Originated in 2nd century B.C., based on the Natya Shastra, Originated in temple during King Khaarvela reign, woven around Tribhanga pose
|Odisha||Kelucharan Mahaptara, Pankaj Charan Das, Hare Krishna Behera, Sonal Mansingh, Kabita Dwivedi, Kiran Sehgal, Madhvi Mudgal, Sharon Lewon, Myrta Barvil, Indarani Rahman, Priyambada Mohanty.||Mahars Devadasi, Gotipua, Tribhanga Mangalacharan Pallavi, Tarijhuma, Moksha, Majura|
Popular in South eastern of India .It follows principle of Natyashastra. It is a solo dance by women.
|Rukmini Devi Arundale (of Kalakhestra Fame) T Balasarswathi, Yamini Krishna Murthy, Padma Subramaniyam, Mrinal- ini Sarabhai, Vaijayanti- mala Bali, Leela Samson.||Sadir, Devadasi, Padanallur, Tanjore Alarippu, Jatiswaran, Shabdam, Varnanri- tya, Thillana|
It is a variation of of Bharatnatyam.
It originated in a place called Kuchelapur. Performed by man attired like women.
|T Balasarswathi, Esther Sherman, Indrani Rahman, Swapna Sundari, Sobha Naidu, Raja Reddy, Radha Reddy, Vempati Chinna Satyam, Satyanarayanan Sharma, Sudha Sekhara, Rajaram Rao, G Sarala.||Bhagavatalu, Bhagavata Themes, Manduka, Shabdam Balagopala Tavrang, Tala Chitra Nritya|
(Ballet of East) Originated in Courts of Kings in which a story is related to the dance.
|Kerala||Mukunda Raja (of Kalmandalam fame), Koppan Nair, Shanta Rao, Kanak Rele, Geeta Ganguly, V Kunju Kurupu, Gopinathan Krishnan, VN Menon.||Open air stage, facial make up, Thiranottam|
In the 19th century the King of Travancore Swatitirunal enouraged this
|Kerala||Vitho Narayan Menon, Kalyani Amma Shanta Rao, Roshan Vajifdar, Bharati Shivaji, Kanak Rele.||It has elements of both Kathakali & Bharatnattyam|
|Manipuri||Manipur||Jhaveri Sisters, Charu Mathur, Sadhona Bose, Bipin Singh, Rita Devi, Savita Mehta, Tandor Devi.||Kamba Thoibi Pung drum,Choloms like Pung Cholom, Kartal Cholom, Dhol Cholom, Rasleela, Tandava, gorgeous costumes.|
Flourished in North Indian
princely states Jaipur, Lucknow and Banaras.
It is a dance based on story from epic about Radha and Krishna
|U.P.||Birju Maharaj,Kalka-Binda Gharana, Kumdini Lakhia, Damayanti Joshi,Rani Karna, Saswati Sen, Roshan Kumari, Gopi Krishna, Sitara Devi, Sambhu Maharaj, Ananda Shankar,Shovna Narayan, Bhandana Mangal, Kulgrani Bhatt, Gitanjali Lal.||Rasleela, Nautch, four Gharanas, Salami, Vandana, Aamad, Gatnikaas, Padhant, Karmalya, Ballets.|
This dance form was
introduced by the
Shankardeva in 15th
century A.D. The art form derives its name from the Vaishnava Monasteries known as Sattras. The Dance Form was an amalgamation of Ojapali and Devdasi dance.
|Assam||Moniram Dutta Muktiyar Barbayan, Bapuram Bayan Attai, Pradip Chaliha, Manik Barbayan, Jogen Dutta Bayan, Anita Sarma, Sarodi Saikia||Devotional aspect of dance and narrates mythological stories of Vishnu, Borgeet, dance posture along with footwork, hand gesture and footwork, Gayan-Bhayanar and Kharmanar Nach, Sutradhari, Rajaghoria, Chali, Jhumura, Krishna Nritya.|
FOLK, TRIBAL AND REGIONAL DANCES
Jammu & Kashmir :
➤ Rauf : by women during harvest,
➤ Hikat : expression of joy and love by boys and girls, Damali : by men in temple,
➤ Lhapas & Manipas : Ladakh,
➤ Dandi Nacha : bomboostic dance,
➤ Dumhal, Bhacha Nagma, Chhakri, Kud, Phumania : by Wattal Tribe Punjab :
➤ Giddha : by women at harvest,
➤ Bhangra : by both men & women Rajasthan :
➤ Chakri serpent, Gangore, Ginad, Gopika Leela, Kalibelia, Jhulan, Jhumar, Khayal, Susini.
