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Chapter 06. Art & Culture : India (History Notes)

ART & CULTURE : INDIA

Classical Dances

Classical
Daces
StatesExponentsRelated Styles
Odishi
Originated in 2nd century B.C., based on the Natya Shastra, Originated in temple during King Khaarvela reign, woven around Tribhanga pose
OdishaKelucharan Mahaptara, Pankaj Charan Das, Hare Krishna Behera, Sonal Mansingh, Kabita Dwivedi, Kiran Sehgal, Madhvi Mudgal, Sharon Lewon, Myrta Barvil, Indarani Rahman, Priyambada Mohanty.Mahars Devadasi, Gotipua, Tribhanga Mangalacharan Pallavi, Tarijhuma, Moksha, Majura
Bharata Natyam
Popular in South eastern of India .It follows principle of Natyashastra. It is a solo dance by women.
Tamil
Nadu
Rukmini Devi Arundale (of Kalakhestra Fame) T Balasarswathi, Yamini Krishna Murthy, Padma Subramaniyam, Mrinal- ini Sarabhai, Vaijayanti- mala Bali, Leela Samson.Sadir, Devadasi, Padanallur, Tanjore Alarippu, Jatiswaran, Shabdam, Varnanri- tya, Thillana
Kuchipudi
It is a variation of of Bharatnatyam.
It originated in a place called Kuchelapur. Performed by man attired like women.
Andhra
Pradesh
T Balasarswathi, Esther Sherman, Indrani Rahman, Swapna Sundari, Sobha Naidu, Raja Reddy, Radha Reddy, Vempati Chinna Satyam, Satyanarayanan Sharma, Sudha Sekhara, Rajaram Rao, G Sarala.Bhagavatalu, Bhagavata Themes, Manduka, Shabdam Balagopala Tavrang, Tala Chitra Nritya
Kathakali
(Ballet of East) Originated in Courts of Kings in which a story is related to the dance.
KeralaMukunda Raja (of Kalmandalam fame), Koppan Nair, Shanta Rao, Kanak Rele, Geeta Ganguly, V Kunju Kurupu, Gopinathan Krishnan, VN Menon.Open air stage, facial make up, Thiranottam
Mohiniattam
In the 19th century the King of Travancore Swatitirunal enouraged this
KeralaVitho Narayan Menon, Kalyani Amma Shanta Rao, Roshan Vajifdar, Bharati Shivaji, Kanak Rele.It has elements of both Kathakali & Bharatnattyam
ManipuriManipurJhaveri Sisters, Charu Mathur, Sadhona Bose, Bipin Singh, Rita Devi, Savita Mehta, Tandor Devi.Kamba Thoibi Pung drum,Choloms like Pung Cholom, Kartal Cholom, Dhol Cholom, Rasleela, Tandava, gorgeous costumes.
Kathak
Flourished in North Indian
princely states Jaipur, Lucknow and Banaras.
It is a dance based on story from epic about Radha and Krishna
U.P.Birju Maharaj,Kalka-Binda Gharana, Kumdini Lakhia, Damayanti Joshi,Rani Karna, Saswati Sen, Roshan Kumari, Gopi Krishna, Sitara Devi, Sambhu Maharaj, Ananda Shankar,Shovna Narayan, Bhandana Mangal, Kulgrani Bhatt, Gitanjali Lal.Rasleela, Nautch, four Gharanas, Salami, Vandana, Aamad, Gatnikaas, Padhant, Karmalya, Ballets.
Sattriya
This dance form was
introduced by the
Vaishnava saint
Shankardeva in 15th
century A.D. The art form derives its name from the Vaishnava Monasteries known as Sattras. The Dance Form was an amalgamation of Ojapali and Devdasi dance.
AssamMoniram Dutta Muktiyar Barbayan, Bapuram Bayan Attai, Pradip Chaliha, Manik Barbayan, Jogen Dutta Bayan, Anita Sarma, Sarodi SaikiaDevotional aspect of dance and narrates mythological stories of Vishnu, Borgeet, dance posture along with footwork, hand gesture and footwork, Gayan-Bhayanar and Kharmanar Nach, Sutradhari, Rajaghoria, Chali, Jhumura, Krishna Nritya.

