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Chapter 05. World History (History Notes)

WORLD HISTORY

Ancient Civilizations of The world :
➤ It is the first of civilization to have ever emerged on the face of planet earth ever since the evolution of humans.
➤ The origin of Mesopotamia dates back so far behind in the history there is no known evidence of any other civilized society before them. The timetine of ancient Mesopotamia is usually kept around 3300 BC 750 BC Mesopotamia is generally Credited with being the first place where civilized societies truly began to take shape.
➤ It was around 8000 BC that people find the concept of agriculture, and slowly started to domesticated animals for both the purpose of food as well as to assist in agriculture.
➤ They prospered is the regions of modern day Iraq-then known as Babylonia, sumer and Assyria highlands.
Ancient Egyptian Civilization
➤ The ancient Egypt is one of the oldest and culturally richest civilizations in this list.
➤ The ancient Egyptians are known for their prodigious culture, the ever standing pyramids and the sphinx, the pharaohs and the once a majestic civilization that resided by the bank of the river Nile.
➤ The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political verification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first Pharaoh. But this could not have been possible had there not been early settlers around the Nile valley in the early 3500 BC.
➤ The ancient Egypt gave us the ever standing pyramids, the mummies that preserve the ancient Pharaohs to this day, the first of the solar calendars, Hieroglyphics and many more.
➤ The ancient Egypt reached at its pinnacle towards the New Kingdom, where pharaohs like Ramsee the Great ruled with such authority that another contemporary civilization of the Nubians also came under Egyption rule.
Mayan Civilization
➤ The ancient Mayan civilization flourished in Central America from about 2600 BC and had been much talked about in recent times because of the timeline in the calender they had created.
➤ Once the civilization was established, it went on to prosper and become one of the most sophisticated civilization with a booming population of about 19 million at its peak.
➤ By 700 BC, the Mayans had already devised their own way of writting which they used to create their own solar calenders carved in the stones.
➤ According to them, the world was created on August 11, 3114 BC which is the date their calender counts from. And the supposed end was on December 21, 2012.
➤ Why did the Maya, a remarkably sophisticated civilization made up of more than 19 million people, suddenly collapse sometime during the 8th or 9th centuries ?
➤ Although the Mayan people never entirely disoppeared their descendants still live across Central America.
Ancient Chinese Civilization
Ancient China also known as Han China has one of the most diverse history.
➤ The yellow river civilization is said to be the cradle of entire chinese civilization as this is where the earliest dynasties were based. It was around the 2700 BC that the legendary Yellow Emperor began his rule, a point in time that later led to the birth of many dynasties that went on to rule the mainland China.
➤ Then on there came a number of dynasties that held control over China in different periods of time until the end of Qing dynasty in 1912 AD with the Xinhai revolution and thus ended more than four millennia old history of ancient Chinese civilization that fascinates historians and commoners alike to this day.
Ancient Greek Civilization
➤ The ancient Greeks may not have been one of the oldest civilizations, but they are doubtlessly one of the most influential civilization to have ever existed in the world.
➤ Even though the rise of ancient Greece came from the Cyclodic and Minoan civilization (2700 BC – 1500 BC), there are evidences of burials found in the Franchthi cave in Argolid, Greece that dates back around 7250 BC.
➤ The history of this civilization is scattered over such a huge period of time that historians had to divide it over different periods, the most popular of them the Archaic, classical and Hellenistic period.
➤ These periods also saw a number of ancient Greeks come into limelightmany of them changed our ways of world forever, many of them are still talking about to this day.
➤ The Greeks created the ancient olympics, the concept of democracy and a senate.
➤ They created the base for modern geometry biology, physics and whatnot.
Pythagoras, Archimedes, Socrates.
➤ Euclid, plato, Aristotle, Alexander the great the history books are full of such names whose inventions theories, beliefs and heroics have had a significant influence in the subsequent civilizations that came.
The Persian Civilization
➤ There was a time when ancient Persian civilization was in fact the most powerful empires in the world.
➤ Though only in power for a little over 200 years, the Persians conquered lands that covered over 2 millions square miles.
➤ From the southern portion of Egypt to parts of Greece and then east to parts of India, the Persian Empire was known for its military strength and wise rulers.
➤ Before 550 BC used to be divided in factions among a number of leaders.
But then came king Cyrus-II who later on came to be known as Cyrus the great, came into power and unified the entire Persian kingdom.