➤ Daph, Dhamal, Gugga, Gagor, Jhumar, Koria, Loor, Phag.
Himachal Pradesh :
➤ Bhavi, Chharba, Dangi, Jadda, Jhainta, Kinnaur, Mahasu, Thoda, Thali.
➤ Bhavi, Garba, Dandiya Rass, Tripani, Gomph, Zeriyun, Gheriya Raas.
Uttar Pradesh :
➤ Rass leela, Dadra, Kajari, Jhora, Nautanki, Chappeli.
➤ Jatra, Natua, Jijhiya, Barlanga Dance, Karma, Kathaputli, Bakho, Jat-Jatin, Paika, Biraha, Samachakya.
Madhya Pradesh :
➤ Dagla, Jawara, Ghera.
➤ Dandanatta, Chhau, Yatra, Ghumara, Bharat Leela, Dalkhai, Chaitri Ghorha, Jadur.
➤ Katha, Tamasha, Lavani, Gafa, Karku, Mauni, Dahikala, Lezim.
➤ Kathi Dance, Baul dance, Chhau, Brita Assam :
➤ Canoe Dance, Tabal Chongbi
(Holi), Rakhal Leela, Bihu, Khela, Gopala, Jata Jatin Manipur :
➤ Ras Dances, Khamba Thoibi, Pung, Cholan Andhra Pradesh :
➤ Ghanta Mardala, Banjara, Burrakatha Karnataka :
➤ Huttari, Suggi, Yakshagana, Dholu Kunitha, Bhootha Aradhane Tamil Nadu :
➤ Kolattam, Kavadiattam, Karagam, Kummi Kerala :
➤ Kudiyattam, Kaliyattam, Kaikottikali, Ottam Tullal, Sari, Tappatrikkali, Padayani Uttarakhand
➤ Jhumelia, Chaunfla, Harkia Baul, Chholiya Lakhsadweep :
➤ Lava, Bhavada Tripura :
➤ Hajagiri Nagaland : PUPPET DANCES
Kathaputli : Rajasthan Sakhi Kundhei : Odisha Pudda Nach : Assam Malasutri Bahuly : Maharashtra Bommalattam : Tamil Nadu Tolpavakootu : Kerala Kundeinachhha : Odisha Pava Kathakali : Kerala Kathikundhei : Odisha Gombeyatta : Karnataka Yampuri : Bihar Putul Nacch : West Bengal Ravanchhaya : Odisha MARTIAL DANCES
Gatka : Punjab Paika : Odisha Thag Ta : Manipur Kalaripayattu : Kerala Choliya : Uttarakhand Pang Lhabosol : Sikkim Kolkali Parichakali : Kerla & Lakshdweep DRAMA
Modern Drama In India
➤ Geratin Lebedev – began drama
➤ Krishnaji Prabhakar Khadilkar – Kichaka Vadha
➤ Aga Harsha Kashmir – Urdu Theatere (Shakespeare of India)
➤ Bhartendu Harish Chandra – Bharat Durdasa
➤ Mohan Rakesh-Ashadha Ka Ek Din, Adhe Adhure, Lahraon Ka Rajhansa
➤ Dharmaveer Bharati- Andha Yuga
➤ Vijay Tendulkar-Ghasiram Kotwale
➤ Habib Tanvir – Mitti Ki Gadis, Charandas Chor
➤ Girish Kannad – Yajati, Tughlaq, Hayavadan
➤ Babban Khan – Adrak Ke Panje
➤ Sanjana Kapoor – Prithvi Theatre.
Theatre State Importance
Mudiyettu Kerala performed as a ritual in Kali temples Krishnattam Tamil Nadu depiction of life of Lord Krishna Kudiyattam Kerala elaborate presentation of Sanskrit dramas Theyyam Kerala a form of ancestor worship Ankianat Assam an one act play about religious themes Bhavai Rajasthan rituals to propitiate the mother Goddess Saang Haryana legend, dancing & singing interwoven with comic scenes Jashin Jammu & honouring Gods & have end with Kashmir comedy. Actors mingle with people Keryala Himachal about questions of life & death Pradesh Khyal Rajasthan cultural & social education through singing & musical instruments Tamasha Maharashtra a singing & dancing party about political & social themes Therukkoothu Tamil Nadu a street theatre of dance & music Yatra Odisha about social & religious themes Zaratra (Zatuas) Goa annual celebration of a particular deity of a particular temples Nautanki Uttar Pradesh a music theatre Macha Madhya stage shows on the day of Holi Pradesh about mythological stories Rasleela Uttar Pradesh about life of Lord Krishna
➤ Folk theatres of Ancient and Medieval India have been described in the uparupakas by Sanskrit dramaturgists.