.
FOLK, TRIBAL AND REGIONAL DANCES
Jammu & Kashmir :
➤ Rauf : by women during harvest,
➤ Hikat : expression of joy and love by boys and girls, Damali : by men in temple,
➤ Lhapas & Manipas : Ladakh,
➤ Dandi Nacha : bomboostic dance,
➤ Dumhal, Bhacha Nagma, Chhakri, Kud, Phumania : by Wattal Tribe Punjab :
➤ Giddha : by women at harvest,
➤ Bhangra : by both men & women Rajasthan :
➤ Chakri serpent, Gangore, Ginad, Gopika Leela, Kalibelia, Jhulan, Jhumar, Khayal, Susini.
Haryana :
➤ Daph, Dhamal, Gugga, Gagor, Jhumar, Koria, Loor, Phag.
Himachal Pradesh :
➤ Bhavi, Chharba, Dangi, Jadda, Jhainta, Kinnaur, Mahasu, Thoda, Thali.
Gujarat :
➤ Bhavi, Garba, Dandiya Rass, Tripani, Gomph, Zeriyun, Gheriya Raas.
Uttar Pradesh :
➤ Rass leela, Dadra, Kajari, Jhora, Nautanki, Chappeli.
Bihar/Jharkhand :
➤ Jatra, Natua, Jijhiya, Barlanga Dance, Karma, Kathaputli, Bakho, Jat-Jatin, Paika, Biraha, Samachakya.
Madhya Pradesh :
➤ Dagla, Jawara, Ghera.
Odisha :
➤ Dandanatta, Chhau, Yatra, Ghumara, Bharat Leela, Dalkhai, Chaitri Ghorha, Jadur.
Maharashtra :
➤ Katha, Tamasha, Lavani, Gafa, Karku, Mauni, Dahikala, Lezim.
Bengal :
➤ Kathi Dance, Baul dance, Chhau, Brita Assam :
➤ Canoe Dance, Tabal Chongbi
(Holi), Rakhal Leela, Bihu, Khela, Gopala, Jata Jatin Manipur :
➤ Ras Dances, Khamba Thoibi, Pung, Cholan Andhra Pradesh :
➤ Ghanta Mardala, Banjara, Burrakatha Karnataka :
➤ Huttari, Suggi, Yakshagana, Dholu Kunitha, Bhootha Aradhane Tamil Nadu :
➤ Kolattam, Kavadiattam, Karagam, Kummi Kerala :
➤ Kudiyattam, Kaliyattam, Kaikottikali, Ottam Tullal, Sari, Tappatrikkali, Padayani Uttarakhand
➤ Jhumelia, Chaunfla, Harkia Baul, Chholiya Lakhsadweep :
➤ Lava, Bhavada Tripura :
➤ Hajagiri Nagaland : PUPPET DANCES
Kathaputli : Rajasthan Sakhi Kundhei : Odisha Pudda Nach : Assam Malasutri Bahuly : Maharashtra Bommalattam : Tamil Nadu Tolpavakootu : Kerala Kundeinachhha : Odisha Pava Kathakali : Kerala Kathikundhei : Odisha Gombeyatta : Karnataka Yampuri : Bihar Putul Nacch : West Bengal Ravanchhaya : Odisha MARTIAL DANCES
Gatka : Punjab Paika : Odisha Thag Ta : Manipur Kalaripayattu : Kerala Choliya : Uttarakhand Pang Lhabosol : Sikkim Kolkali Parichakali : Kerla & Lakshdweep DRAMA
Modern Drama In India
➤ Geratin Lebedev – began drama
(1795)
➤ Krishnaji Prabhakar Khadilkar – Kichaka Vadha
➤ Aga Harsha Kashmir – Urdu Theatere (Shakespeare of India)
➤ Bhartendu Harish Chandra – Bharat Durdasa
➤ Mohan Rakesh-Ashadha Ka Ek Din, Adhe Adhure, Lahraon Ka Rajhansa
➤ Dharmaveer Bharati- Andha Yuga
➤ Vijay Tendulkar-Ghasiram Kotwale
➤ Habib Tanvir – Mitti Ki Gadis, Charandas Chor
➤ Girish Kannad – Yajati, Tughlaq, Hayavadan
➤ Babban Khan – Adrak Ke Panje
➤ Sanjana Kapoor – Prithvi Theatre.
Folk Theatres
Theatre State Importance
Mudiyettu Kerala performed as a ritual in Kali temples Krishnattam Tamil Nadu depiction of life of Lord Krishna Kudiyattam Kerala elaborate presentation of Sanskrit dramas Theyyam Kerala a form of ancestor worship Ankianat Assam an one act play about religious themes Bhavai Rajasthan rituals to propitiate the mother Goddess Saang Haryana legend, dancing & singing interwoven with comic scenes Jashin Jammu & honouring Gods & have end with Kashmir comedy. Actors mingle with people Keryala Himachal about questions of life & death Pradesh Khyal Rajasthan cultural & social education through singing & musical instruments Tamasha Maharashtra a singing & dancing party about political & social themes Therukkoothu Tamil Nadu a street theatre of dance & music Yatra Odisha about social & religious themes Zaratra (Zatuas) Goa annual celebration of a particular deity of a particular temples Nautanki Uttar Pradesh a music theatre Macha Madhya stage shows on the day of Holi Pradesh about mythological stories Rasleela Uttar Pradesh about life of Lord Krishna
➤ Folk theatres of Ancient and Medieval India have been described in the uparupakas by Sanskrit dramaturgists.
➤ It was Tulsidas who first started the tradition of performing plays narrating the story of Lord Rama at Kasi.
MODERN THEATRE
➤ The year 1801 marked the begining of Modern Indian theatre, when Prassanna Kumar Thakur established Hindi Rang Mancha at Calcutta.
➤ Girish Chandra Ghosh is related with Brocial dramas.
➤ D.L.Roy is related with historical plays.
by Bijon Bhattacharya and directed by Sambhu Mitra.
➤ Bahuroopi is a Sambhu Mitra’s drama group which is popular in Bengal.
➤ The popular play Sita Swayamvar was directed by Vishnu Das Bhave.
➤ Popular plays Giddha, Kamala and Shakkaram Binder are written MUSIC
➤ Earliest text was Bharat Muni’s Natya Shastra
➤ Science of Music : Gandharva Veda
➤ Sama veda contains : The method of recital of music
➤ Brihaddesi by Matanga defines & classified the Ragas
➤ Baiju Babra is father of Hindustani Music.
➤ Haridas Swami, Guru of Tansen, modified ancient style of Dhrupad.
➤ Wazid Ali Shah is considered as the innovator of the Thumari form.
➤ The Nawab of Rampur devised a system of notation and classification of Ragas under ‘Thats’.
➤ Mustak Hussain Khan, Haffeez Ahmad Khan and Ustad Fida Hussain Khan popularised Hindustani vocal music in the west.
➤ The origin of Khayal is attributed to Amir Khusro.
➤ Qawwali is an innovation of Amir Khusro.
➤ Mirza Galib is regarded as the father of Ghazals.
➤ Dhun is free from formal ragas desciplines composed on the basis of folk music.
➤ Gat is a well–defined composition and it is preceded by the Alap.
➤ Dhamur Veena the bow shaped harp is considered the oldest insturment.
➤ Tamil and Dravidian music derived inspiration from Thevaram and Silpadikaram.
➤ The Golden age of the Carnatic music was the period of Venkatamakhin.
➤ Carnatic music reached its zenith when Shyama Shatri, Muthuswami Dikshithar, Thyagaraja, and Swathi Tirunal elevated the standard with their
➤ Kirtis a new component of Carnatic music was created by Thallappakkam Annammacharya between 1425 and 1530 A.D.
➤ Purandaradasa (1460-1564) encouraged kirtis.
➤ The 17th century saw the glory of ‘Padmas’ songs composed by the great musician kshetrangna.
➤ New forms that came in existence in 18th century are -Pada varnas, Tana Varnas, Swarajati, Jatiswara, Ragwhalika, Tillanas, Javalis etc.
➤ Subbarama Dikshitar (1859- 1906) produced the “Sangeetha Sampradaya Pradarshani” which consisted of his collection of Rag Lakshmas, Gamakas, Songs, Varnas,Ragamalikas etc.
➤ In the 19th and 20th century musician like Veenai Dhanammal, Maha Vaidyanatha Iyer, and Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar contributed to the Carnatic Music.
➤ Nadopasakas of the 20th century, with their excellent renderings and compositions enlarged the dimensions of music further.
HINDUSTANI MUSIC
➤ This music type developed in Northern India.
➤ The Hindustani branch of music focuses more on the musical structure and the possibilities of improvisation in it.
➤ The Hindustani branch adopted a scale of Shudha Swara Saptaka or the ‘Octave of Natural notes’.
➤ There are ten main style of singing in Hindustani music like the Dhrupad, Dhamar, Hori, Khayal, Chaturang, Ragasagar, Tarana, Sargam and Thumri.
➤ It has six primary ragas i.e.
Bhairava, Kaushika, Hindola, Dipak, Sri raga, & Megh.
Six Ragas
Ragas Timing Moods

