Maharashtra
15.Ukai ProjectTaptiPower and irrigationGujarat
16.Tawa ProjectTawa (Narmada)IrrigationMadhya Pradesh
17.Poochampad ProjectGodavariIrrigationAndhra Pradesh
18.Malaprabha ProjectMalaprabhaIrrigationKarnataka
19.Durgapur BarrageDamodarIrrigation, Navigation, between Kolkata and RaniganjWest Bengal and Bihar
20.MahiMahiIrrigationGujarat
21.Mahanadi Delta ProjectMahanadiIrrigationOrissa
22.Idukki ProjectPeriyarHydroelectricityKerala
23.Koyna ProjectKoynaHydroelectricityMaharashtra
24.Upper Krishna ProjectKrishnaIrrigationKarnataka
25.Ramaganga Multipurpose ProjectChisot stream near kalaPower and irrigationUttar Pradesh
26.Matatilla projectBetwaMultipurpose power and irrigationUttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
27.Tehri Dam ProjectBhilangana, BhagirathHydroelectricityUttar Pradesh
28.Narmada Sagar Valley ProjectNarmadaMadhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra
29.Obra Power StationObraThermal powerUttar Pradesh
30.Rihand SchemeRihandHydroelectricityUttar Pradesh
31.Kundah ProjectKundahHydroelectricity and irrigationTamil Nadu

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