➤ It was Tulsidas who first started the tradition of performing plays narrating the story of Lord Rama at Kasi.
➤ The year 1801 marked the begining of Modern Indian theatre, when Prassanna Kumar Thakur established Hindi Rang Mancha at Calcutta.
➤ Girish Chandra Ghosh is related with Brocial dramas.
➤ D.L.Roy is related with historical plays.
by Bijon Bhattacharya and directed by Sambhu Mitra.
➤ Bahuroopi is a Sambhu Mitra’s drama group which is popular in Bengal.
➤ The popular play Sita Swayamvar was directed by Vishnu Das Bhave.
➤ Popular plays Giddha, Kamala and Shakkaram Binder are written MUSIC
➤ Earliest text was Bharat Muni’s Natya Shastra
➤ Science of Music : Gandharva Veda
➤ Sama veda contains : The method of recital of music
➤ Brihaddesi by Matanga defines & classified the Ragas
➤ Baiju Babra is father of Hindustani Music.
➤ Haridas Swami, Guru of Tansen, modified ancient style of Dhrupad.
➤ Wazid Ali Shah is considered as the innovator of the Thumari form.
➤ The Nawab of Rampur devised a system of notation and classification of Ragas under ‘Thats’.
➤ Mustak Hussain Khan, Haffeez Ahmad Khan and Ustad Fida Hussain Khan popularised Hindustani vocal music in the west.
➤ The origin of Khayal is attributed to Amir Khusro.
➤ Qawwali is an innovation of Amir Khusro.
➤ Mirza Galib is regarded as the father of Ghazals.
➤ Dhun is free from formal ragas desciplines composed on the basis of folk music.
➤ Gat is a well–defined composition and it is preceded by the Alap.
➤ Dhamur Veena the bow shaped harp is considered the oldest insturment.
➤ Tamil and Dravidian music derived inspiration from Thevaram and Silpadikaram.
➤ The Golden age of the Carnatic music was the period of Venkatamakhin.
➤ Carnatic music reached its zenith when Shyama Shatri, Muthuswami Dikshithar, Thyagaraja, and Swathi Tirunal elevated the standard with their
➤ Kirtis a new component of Carnatic music was created by Thallappakkam Annammacharya between 1425 and 1530 A.D.
➤ Purandaradasa (1460-1564) encouraged kirtis.
➤ The 17th century saw the glory of ‘Padmas’ songs composed by the great musician kshetrangna.
➤ New forms that came in existence in 18th century are -Pada varnas, Tana Varnas, Swarajati, Jatiswara, Ragwhalika, Tillanas, Javalis etc.
➤ Subbarama Dikshitar (1859- 1906) produced the “Sangeetha Sampradaya Pradarshani” which consisted of his collection of Rag Lakshmas, Gamakas, Songs, Varnas,Ragamalikas etc.
➤ In the 19th and 20th century musician like Veenai Dhanammal, Maha Vaidyanatha Iyer, and Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar contributed to the Carnatic Music.
➤ Nadopasakas of the 20th century, with their excellent renderings and compositions enlarged the dimensions of music further.
➤ This music type developed in Northern India.
➤ The Hindustani branch of music focuses more on the musical structure and the possibilities of improvisation in it.
➤ The Hindustani branch adopted a scale of Shudha Swara Saptaka or the ‘Octave of Natural notes’.
➤ There are ten main style of singing in Hindustani music like the Dhrupad, Dhamar, Hori, Khayal, Chaturang, Ragasagar, Tarana, Sargam and Thumri.
➤ It has six primary ragas i.e.
Bhairava, Kaushika, Hindola, Dipak, Sri raga, & Megh.
Ragas Timing Moods
|Bhairava||Dawn||awe & fear|
|Gwalior Gharana||Gwalior||Nanthan Khan|
|Agra Gharana||Agra||Haji Sujan Khan|
|Rangeela Gharana||Agra||Faiyyaz Khan|
|Jaipur Atroli||Jaipur||Alladiya Khan|
|Kirana Gharana||Avadh||Abdul Wahid Khan|
|Bhimsen Joshi||Kirana||Pandit Jasraj||Mewati|
|Kishori Amolkar||Jaipur||Gangubhai Hangal||Kirana|
|Mallikarjun Mansur Ghulam Ali||Gwalior|
|Sharafat Hussein Khan||Agra|
> This music type developed in Southern Part of India which includes Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
> The music is Kriti based and focuses more on the Saahitya or lyric quality of the musical piece.