RagasTimingMoods
BhairavaDawnawe & fear
KaushikaNightj°y
HindolaNightlaughter
DipakAfternoonlove
MeghMorningcalm
SriragaEveningpeace

NamePlaceFounder
Gwalior GharanaGwaliorNanthan Khan
Agra GharanaAgraHaji Sujan Khan
Rangeela GharanaAgraFaiyyaz Khan
Jaipur AtroliJaipurAlladiya Khan
Kirana GharanaAvadhAbdul Wahid Khan

GHARANAS

SingerGharanasSingerGharanas
Bhimsen JoshiKiranaPandit JasrajMewati
Kishori AmolkarJaipurGangubhai HangalKirana
Mallikarjun Mansur Ghulam AliGwalior
Agra
Sharafat Hussein KhanAgra

CARNATIC MUSIC
> This music type developed in Southern Part of India which includes Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
> The music is Kriti based and focuses more on the Saahitya or lyric quality of the musical piece.
>■ The Kriti is a highly evolved musical song set to a certain taga and fixed tala or rhythmic cycle.

Carnatic Music
TypesMeaning
Ragam-Tanam-Eleborate rhythmic and melodic variation in
Pallaviunmeasured sense.
Kritti-KirtnaiMost popular. It refers to devotional music laced with poetic beauty.
VarnamPerformed at the beginning of a concert. It is a completely composed piece, designed to show the characteristic phrases.
PadamSlower tempoed love songs referring to the human yearning for the adored God head.
JavalisFaster tempoed love songs with direct description of human love.
TillanaMeaningful phrases are interspersed with a variety

Difference between Hindustani Music and Carnatic Music

Points of DifferenceHindustani MusicCarnatic Music
InfluenceArab, Persian and AfghanIndigenous
Freedomscope for artists to improviseNo freedom to improvise
Sub styleseveral subtypes related with ‘Gharanas’Only one particular prescribed style of singing.
Ragas6 major ragas72 ragas
TimeAdheres to timeDoesn’t adhere to any time
Need for InstrumentEqually important as vocalsMore emphasis on vocal music
InstrumentsTabla, Sarangi, Sitar and Santoor.Veena, Mrindangum and Mandolin
Association to parts of IndiaNorth IndiaSouth India