➤ Then he went on to conquer the ancient Babylon. In fact, his conquest is 50 rapid that by the end of 533 BC, he had already invoded India, for in the east and even when Cyrus possed away, his bloodline continued the ruthless expansion and even duelled in now legendary battle with the The Roman Civilization
➤ Early Rome was governed by kings, but after only seven of them had ruled, the Romans took power over their own city and ruled themselves.
➤ They then insted had a council known as the ‘senate’ which ruled over them. From this point on the speaks of the ‘Roman Republic’.
➤ Rome also saw the rise and fall of some of the greatest emperors in human civilization, like Julius Caesar, Trajan and Augustus.
➤ But eventually, the empire of Rome became so vast that it simply was not possible to bring it within a single rule.
➤ The Roman empire in the end was overrun by millions of barbarians from the north and east of Europe.
The Aztecs Civilization
➤ The Aztecs come in the scenario pretty much around the time when the lncas were oppearing as the powerful contenders in South America.
➤ Around the 1200’s and early 1300’s, the people in present day Mexico used to live in three big rival cities–Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan.
➤ Around 1325, these rivals created an alliance and thus the new state was brought under the rule of the valley of Mexico.
➤ Back then, the people preferred the name Mexico than to the Aztecs.
➤ The rise of the Aztecs was within a century of the fall of another influential civilization in Mexico and central America the Mayans.
➤ The city of Tenochtitlan was the military power, which spearheaded the conquest of new territory. But the Aztec emperor didn’t rule every city, state directly.
➤ Local governments would remain in place, but was forced to pay varying amounts of tribute to the Triple Alliance.
➤ In the early 1500’s, the Aztec civilization was indeed at the height of its power.
➤ A defeat in this decisive battle eventually led to the fall of once famous Aztec empire.
The lncas Civilization
➤ The lncas was the largest Empire in South America in the Pre-columbian
era.
➤ This civilization flourished in the areas of present day Ecuador, Peru and Chile and had its administrative, military and political centre located at cusco which lies in modern day peru.
➤ The lncas had their societies pretty well established, and the empire was in a rapid bloom since its beginning.
➤ The lncas were devout followers of the Sun God lnti. They had a king who was referred to as “Sapa Inca” meaning the child of the sun.
➤ The first lnca emperor pachacuti transformed it from a modest village to a great city laid out in the shape of a puma.
➤ He went to expand the tradition of ancestor worship.
➤ This significantly led to a sudden rise in power of the Incas.
➤ The Incas went on to build fortresses and sites like Machu picchu and Kiran’s One Liner Approach General knowledge

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF THE WORLD

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF THE WORLD
mePeriodAreaOccupationsWritingReligion
ssopotamian3300-750 BCSumer, Babylonia, Assyrie HighlandsDairy farming, textile metal working potter’s wheel, sexagesimal systemCuneiformPolytheistic
icient India dus)3000-500 BCSouth AsiaPotter’s wheel. Agriculture, Doms, city planning. Mathematics, temple builders. Astronomy, medicine.PietographieHinduism
yption3000-30 BCNorth Eastern Africa along River NileEgyptian Pyramids, Mummification, Decimal system. Solar calendarHieroghyphiePolytheistic
ayan2000-1200 AD (BC)Mexico, Central AmericaAgriculture, Astronomy, Chemistry Cotton, drama, dyeing, mathematicsHieroglyhiePolytheistic
linese2100 BC— 1 ADChinaSilk, Pottery, Chinaware, Metals, 800 B.C., Great Wall, PaperChinesePolytheistic
rsian730 BCGreater PersiaAgriculture, Architecture, landscaping, postal serviceCuneiform,
Pahlavi
Zoroastrianism
eek2700 BCGreece (Peloponnese, Epirus, Central Greece, Western Greece, Maeedon) later AlexandriaAgriculture, winemaking, arehi, poetry, drama, philosophy, history mathematics, political science, astronomy, physics, ehem., medicineGreekPolytheistic
man600 BC – 400 ADItalyAgriculture, Roman Calendar, ConcreteLatinPolytheistic
tec1324 AD – 1519 ADMexicoAgriculture, Smelting, metalworkingPietographiePolytheistic
3a1300 AD- 1532 ADEcuador, Peru, ChileTextile looms, agriculture, Inca architecturePolytheistic

WORLD HISTORY : CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS

B.C.