>■ The Kriti is a highly evolved musical song set to a certain taga and fixed tala or rhythmic cycle.
|Ragam-Tanam-||Eleborate rhythmic and melodic variation in|
|Kritti-Kirtnai||Most popular. It refers to devotional music laced with poetic beauty.|
|Varnam||Performed at the beginning of a concert. It is a completely composed piece, designed to show the characteristic phrases.|
|Padam||Slower tempoed love songs referring to the human yearning for the adored God head.|
|Javalis||Faster tempoed love songs with direct description of human love.|
|Tillana||Meaningful phrases are interspersed with a variety|
Difference between Hindustani Music and Carnatic Music
|Points of Difference||Hindustani Music||Carnatic Music|
|Influence||Arab, Persian and Afghan||Indigenous|
|Freedom||scope for artists to improvise||No freedom to improvise|
|Sub style||several subtypes related with ‘Gharanas’||Only one particular prescribed style of singing.|
|Ragas||6 major ragas||72 ragas|
|Time||Adheres to time||Doesn’t adhere to any time|
|Need for Instrument||Equally important as vocals||More emphasis on vocal music|
|Instruments||Tabla, Sarangi, Sitar and Santoor.||Veena, Mrindangum and Mandolin|
|Association to parts of India||North India||South India|
➤ Each state of India has its own form of music that is the basis of their cultural affirmation, the folk tradition is the music of the people and has no hard and fast rules.
➤ Wonawan : It is the folk music from Kashmir, sung during wedding ceremonies and is considerered very auspicious.
➤ Pandwani : It is the folk music of Chhattisgarh, which is based on grand epic Mahabharata. Well known artists Tijanbai related with this music.
➤ Alha : This is the folk music of Madhya Pradesh and Bundel Khanda
(U.P.), it is a heroic ballad song with intricate words.
➤ Ovi : This is music of Maharashtra & Goa, sung by women.
➤ Pai song : It is folk music of Madhya Pradesh sung during festivals.
➤ Maand : It is folk music of Rajasthan. The songs are usually about the bards singing the glory of the Rajput Rulers.
➤ Powada : It is folk music of Maharashtra. They are usually ballads sung for the heros of the post like Shivaji.
➤ Khongjom Parva : It is an important folk music from the state of Manipur.
➤ Sohar : It is folk song of Bihar, sung during childbirth.
➤ Bhagawati : It is folk song of Karnataka & Maharashtra.
➤ Rabinadranath Tagore : Composed unique songs under the title of Rabindra Sangeet.
➤ Kazi Nazrul Islam : The famous patriotic poet of Bengal.
➤ Subramaniam Bharati : Famous patriotic poet of Tamil literature.
➤ Amir Khusrau : At the court of Alauddin Khilji. He invented Sitar, Khayal & Qawwali. He invented Rekht, the precursor of Urdu language.
➤ Sadarang School : A school of Hindustani Music founded by Nyamat
➤ Adarang School : A school of Hindustani Music founded by Firoz Khan. It was known for its exquisite beauty & philosophical content in Khayal singing.
➤ Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande : Founded Morris College of Music at Lucknow. His pen name was Chatura. His works are Hindustani Sangeet Padhati, Abhinava Raga Manjari, A short Historical Survey of Music of Upper India, Lakhya Sangeeta etc.
➤ Vishnu Digambar Paluskar : A great musician, he founded Gandharva Mahavidyalaya & Prayag Samiti. His Ram-dhun music,
i.e. Raghupati Raghaba was sung during the Dandi March.
➤ Tansen : Adorned the court of Akbar. He authored Sangeeta Sara & Ragmala. He established Senia Gharana.
➤ Parandaradasa : Father of the Karnataka (Carnatic) music. He was the first to standardized teaching methods of music in India.
He wrote Maya Malavagaula.
➤ Muthuswami Dikhsitar : A well– known exponent of Karnataka music. He composed various ragas of Karnataka music. He invented techniques with certain complex use of varying tempo.
He innovated Violin in India.
➤ Thyagaraj : He was one of Trinity of Karnataka music-two others being Shyama Shastri & Swati Tirunal. His famous work is Bhakti Vijayam.