Folk Music
➤ Each state of India has its own form of music that is the basis of their cultural affirmation, the folk tradition is the music of the people and has no hard and fast rules.
➤ Wonawan : It is the folk music from Kashmir, sung during wedding ceremonies and is considerered very auspicious.
➤ Pandwani : It is the folk music of Chhattisgarh, which is based on grand epic Mahabharata. Well known artists Tijanbai related with this music.
➤ Alha : This is the folk music of Madhya Pradesh and Bundel Khanda
(U.P.), it is a heroic ballad song with intricate words.
➤ Ovi : This is music of Maharashtra & Goa, sung by women.
➤ Pai song : It is folk music of Madhya Pradesh sung during festivals.
➤ Maand : It is folk music of Rajasthan. The songs are usually about the bards singing the glory of the Rajput Rulers.
➤ Powada : It is folk music of Maharashtra. They are usually ballads sung for the heros of the post like Shivaji.
➤ Khongjom Parva : It is an important folk music from the state of Manipur.
➤ Sohar : It is folk song of Bihar, sung during childbirth.
➤ Bhagawati : It is folk song of Karnataka & Maharashtra.
FAMOUS PERSONALITIES
➤ Rabinadranath Tagore : Composed unique songs under the title of Rabindra Sangeet.
➤ Kazi Nazrul Islam : The famous patriotic poet of Bengal.
➤ Subramaniam Bharati : Famous patriotic poet of Tamil literature.
➤ Amir Khusrau : At the court of Alauddin Khilji. He invented Sitar, Khayal & Qawwali. He invented Rekht, the precursor of Urdu language.
➤ Sadarang School : A school of Hindustani Music founded by Nyamat
➤ Adarang School : A school of Hindustani Music founded by Firoz Khan. It was known for its exquisite beauty & philosophical content in Khayal singing.
➤ Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande : Founded Morris College of Music at Lucknow. His pen name was Chatura. His works are Hindustani Sangeet Padhati, Abhinava Raga Manjari, A short Historical Survey of Music of Upper India, Lakhya Sangeeta etc.
➤ Vishnu Digambar Paluskar : A great musician, he founded Gandharva Mahavidyalaya & Prayag Samiti. His Ram-dhun music,
i.e. Raghupati Raghaba was sung during the Dandi March.
➤ Tansen : Adorned the court of Akbar. He authored Sangeeta Sara & Ragmala. He established Senia Gharana.
➤ Parandaradasa : Father of the Karnataka (Carnatic) music. He was the first to standardized teaching methods of music in India.
He wrote Maya Malavagaula.
➤ Muthuswami Dikhsitar : A well– known exponent of Karnataka music. He composed various ragas of Karnataka music. He invented techniques with certain complex use of varying tempo.
He innovated Violin in India.
➤ Thyagaraj : He was one of Trinity of Karnataka music-two others being Shyama Shastri & Swati Tirunal. His famous work is Bhakti Vijayam.
➤ Vidyaratna : He put Karnataka music on scientific lines. He wrote Sangitasastra.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS &
PERSONS
➤ Flute : Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Rajendra Prasada, Subhash Kamat, Narayan Ghosh, T Mahalingam
➤ Tabla : Ala Rakha Khan, Zakir Hussein, Ustad Shafat Ahmad Khan, Latif Khan, Sheikh Dawood, Fazl Quereshi, Swapna Choudhuri
➤ Violin : L Subramanyam, T N Krishnan, Lalgudi Jayaraman, L Shankar, N Rajan, B Sunderrajan
➤ Veena : S Balachander, Doraiswamy Iyenger, Kalyan Krishna
➤ Sitar : Pt. Ravishankar, Nishat Khan, Debu Choudhary, Shujjat Akhan, Imrat Khan, Shamim Ahmed Khan
➤ Veena : Vishvamohan Bhatta, Arsad Ali Khan
➤ Shehnai : Bismillah Khan
➤ Sarangi : Ramvatar Shashtri, Sabri Khan, Hanuman Mishra, Ram Narain
➤ Santoor : Shiv Kumar Sharma, Nandu Mule, Bhajan Sapori, Viraswami Pillai
➤ Harmonium : Purushottam Walawalker, Appa Jalgaonkar
➤ Pakhaj : Pagal Das, Chatrapati Singh
➤ Mridangam : Mani Ayyar, U Shivaraman
➤ Sarod : Debashish Bhattacharya, Zarin Daroowala, Brij Narayan, Amjad Ali Khan Bangash
PAINTINGS
Prehistroic Paintings
➤ Bhimbetka, Jogimara, Adamgarh, Mirzapur, Kupagallu
➤ Rock Painting
➤ Depiction of hunting & animal scenes, also have some social scenes.
➤ This period mainly sees the use of red colour.
Cave Painting
➤ Ajanta-Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh
(M.P.), Sittanavasal (T.N.)
➤ The walls of the caves have both murals and fresco paintings i.e.
painted on wet plaster. They use tempera style, i.e. use of pigments.
➤ Buddhist & Hindu religious & mythology were themes. Important among them are Dieing Princes, Mother & Child (all at Ajanta)