200,000 Homo sapiens originated in Africa.
50,000 Emergence of Modern humans in Asia
7500 First evidence of agriculture and domestication of sheep and goats
7000 Walled settlements at Jericho
3000 Building of the Great Pyramid
776 First Olympiad in Greece
753 Foundation of Rome
490 Greeks defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon
360 The period of Aristotle and Plato
332 Egypt conquered by Alexander
323 Alexander dies at Babylon
214 Work on the Great Wall of China begins 55 Julius Ceasar attacks Great Britain
A.D.
29 Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
37 Tiberius died and Caligula succeeded him
78 Book published by Pliny the elder
105 China made paper
200 Afghanistan invaded by Huns
330 Byzantium renamed constantinople
375 Invasion of Europe by Huns
452 Founding of Venica
500 Huns established control over N W India
570 Prophet Mohammad born at Mecca
572 War between Byzantine Empire and Persia
616 Khmer Empire founded in SE Asia
618 Beginning of Tang dynasty in China
622 Flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina
711 Moors invade spain
712 Muslim conquered Sindh
771 Charlemagne conquered saxony
809 Death of Haroun-al Rashid
846 Arabs attacked Rome
1015 Arabs conquered sardinia
1027 Conard II crowned as Holy Roman Emperor
1042 Constantine IX became Byzantine Emperor
1060 Henry–I of France died
1096 Start of the first crusade
1106 Henry IV died succeeded by Henry V
1135 King Henry I of England died
1167 Oxford University founded
1174 Leaning Tower of Pisa built
1197 Henry VI died, succeeded by Otto IV
1212 Fredercik II elected German King
1223 Mongols invaded Russia
1230 Pact of San Germano between the Emperor and the Pope
1256 Hundred Years War between Venice and Genoa
1265 English Parliament is set up.
1272 Henry III of England died, succeeded by Edward
1280 Roger Bacon invents gunpowder
1287 Mongols invaded Burma
1294 Death of Kublai Khan
1324 Marco Polo, Venetian traveller died
1338 The Hundred years war broke out
1340 Queen’s College, Oxford founded
1348 English faces Black Death Plague
1377 Edward III dies, succeeded by Richard II
1405 Timur died
1407 Louis, Duke of Orleans, murdered
1421 Beijing became capital of China
1434 Pope Eugene IV flees to Florence
1453 Turks captured Constantinople; Renaissance in Europe
1492 Discovery of America by Columbus
1498 Sea-route to India discovered by Vasco-de-Gama
1499 Amerigo Vespucci charted a part of the South American Coast
1500 Pedro Cabral discovers Brazil
1521 Turks captured Belgrade, Spain conquered Mexico
1533 Ivon IV became Czar of Russia
1534 Final rift between England and Rome; Jesuit order founded by Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556). Martine Luthur completes translation of the Bible.
1535 English clergy adjure authority of the Pope. Sir Thomas More, who refuses the oath of the King’s supermacy, tried fort reason and executed
(canonised
1935).
Lima founded.
1536 Michelangelo paints “Last Judgement” on altar wall of Sistine Chapel; Queen Anne executed. Union of England and Wales.
1537 The Pilgrimage of Grace and similar risings are put down; Robert Aske is sentenced to death for treason and executed.
1538 Mercator used the name America for the first time.
Spain conquered Bolivia.
1539 Spain annexed Cuba; First Christmas tree, at Strasbourg Cathedral.
1542 First Portuguese navigators reached Japan.
1555 Peace of Ausburg
1558 Elizabeth I became Queen of England
1580 Spain conquer Portugal
1582 Pope Gregory XIII puts in use the Gregorian Calendar.
1593 C. Marlowe murdered 1595 Mercator’s atlas published
(post); Warsaw became capital of Poland. Franco-Spanish war begins.
1596 Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice. Tomatoes introduced in England.
1600 The East India Company established.
1603 Death of Elizabeth I.
1618 Thirty year’s war begin.
1625 Charles I succeeded as King of England.
1636 Foreign visits by Japan banned.
1641 Cotton Goods begins to be manufactured in Manchester.
1642 English Civil War begins; Income and property tax introduced in England. Montreal founded; Newton born.
1643 English Civil War; Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) invents the barometer; Parcel post established in France.