➤ Vidyaratna : He put Karnataka music on scientific lines. He wrote Sangitasastra.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS &
➤ Flute : Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Rajendra Prasada, Subhash Kamat, Narayan Ghosh, T Mahalingam
➤ Tabla : Ala Rakha Khan, Zakir Hussein, Ustad Shafat Ahmad Khan, Latif Khan, Sheikh Dawood, Fazl Quereshi, Swapna Choudhuri
➤ Violin : L Subramanyam, T N Krishnan, Lalgudi Jayaraman, L Shankar, N Rajan, B Sunderrajan
➤ Veena : S Balachander, Doraiswamy Iyenger, Kalyan Krishna
➤ Sitar : Pt. Ravishankar, Nishat Khan, Debu Choudhary, Shujjat Akhan, Imrat Khan, Shamim Ahmed Khan
➤ Veena : Vishvamohan Bhatta, Arsad Ali Khan
➤ Shehnai : Bismillah Khan
➤ Sarangi : Ramvatar Shashtri, Sabri Khan, Hanuman Mishra, Ram Narain
➤ Santoor : Shiv Kumar Sharma, Nandu Mule, Bhajan Sapori, Viraswami Pillai
➤ Harmonium : Purushottam Walawalker, Appa Jalgaonkar
➤ Pakhaj : Pagal Das, Chatrapati Singh
➤ Mridangam : Mani Ayyar, U Shivaraman
➤ Sarod : Debashish Bhattacharya, Zarin Daroowala, Brij Narayan, Amjad Ali Khan Bangash
➤ Bhimbetka, Jogimara, Adamgarh, Mirzapur, Kupagallu
➤ Rock Painting
➤ Depiction of hunting & animal scenes, also have some social scenes.
➤ This period mainly sees the use of red colour.
➤ Ajanta-Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh
(M.P.), Sittanavasal (T.N.)
➤ The walls of the caves have both murals and fresco paintings i.e.
painted on wet plaster. They use tempera style, i.e. use of pigments.
➤ Buddhist & Hindu religious & mythology were themes. Important among them are Dieing Princes, Mother & Child (all at Ajanta)
➤ At Sittanavasal, the theme is Jaina religion
➤ In Bengal
➤ IIIustrations on palm leaf and paper manuscripts and on the wooden covers.
➤ Inspired by Vajrayana School of Buddhism.
➤ In Vijayanagar
➤ On temple ceilings
➤ Characterised by earth stones and absence of blue colour.
➤ In Mewar of Rajasthan
➤ Known as Ragamala paintings.
Mainly on life of Krishna & his frolic with gopis.
➤ In Jodhpur and Nagaur
➤ Influenced by Mughal School
➤ Bold expression with broad fish eyes & highly stylized trees.
➤ A type of Rajasthani painting
➤ Lyrical beauty in its content
➤ Love scences of Radha and Krishna.
➤ In Kotah and Bundi regions
➤ About court scenes, nobles & lovers Apabhramsa School
➤ This School of painting originated either in Mewar of Rajasthan. It
➤ The charateristics of this school are : ● Bulging eyes (fish–shaped) ● Pointed nose ● Double Chin ● Predominant Chests ● Distorted hands and stiff figure ● Use of bright and gold colours ● Animals and birds represented like toys ● Lack of natural scenes ● Decorated margins Mughal School
➤ Although painting is treated as against Islam, it spread and developed under the Mughals and a new combination of Indo-Persian style developed under them. These paintings also had Buddhist and Central Asian and Mongoloid influences.
➤ The characterestics of this school are : ● Use of brilliant colours ● Variety of themes ● Ornamentation ● Realism ● Accuracy in line drawing ● Details and intricacies ● Perspective Pahari Painting
➤ In hill areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Main theme is love.
➤ Basohli – famous for primitive vigour and fierce vitality, bold lines and brilliant hot colours.
➤ Guler – lyrical and cool depiction of women in the absence of their lovers
➤ Kangra – fine and melodious – lines with female figures depicting delicate graces of feminism.
➤ Developed in kangra, Kullu, Chamba and Mandi region of Himachal Pradesh.
➤ Subjects of painting are Gita Govinda, Bhagwata Purana, Satsai of Biharilal and Nal Damyanti.
➤ Consists of Bijapuri and Golconda court paintings.
➤ Inspired by Mughal School
➤ Potrays royal taste in fruits, scented flowers and pets.
➤ Famous for its Glass painting
➤ Themes related to Vishnu, Shiva & Krishana
➤ Paintings made on Jackwood pasted with unbleached cloth.
➤ Paintings developed in Southern Karnataka.
➤ Major themes are the depiction of Hindu gods and goddesses.
➤ In this paintings ‘gesso paste’ is used which is a mixture of Zinc oxide and Arabic gum.
➤ Developed in Mithila region of Bihar.
➤ Common themes are religious motifs of the Hindus, including Krishna, Rama, Durga, Lakshmi and Shiva.
➤ Flowers, trees, animals, symbols, etc are used to fill any gaps in the paintings.
➤ Traditionally, these were painted on walls using rice paste and vegetable colours on a base of cow dung and mud.
➤ It is a traditional painting of Odisha.
➤ Painted on cloth.