➤ At Sittanavasal, the theme is Jaina religion
Pala School
➤ In Bengal
➤ IIIustrations on palm leaf and paper manuscripts and on the wooden covers.
➤ Inspired by Vajrayana School of Buddhism.
Lepakshi School
➤ In Vijayanagar
➤ On temple ceilings
➤ Characterised by earth stones and absence of blue colour.
Mewar School
➤ In Mewar of Rajasthan
➤ Known as Ragamala paintings.
Mainly on life of Krishna & his frolic with gopis.
Marwar School
➤ In Jodhpur and Nagaur
➤ Influenced by Mughal School
➤ Bold expression with broad fish eyes & highly stylized trees.
Kishangarh School
➤ A type of Rajasthani painting
➤ Lyrical beauty in its content
➤ Love scences of Radha and Krishna.
Bundi School
➤ In Kotah and Bundi regions
➤ About court scenes, nobles & lovers Apabhramsa School
➤ This School of painting originated either in Mewar of Rajasthan. It
➤ The charateristics of this school are : ● Bulging eyes (fish–shaped) ● Pointed nose ● Double Chin ● Predominant Chests ● Distorted hands and stiff figure ● Use of bright and gold colours ● Animals and birds represented like toys ● Lack of natural scenes ● Decorated margins Mughal School
➤ Although painting is treated as against Islam, it spread and developed under the Mughals and a new combination of Indo-Persian style developed under them. These paintings also had Buddhist and Central Asian and Mongoloid influences.
➤ The characterestics of this school are : ● Use of brilliant colours ● Variety of themes ● Ornamentation ● Realism ● Accuracy in line drawing ● Details and intricacies ● Perspective Pahari Painting
➤ In hill areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Main theme is love.
➤ Basohli – famous for primitive vigour and fierce vitality, bold lines and brilliant hot colours.
➤ Guler – lyrical and cool depiction of women in the absence of their lovers
➤ Kangra – fine and melodious – lines with female figures depicting delicate graces of feminism.
➤ Developed in kangra, Kullu, Chamba and Mandi region of Himachal Pradesh.
➤ Subjects of painting are Gita Govinda, Bhagwata Purana, Satsai of Biharilal and Nal Damyanti.
Hyderabadi Style
➤ Consists of Bijapuri and Golconda court paintings.
➤ Inspired by Mughal School
➤ Potrays royal taste in fruits, scented flowers and pets.
Tanjore Style
➤ Famous for its Glass painting
➤ Themes related to Vishnu, Shiva & Krishana
➤ Paintings made on Jackwood pasted with unbleached cloth.
Mysore Paintings
➤ Paintings developed in Southern Karnataka.
➤ Major themes are the depiction of Hindu gods and goddesses.
➤ In this paintings ‘gesso paste’ is used which is a mixture of Zinc oxide and Arabic gum.
Madhubani Style
➤ Developed in Mithila region of Bihar.
➤ Common themes are religious motifs of the Hindus, including Krishna, Rama, Durga, Lakshmi and Shiva.
➤ Flowers, trees, animals, symbols, etc are used to fill any gaps in the paintings.
➤ Traditionally, these were painted on walls using rice paste and vegetable colours on a base of cow dung and mud.
Pattachitra
➤ It is a traditional painting of Odisha.
➤ Painted on cloth.
➤ The themes of these paintings are Jagannath and Vaishnava cult, sometimes from Shakti and Shaiva cults.
➤ Raghurajpur on Odisha is known for this art form.
➤ Pattachitra on palm leaf is known as talapattachitra.
Patua Style
➤ This art developed in Bengal.
➤ Traditionally these were painted on cloth and told religious stories.
➤ These paintings are done on pats or scrolls.
Pithoro Style
➤ Gujarat tribal paintings Kalighat Painting
➤ Developed in Kolkata is 19th century.
➤ Water colours were used.
➤ The paintings depicted religious note, especially Hindu Gods and Goddesses.
Kalamkari Paintings
➤ Developed in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
➤ Kalam made of sharp pointed bamboo, the base is cotton fabric while the colours used are vegetable dyes.
➤ The paintings depicts hindu mythology also chartwheel, lotus flower, animals and interlacing patterns of flowers and leaves.
Paitkar Paintings
➤ Developed in Jharkhand as scroll painting.
➤ These paintings are linked to the social and religious customs including giving alms and holding yajnas.
Tanjore Glass Paintings
➤ Its origin can be traced to the downfall of the Vijayanagar when a group of artist migrated to Mysore and Tanjore. It consists of pictures of child Krishna and other favourite divinities. It uses vivid colours on glass.
ART, ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Important Caves