1644 Ming dynasty in China ends, Manchu dynasty (Qing dynasty) in Power (1644–1912).
1646 English Civil War ends with surrender of Oxford to roundheads; English occupy Bahamas.
1647 First newspaper advertisement appears.
1648 Peace of West Phalia ends Thirty Year’s War.
1649 In Great Britain, English becomes language of all legal documents in place of Latin.
Charles I executed.
1653 Cromwell dissolved Parliament and becomes Lord Protector.
1659 Treaty of Pyrenes between Francis of Spain 1660 Monarchy restored in England.
1665 The Great Plague of England.
1668 Glorious Revolution in England.
1687 Issac Newton expounds the Principle of Gravitation.
1694 Founding of the Bank of England.
1697 China conquers wester Mongolia. France gets Haiti.
1698 Tax on beard in Russia.
1699 Peter the Great declares that New Year in Russia will begin on Jan. 1 instead of Sept.
1. Sultanate of Oman setup.
1700 Death of Charles II of Spain.
1715 Coronation of Louis XV.
1725 Death of Peter the Great.
1727 George II becomes King of England.
1740 George Anson (1697-1762) sets out on voyage around the world. Maria Theresa is queen of Austria.
1741 Czar Ivan VI deposed and imprisoned; Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great becomes Czarina (-1762).
1742 First Silesian War ends; Swiss astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744) invents centigrade thermometer.
1743 French defeated by English.
1744 France declares war on England; second Silesian War begins.
1746 Alliance between Russia and Austria against Prussia.
1747 Nadir Shah murdered; Afghanistan united. Ahmed Shah becomes King of Afghanistan.
1766 England revoked Stamp Act.
1776 Declaration of American Independence.
1787 American Constitution drafted.
1798 Battle of River Nile.
1801 Peace Treaty of Luneville between France and Austria.
1805 Battle of Trafalagar and Nelson’s death.
1815 Battle of Waterloo; Napolean exiled to St. Helena.
1821 Death of Napolean.
1832 Reforms Bill passed in England.
1837 Queen Victoria’s accession to the throne of England.
1840 Queen Victoria of Great Britain marries Prince Albert; End of Afghan War; Britain issues Penny postage
(world’s first stamp). Britain annexed New Zealand.
1841 Britain’s soveriegnty proclaimed over Hong Kong; The first university degree granted to women in America.
1842 Treaty of Nanking ends Opium War between Britain and China and confirms accession of Hong Kong to Great Britain.
1843 Military revolt in Spain drives General Espartero from power; Isabella II (b. 1830) declared Queen of Spain.
1850 Cavour appointed Prime Minister of Sardinia.
1852 Napolean III becomes King of France.
1868 Abolition of Shogun system in Japan.
1878 Congress of Berlin.
1894 Japan declared war on China.
1899 The Boer war begins.
1902 The Boer war ends.
1904 Russia-Japan war.
1905 Japan defeated Russia; Discovery of the theory of Relativity by Einstein.
1911 Chinese Revolution.
1912 Republic of China established.
1914 Beginning of World War I.
1917 Russian Revolution.
1918 End of World War I.
1919 Treaty of Versailles signed.
1920 Formation of the League of Nations.
1923 Turkey declared Republic.
1933 Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany.
1936 Beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
1939 World War II begins.
1941 Russia invaded by Hitler, Pearl Harbour invaded by Japan.
1942 Japanese capture Singapore and Rangoon; Americans defeated Japanese; The first automatic computer developed in the U.S.; Millions of Jews were in Nazi gas chambers; Quit India Movement.
1943 Mussolini dismissed; Allies invaded Italy; Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt hold Teheran conference.
1944 D-Day landings in Nromandy June 6; first flying bomb dropped on London. Ho Chi Minh is Vietnam President.
1945 Establishment of UNO; End of World War II; Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience the first dropping of the Atom Bomb; Death of President Roosevelt.
1946 Civil War in China.
1948 Burma and Ceylon get independence.
1949 Indonesia get independence; The Communists capture power in China.
1952 General Eisenhower elected as the American President.
1954 Military Aid Pact betweern China and Pakistan; Chou- En Lai visits India.
1955 Austria gets independence; Bandung Conference.
1956 Suez Canal nationalised by President Nasser, Egypt attacked by the forces of Britain; France and Israel.
1957 First artificial satellite launched by Russia.
1958 Egypt and Syria united and renamed United Arab Republic
(UAR).