➤ The themes of these paintings are Jagannath and Vaishnava cult, sometimes from Shakti and Shaiva cults.
➤ Raghurajpur on Odisha is known for this art form.
➤ Pattachitra on palm leaf is known as talapattachitra.
➤ This art developed in Bengal.
➤ Traditionally these were painted on cloth and told religious stories.
➤ These paintings are done on pats or scrolls.
➤ Gujarat tribal paintings Kalighat Painting
➤ Developed in Kolkata is 19th century.
➤ Water colours were used.
➤ The paintings depicted religious note, especially Hindu Gods and Goddesses.
➤ Developed in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
➤ Kalam made of sharp pointed bamboo, the base is cotton fabric while the colours used are vegetable dyes.
➤ The paintings depicts hindu mythology also chartwheel, lotus flower, animals and interlacing patterns of flowers and leaves.
➤ Developed in Jharkhand as scroll painting.
➤ These paintings are linked to the social and religious customs including giving alms and holding yajnas.
Tanjore Glass Paintings
➤ Its origin can be traced to the downfall of the Vijayanagar when a group of artist migrated to Mysore and Tanjore. It consists of pictures of child Krishna and other favourite divinities. It uses vivid colours on glass.
ART, ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
|Barabara & Nagarjuni||Gaya/Bihar||donated to Ajivika sects|
|Elephanta||Mumbai||Brahmanical temples flanked by elephant statues|
|Montpezir||Maharashtra||Portuguese settlement ruins|
|Bhaja||Maharashtra||18 Buddhist caves built for nuns|
|Bedsa||Maharashtra||Chaitya supported by Elephant carved pillars|
|Ellora||Aurangabad||Rashtrakuta & Chalukya temples|
|Aihole &||Karnataka||Consists of 70 temples of Nagar|
|Badami||style of different religions|
|Nasik||Maharashtra||23 Buddhist caves|
|Bagh||Madhya Pradesh (Malwa)||frescos & stone Sculpture|
|Undavalli||Andhra Pradesh||Granite Vishnu Statue|
|Udayagiri &||Odisha||Built by Kharavela for Jaina|
|Adhai Din ka Jhonpra||Qutubuddin Aibak||Ajmer|
|Qutub Minar||Qutubbudin Aibak,||Delhi|
|Tomb of Iltutmish||Iltutmish|
|Alai Darwaja||Alauddin Khalji||Delhi|
|Hauz Khas||Alauddin Khalji||Delhi|
|Mahal Hazaar Sitoon||Alauddin Khalji||Delhi|
|Jamait Khana Mosque||Alauddin Khalji||Delhi|
|Tughlaqabad Fort||Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq||Delhi|
|Tomb of Khan-i-Jahan||Jauna Shah||Delhi|
Tomb of Sikander Lodhi
|Jhanjhr Mosque||Ibrahim Shah Sharqi||Jaunpur|
|Lal Darwaza Mosque||Hussain Shah Sharqi||Jaunpur|
|Tomb of Ahmedshah||Muhammad Shah||Gujarat|
|Nagina Mosque||Mahmud Begarah||Gujarat|
|Jami Masjid||Husang Shah||Malwa|
|Hindola Mahal||Husang Shah||Malwa|
|Tomb of Husang Shah Palaces of Baaz Bahadur||Mahmud-I||Malwa|
|and Rupamati||Nasiruddin Shah||Malwa|
|Adina Mosque||Sikandar Shah||Bengal|
|Bara Sona Masjid||Nusrat Shah||Bengal|
|Qadam Rasool Masjid||Nusrat Shah||Bengal|
|Char Minar||Quli Qutubshah||Deccan|
|Jami Masjid (Gulbarga)||Alauddin Bahman Shah||Deccan|
|Gole Gumbad||Muhammad Adil Shah||Deccan|
|Tomb of Sher Shah Suri||Sher Shah||Sasaram (Bihar)|
|Qila-i-khuna Mosque||Sher Shah||Delhi|
|Purana Qila||Sher shah||Delhi|
|Humayun’s Tomb||Hamida Begum||Delhi|
|Fatehpur Sikri||Akbar||Sikri near Agra|
|Buland Darwaza||Akbar||Fatehpur Sikri|
|Jodha Bai Palace||Akbar||Fatehpur Sikri|
|Panch Mahal||Akbar||Fatehpur Sikri|
|Jami Masjid||Akbar||Fatehpur Sikri|
|Salim Chishti’s Tomb||Akbar||Fatehpur Sikri|
|Tomb of Itimadud Daula||Nur Jahan||Agra|
|Jahangir’s Tomb||Nur Jahan||Lahore|