Barabara & NagarjuniGaya/Bihardonated to Ajivika sects
ElephantaMumbaiBrahmanical temples flanked by elephant statues
KanheriKonkanBuddhist Chaitya
JogeswariSalsette/
Maharashtra
Mahayan Architecture
MontpezirMaharashtraPortuguese settlement ruins
KarleMaharashtraHinayana Chaitya
BhajaMaharashtra18 Buddhist caves built for nuns
BedsaMaharashtraChaitya supported by Elephant carved pillars
ElloraAurangabadRashtrakuta & Chalukya temples
AjantaAurangabadFresco Paintings
Aihole &KarnatakaConsists of 70 temples of Nagar
Badamistyle of different religions
NasikMaharashtra23 Buddhist caves
JunagarhGujaratBuddhist caves
BaghMadhya Pradesh (Malwa)frescos & stone Sculpture
UndavalliAndhra PradeshGranite Vishnu Statue
Udayagiri &OdishaBuilt by Kharavela for Jaina
Khandagirimonks

Important Monument/Structure

Monument/StructureRulerLocation
Quwat-ul-IslamQutubuddin AibakDelhi
Adhai Din ka JhonpraQutubuddin AibakAjmer
Qutub MinarQutubbudin Aibak,Delhi
Tomb of IltutmishIltutmish
Iltutmish
Delhi
Sultan GarhiIltutmishDelhi
Balban’s TombBalbanDelhi
Alai DarwajaAlauddin KhaljiDelhi
SiriAlauddin KhaljiDelhi
Hauz KhasAlauddin KhaljiDelhi
Mahal Hazaar SitoonAlauddin KhaljiDelhi
Jamait Khana MosqueAlauddin KhaljiDelhi
Tughlaqabad FortGhiyasuddin TughlaqDelhi
Tomb of Khan-i-JahanJauna ShahDelhi
Maqbul
Tomb of Sikander Lodhi
Ibrahim LodhiDelhi
Jhanjhr MosqueIbrahim Shah SharqiJaunpur
Lal Darwaza MosqueHussain Shah SharqiJaunpur
Monument/StructureRulerLocation
Jami MasjidAhmedshahGujarat
Tomb of AhmedshahMuhammad ShahGujarat
Nagina MosqueMahmud BegarahGujarat
Jami MasjidHusang ShahMalwa
Hindola MahalHusang ShahMalwa
Jahaz MahalMahmud-IMalwa
Tomb of Husang Shah Palaces of Baaz BahadurMahmud-IMalwa
and RupamatiNasiruddin ShahMalwa
Adina MosqueSikandar ShahBengal
Bara Sona MasjidNusrat ShahBengal
Qadam Rasool MasjidNusrat ShahBengal
Char MinarQuli QutubshahDeccan
Jami Masjid (Gulbarga)Alauddin Bahman ShahDeccan
Gole GumbadMuhammad Adil ShahDeccan
Kabulibagh MosqueBaburPanipat
Jam-i-MasjidRuhelkhandSambhal
Fatehabad MosqueHumayunPunjab
Dinpanah cityHumayunDelhi
Tomb of Sher Shah SuriSher ShahSasaram (Bihar)
Qila-i-khuna MosqueSher ShahDelhi
Purana QilaSher shahDelhi
Humayun’s TombHamida BegumDelhi
Agra fortAkbarAgra
Jahangiri MahalAkbarAgra
Lahore fortAkbarLahore
Fatehpur SikriAkbarSikri near Agra
Diwan-i-AmAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Diwan-i-KhasAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Buland DarwazaAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Jodha Bai PalaceAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Panch MahalAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Jami MasjidAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Salim Chishti’s TombAkbarFatehpur Sikri
Akbar’s TombSikandraJahangir
Tomb of Itimadud DaulaNur JahanAgra
Jahangir’s TombNur JahanLahore
Diwan-i-AmShah JahanAgra
Diwan-i-KhasShah JahanAgra
Rang MahalShah JahanAgra
Moti MasjidShah JahanAgra
Red FortShah JahanDelhi
Jama MasjidShah JahanDelhi
Taj MahalShah JahanAgra
ShahjahanabadShah JahanDelhi
Shah BurjShah JahanLahore
Rabia ud Dawan’s TombAurangzebAurangabad
Badshahi MosqueAurangzebLahore

IMPORTANT SCULPTURES

SculuptureFeaturesPlace
CavesAncient most, Influenced by religious practices.
PillarAdornes Ashokan EdictsRampurva, Sarnatha
StupaBuddhist religiousSanchi, Amaravati,
architectureBarhut, Nagarjuna- konda
Carved RailingsAdornes StupasAmaravati
Gandhara ArtFirst statue of Buddha-Peshawar region &
a mixture of India & Greek methodAfghanistan
MathuraRichly decorated deities ofMathura
Schoolall religion
Hindu ArtHindu temples of NagaraVidisa, Deogarh,
& Sikhara StylesTigawa, Eran, Aihole, Rajgriha
Pala SchoolFine Hindu & Buddhist StatuesNalanda, Bodh Gaya
Hoyasala ArtMature plan & generalMysore, Talakad,
arrangementHalebid
Odisha SchoolDevelopment of ShikharasBhubaneswar, Puri, Konark.
Chandela
School
Erotic sculptureKhajuraho
Vijaya Nagar SchoolDecorated pillared hallsHampi
Nayak SchoolTemple complexMadurai
RajasthanHigh platforms & minia-Mt. Abu
Schoolture towers
ChalukyanMixture of Nagar &Aihole, Pattdakal
School (Vesara)Dravida styles, Chittor
Pallava SchoolMonolithic templesMahabalipuram
Chola School (Dravid)Gopurams or GatesTanjore
Indo-IslamicArch, domes, vaultes,Delhi, Agra, Jaunpur,
gardens, marble use pietraduraBengal, Hyderabad.

FAIRS AND FESTIVALS OF INDIA
HINDU FESTIVALS : Maha Kumbh Mela (held 4 times in 12 years at Haridwar, Ujjain, Nasik and Prayag i.e. Allahabad). Vasanta Panchami, Shivaratri, Holi, Rama Navami, Vaisakhi, Ganga Dussehra, Deva Shayani Ekadeshi, Naga Panchami, Raksha Bandhan, Ganesh Chaturthi, Krishna Janmashtami, Pitrapaksh, Navaratri, Dussehra, Diwali (or Deepawali), Kartiki Purnima, Deva Prabodhani Ekadeshi.
Muslim Festivals : Muharram, Shab-i-Barat, Ramzan (or Ramadan), Id- ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Zuha (or Azha or Bakra-Id), Barawafat (or Id-i-Milad), Giarahvin Sharif, Urs.
Sikh Festivals : Baisakhi, Guruparb, Jaistha, Lohri
Buddhist Festivals : Buddha Jayanti
Jain Festivals : Mahavira Jayanti, Paryushan, Ashtanika, Arathyatra
Parsi Festivals : Jamshed-i-Navroz, Khordad Sal, Pateti.
Secular Festivals : Republic Day, In Zarthost No Deeso dependence Day, Gandhi Jayanti, Children Day.
REGIONAL FESTIVALS
Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu : Pongal, Tyagaraja Festival, Brahmotsavam, Teppem, Tamil and Telugu New Year Day, Madurai River Festival, Kaveri River Festival, Festival at Velanganni, Karthika Festival, Vaikuntha Ekadeshi, St. Thomas’ Day, Fire-Walking Festival.
Arunachal Pradesh : Solung-Adi, Mopin-Adi, Murung, Buddha Mahotsava.
Assam : Bhageli Bihu, Bohag Bihu (or Rangali Bihu), Kati Bihu (or Rangati Bihu).
Bengal : Gangasagar Mela, Ramakrishna Utsav, Dol Purnima, Jalpesh Mela, Naba Barsha.
Bihar : Chhath, Sarhul, Ramnavami
Chhattisgarh : Bhoramdeo, Pola, Teeja Festival.
Goa : Zatra at Cansaulim, Feast of St. Francis Xavier, Carnival.
Gujarat : Navratri, Modhera, Dhuleti.
Himachal Pradesh : Lohri, Gochi, Phulaich, Minjar Mela, Jwalamukhi Fair
Karnataka : Makara Sankranti, Ugadi, Karago, Feast of St. Philomena, Dasahra, Urs of Hazrat Khwaja Bande Nawaz Chisti, Headannointing ceremony (At Sravanbelagola)
Jammu and Kashmir : Nav Warih, Sont,Vaisakhi, Jeth Ashtami, Mela Hemis Gompa, Har Navami, Pilgrimage to Amarnath Cave (Chhari Festival), Urs Shah Hamadan, Kichri Amavasya.
Jharkhand : Sohrai, Sarhul.
Kerala : Thye Pongal, Vishu, Poorum, Onam.
Maharashtra : Gudi Padva, Dev Divali, Navratri, Ganpati Festival.
Manipur : Yaosang, Kang, Ningol Chakouba, Chumpha.
Odisha : Car Festival (at Puri) Bada Osha, Nuakhai.
Mizoram : Minikut, Pawl Kut.
Nagaland : Nazu, Yemshe, Tuluni Festival.
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh : Gangaur, Teej, Pushkar Fair, Ghaila, Urs at Ajmer Sharif.
Punjab : Chappar mela.
Puducherry : Mascarade, Masi Magam Festival.
Sikkim : Soga Dawa, Phang, Lhabsol, Losoong.
Tripura : Karchi Puja, Khatarua, Ker Puja, Tripureshvari Temple Festival.
Uttarakhand : Bhitauli, Chhipla Jaat.
Uttar Pradesh : Brahmotsav, Ram Navami, Bharat Milap, Sravana Festi-