|Rang Mahal||Shah Jahan||Agra|
|Moti Masjid||Shah Jahan||Agra|
|Red Fort||Shah Jahan||Delhi|
|Jama Masjid||Shah Jahan||Delhi|
|Taj Mahal||Shah Jahan||Agra|
|Shah Burj||Shah Jahan||Lahore|
|Rabia ud Dawan’s Tomb||Aurangzeb||Aurangabad|
|Caves||Ancient most, Influenced by religious practices.|
|Pillar||Adornes Ashokan Edicts||Rampurva, Sarnatha|
|Stupa||Buddhist religious||Sanchi, Amaravati,|
|architecture||Barhut, Nagarjuna- konda|
|Carved Railings||Adornes Stupas||Amaravati|
|Gandhara Art||First statue of Buddha-||Peshawar region &|
|a mixture of India & Greek method||Afghanistan|
|Mathura||Richly decorated deities of||Mathura|
|Hindu Art||Hindu temples of Nagara||Vidisa, Deogarh,|
|& Sikhara Styles||Tigawa, Eran, Aihole, Rajgriha|
|Pala School||Fine Hindu & Buddhist Statues||Nalanda, Bodh Gaya|
|Hoyasala Art||Mature plan & general||Mysore, Talakad,|
|Odisha School||Development of Shikharas||Bhubaneswar, Puri, Konark.|
|Vijaya Nagar School||Decorated pillared halls||Hampi|
|Nayak School||Temple complex||Madurai|
|Rajasthan||High platforms & minia-||Mt. Abu|
|Chalukyan||Mixture of Nagar &||Aihole, Pattdakal|
|School (Vesara)||Dravida styles, Chittor|
|Pallava School||Monolithic temples||Mahabalipuram|
|Chola School (Dravid)||Gopurams or Gates||Tanjore|
|Indo-Islamic||Arch, domes, vaultes,||Delhi, Agra, Jaunpur,|
|gardens, marble use pietradura||Bengal, Hyderabad.|
FAIRS AND FESTIVALS OF INDIA
➤ HINDU FESTIVALS : Maha Kumbh Mela (held 4 times in 12 years at Haridwar, Ujjain, Nasik and Prayag i.e. Allahabad). Vasanta Panchami, Shivaratri, Holi, Rama Navami, Vaisakhi, Ganga Dussehra, Deva Shayani Ekadeshi, Naga Panchami, Raksha Bandhan, Ganesh Chaturthi, Krishna Janmashtami, Pitrapaksh, Navaratri, Dussehra, Diwali (or Deepawali), Kartiki Purnima, Deva Prabodhani Ekadeshi.
➤ Muslim Festivals : Muharram, Shab-i-Barat, Ramzan (or Ramadan), Id- ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Zuha (or Azha or Bakra-Id), Barawafat (or Id-i-Milad), Giarahvin Sharif, Urs.
➤ Sikh Festivals : Baisakhi, Guruparb, Jaistha, Lohri
➤ Buddhist Festivals : Buddha Jayanti
■ Jain Festivals : Mahavira Jayanti, Paryushan, Ashtanika, Arathyatra
➤ Parsi Festivals : Jamshed-i-Navroz, Khordad Sal, Pateti.
➤ Secular Festivals : Republic Day, In Zarthost No Deeso dependence Day, Gandhi Jayanti, Children Day.
➤ Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu : Pongal, Tyagaraja Festival, Brahmotsavam, Teppem, Tamil and Telugu New Year Day, Madurai River Festival, Kaveri River Festival, Festival at Velanganni, Karthika Festival, Vaikuntha Ekadeshi, St. Thomas’ Day, Fire-Walking Festival.
➤ Arunachal Pradesh : Solung-Adi, Mopin-Adi, Murung, Buddha Mahotsava.
➤ Assam : Bhageli Bihu, Bohag Bihu (or Rangali Bihu), Kati Bihu (or Rangati Bihu).
■ Bengal : Gangasagar Mela, Ramakrishna Utsav, Dol Purnima, Jalpesh Mela, Naba Barsha.
■ Bihar : Chhath, Sarhul, Ramnavami
➤ Chhattisgarh : Bhoramdeo, Pola, Teeja Festival.
■ Goa : Zatra at Cansaulim, Feast of St. Francis Xavier, Carnival.
➤ Gujarat : Navratri, Modhera, Dhuleti.
➤ Himachal Pradesh : Lohri, Gochi, Phulaich, Minjar Mela, Jwalamukhi Fair
➤ Karnataka : Makara Sankranti, Ugadi, Karago, Feast of St. Philomena, Dasahra, Urs of Hazrat Khwaja Bande Nawaz Chisti, Headannointing ceremony (At Sravanbelagola)
➤ Jammu and Kashmir : Nav Warih, Sont,Vaisakhi, Jeth Ashtami, Mela Hemis Gompa, Har Navami, Pilgrimage to Amarnath Cave (Chhari Festival), Urs Shah Hamadan, Kichri Amavasya.