TemplesPlaces
Dharmaraya RathaMahabalipuram
Kailasa VimanaEllora
Vaikunthaperumal TempleKanchipuram
Valisvara TempleTiruvalisvaram
Vijayalaya CholesvaramNartamali
Chamundaraya BastiSravana Belagola
Panchakuta BastiKambadahalli
Bhoja Mandisvara TempleNandi
Malegitti ShivalayaBadami
Brihadesvara VimanaThanjavur
Airavatesvara VimanaDarasuram
Nataraja TempleChidambaram
Kasi Visvesara TempleLakkundi
Arunachala TempleTiruvannamali
Vitthala TempleHampi
JalakanthesvaraVellore
Ranganatha TempleSrirangam
Vatapatrasyi TempleSrivilliputur
Subrahmanya TempleTanjore
Aghoresvara TempleIkkeri
Visa Brahma TempleAlampur
Vadakkunatnan TempleTrichur
Pandava Ratha (Rockcut Chariot)Mahabalipuram
Shore Temple (Shiva)Mahabalipuram
Meenakshi TempleMadurai
Manjunath TempleMangalore
Rameshvaram TempleRameshvaram
Halebid TempleHalebid
Gupta TempleSanchi
Parvati TempleNachna
Bhitargaon TempleBitargaon
Mahabodhi TempleBodh Gaya
Lakshmana TempleSripur
Vishva-Brahma TempleAlampur
Badoli TempleBadoli
Ambikamata TempleJagata
Vimala VasahiMount Abu
Temple No. IIIRoda
Ranakadevi TempleWadhwaran
Sun TempleKonark
Sas Bahu TempleGwalior
Kashi Vishvanatha TempleVaranasi
Kandariya Mahadeva TempleKhajuraho
Jagannath TemplePuri
Lakshmana TempleKhajuraho
Lingaraja TempleBhubaneshwar
Udayeshwara TempleUdaipur
Parashurameshwara TempleBhubaneshwar
Vaital DeuBhubaneshwar
Muktemhwara TempleBhubaneshwar
Keshva TempleSomanathapur

CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
➤ Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Fine Arts) : It was established at New Delhi in 1954 to promote and propagate understanding of Indian Art (i.e., painting, sculpture, architecture and applied arts) both within and outside the country.
The Akademi has regional centres called Rashtriya Lalit Kala Kendras at Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai and Bhubaneshwar.
➤ Sangeet Natak Akademi (National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama) :
It was established in 1953 to promote the performing Indian arts (i.e., dance, drama and music) in collaboration with states and voluntary organisations.
➤ National School of Drama (NSD) : It was established in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi as a premier theatre institution. In 1975, it was registered as an autonomous institution, fully financed by the Department of Culture. The Diploma of NSD is recognised by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to M.A. Degree.
➤ Sahitya Akademi : It was established in March 1954 with the following objectives : (i) To develop Indian literature.
(ii) To set high literacy standards.
(iii) To foster and coordinate literacy activities in all the Indian languages.
(iv) To promote through them the cultural unity of the country.
➤ Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) : It was established in 1861 with the following objectives : (i) To conserve and preserve archaeological monuments and sites located in different parts of the country and maintain sites and remains.
(ii) To undertake explorations and excavations, epigraphic research, study of architecture and scientific studies and investigations.
➤ At present there are 3,606 centrally protected monuments of national importance which include 25 monuments in the list of world heritage.
➤ National Archives of India (NAI) : It was established on March 11, 1891 in Kolkata and known as Imperial Record Department till Independence.
It is the official custodian of all non-current records of permanent value of the Government of India and its predecessor bodies.
➤ Asiatic Society : It was established in 1784 at Kolkata by Sir William Jones, an eminent Indologist with the objective of inquiring into history, antiquities, arts, science and literature of Asia.
➤ Anthropological Survey of India : It was established in December, 1945 at Kolkata for the advancement of scientific research in Anthropology and allied disciplines. It collects authentic empirical data covering the entire range of human variation and culture.
➤ Zonal Cultural Centres : They have been setup for projecting, preserving and sustaining cultural kinship that transcends territorial limits.
There are seven such centres in the country :
1. North-Zone Cultural Centre, Patiala
2. East-Zone Cultural Centre, Kolkata (Shantiniketan)
3. South-Zone Cultrual Centre, Thanjavur
4. West-Zone Cultural Centre, Udaipur
5. North-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Allahabad
6. North-East Zone Cultural Centre, Dimapur
7. South-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Nagpur
➤ Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts : It was established in 1985 at New Delhi as a resource centre and database. It is visualised as a centre The democratic political system of our country is based on the values and principles enshrined in the constitution.

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