➤ Jharkhand : Sohrai, Sarhul.
■ Kerala : Thye Pongal, Vishu, Poorum, Onam.
➤ Maharashtra : Gudi Padva, Dev Divali, Navratri, Ganpati Festival.
➤ Manipur : Yaosang, Kang, Ningol Chakouba, Chumpha.
■ Odisha : Car Festival (at Puri) Bada Osha, Nuakhai.
➤ Mizoram : Minikut, Pawl Kut.
■ Nagaland : Nazu, Yemshe, Tuluni Festival.
➤ Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh : Gangaur, Teej, Pushkar Fair, Ghaila, Urs at Ajmer Sharif.
➤ Punjab : Chappar mela.
➤ Puducherry : Mascarade, Masi Magam Festival.
➤ Sikkim : Soga Dawa, Phang, Lhabsol, Losoong.
■ Tripura : Karchi Puja, Khatarua, Ker Puja, Tripureshvari Temple Festival.
➤ Uttarakhand : Bhitauli, Chhipla Jaat.
➤ Uttar Pradesh : Brahmotsav, Ram Navami, Bharat Milap, Sravana Festi-
|Chamundaraya Basti||Sravana Belagola|
|Bhoja Mandisvara Temple||Nandi|
|Kasi Visvesara Temple||Lakkundi|
|Visa Brahma Temple||Alampur|
|Pandava Ratha (Rockcut Chariot)||Mahabalipuram|
|Shore Temple (Shiva)||Mahabalipuram|
|Mahabodhi Temple||Bodh Gaya|
|Vimala Vasahi||Mount Abu|
|Temple No. III||Roda|
|Sas Bahu Temple||Gwalior|
|Kashi Vishvanatha Temple||Varanasi|
|Kandariya Mahadeva Temple||Khajuraho|
➤ Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Fine Arts) : It was established at New Delhi in 1954 to promote and propagate understanding of Indian Art (i.e., painting, sculpture, architecture and applied arts) both within and outside the country.
The Akademi has regional centres called Rashtriya Lalit Kala Kendras at Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai and Bhubaneshwar.
➤ Sangeet Natak Akademi (National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama) :
It was established in 1953 to promote the performing Indian arts (i.e., dance, drama and music) in collaboration with states and voluntary organisations.
➤ National School of Drama (NSD) : It was established in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi as a premier theatre institution. In 1975, it was registered as an autonomous institution, fully financed by the Department of Culture. The Diploma of NSD is recognised by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to M.A. Degree.
➤ Sahitya Akademi : It was established in March 1954 with the following objectives : (i) To develop Indian literature.
(ii) To set high literacy standards.
(iii) To foster and coordinate literacy activities in all the Indian languages.
(iv) To promote through them the cultural unity of the country.
➤ Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) : It was established in 1861 with the following objectives : (i) To conserve and preserve archaeological monuments and sites located in different parts of the country and maintain sites and remains.
(ii) To undertake explorations and excavations, epigraphic research, study of architecture and scientific studies and investigations.
➤ At present there are 3,606 centrally protected monuments of national importance which include 25 monuments in the list of world heritage.
➤ National Archives of India (NAI) : It was established on March 11, 1891 in Kolkata and known as Imperial Record Department till Independence.
It is the official custodian of all non-current records of permanent value of the Government of India and its predecessor bodies.
➤ Asiatic Society : It was established in 1784 at Kolkata by Sir William Jones, an eminent Indologist with the objective of inquiring into history, antiquities, arts, science and literature of Asia.
➤ Anthropological Survey of India : It was established in December, 1945 at Kolkata for the advancement of scientific research in Anthropology and allied disciplines. It collects authentic empirical data covering the entire range of human variation and culture.
➤ Zonal Cultural Centres : They have been setup for projecting, preserving and sustaining cultural kinship that transcends territorial limits.
There are seven such centres in the country :
1. North-Zone Cultural Centre, Patiala
2. East-Zone Cultural Centre, Kolkata (Shantiniketan)
3. South-Zone Cultrual Centre, Thanjavur
4. West-Zone Cultural Centre, Udaipur
5. North-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Allahabad
6. North-East Zone Cultural Centre, Dimapur
7. South-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Nagpur
➤ Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts : It was established in 1985 at New Delhi as a resource centre and database. It is visualised as a centre The democratic political system of our country is based on the values and principles enshrined in the constitution.