1959 Chinese captured Tibet; Dalai Lama flees to India; Sputnik launched by Russia.
1960 Explosion of an atom bomb device by France; Election of John F. Kennedy as President of USA.
1961 Yuri Gagarin of USSR becomes the first spaceman.
1963 Partial Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty signed; Malaysia established; John F. Kennedy assassinated.
1965 Death of Sir Winston Churchill; Singapore becomes the sovereign independent nation; outbreak of Indo-Pak war.
1966 Tashkent Pact; A Russian aircraft lands on moon.
1967 Chinese explode hydrogen bomb; Arab-Israel War; Suez Canal closed.
1968 Martin Luther King Murdered.
1969 Dr. Ho-Chi-Minh passes away.
1970 Fiji gets independence.
1971 Outbreak of Indo-Pak war; Birth of Bangaldesh; Surrender of 93,000 Pakistani troops; Khruschev died; Z.A.
Bhutto new President of Pakistan.
1972 Sheikh Mujibar Rahman freed from Pakistani Jail and assumed the office of P.M.
Bangaldesh; Nixon of USA visited China; King Mahendra of Nepal died; USA and the USSR sign Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty.
1973 Outbreak of fourth Arab Israeli war; Fourth non-aligned summit in Algiers.
1975 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President of Bangladesh assassinated; King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, assassinated; Suez Canal reopened; Red Cross force Cambodia Government to Surrender.
1976 Chou-En Lai, P.M. of China, died; Seychelles gets independence; Viking I lands on Mars; Mao Tse-Tung died; Jimmy Carter elected President of USA.
1978 Agreement between Israel and Egypt; Vietnam attacked Cambodia; Z.A. Bhutto, former P.M. of Pakistan, sentenced to death.
1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes first woman P.M. of Britain.
1980 Free Zimbabwe is born.
Marshall Tito of Yugoslavia passes away.
1981 President Zia ur Rahman of Bangladesh is shot dead; President Anwar Sadat of Egypt is assassinated; AIDs is officially recognised for the first time in USA.
Kiran’s One Liner Approach General knowledge
1982 In Bangladesh a military coup by Lt. Gen. Ershad; The Vatican and UK reestablish full diplomatic relations; Introduction of the supercomputer Cray I.
1983 Benigno Aquino of Philipinnes assassinated; President Reagan announces the “Star Wars” programme.
1984 Indian PM Indira Gandhi assassinated; succeeded by son Rajiv Gandhi; Bhopal gas tragedy.
1985 Death of Soviet premier Chernenko, Mikhail Gorbachev succeeds him; Salvage experts locate the wreck of the ship Titanic.
1986 Swedish PM Olaf Palme is assassinated; Chernobyl nuclear disaster; Mikhail Gorbachev institutes his policy of Glasnost.
1987 In Czechoslovakia far-reaching political and economic reforms; World-wide stock exchange crash; Glass fiber cable is laid across the Atlantic Ocean.
1988 Pakistan : Premier Gen. Zia killed in a plane crash, succeeded by the first woman leader of a Muslim country, Benazir Bhutto.
1989 Yasser Arafat becomes first President of Palestine.
1991 Soviet Union Disintegrated 1992 Yugoslavia expelled from
U.N.O.

SOME TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO WORLD HISTORY

Renaissance
➤ The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the middle ages and modern history.
➤ It started as a cultural movement in italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest Europe, marking the beginning of the early modern age.
➤ The intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its own invented version of humanism derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that “Man is the measure of all things”.
➤ This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature.
The Renaissance first began in
➤ Florence, in the 14th century.
Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time– its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, Greek scholors and texts to italy following the fall of constantinople to the ottoman Turks.
➤ The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography and in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debote among historians reacting to the 19th – century glavification of the “Renaissance Men” and individual culture heroes as “Renaissance.”
➤ Man, questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.
Reform movement
➤ A reform movement is the kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes.
➤ A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.
➤ Reformists ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist or religious concepts.
➤ Reform movement in United States
Mercantilism
➤ The economic doctrine prevailing from the 16th to the 18th centuries is commonly called mercantilism.
➤ This period, the Age of Discovery was associated with the geographic exploration of the foreign lands by merchant traders, especially from England and the low countries.
➤ Mercantilism was a system of trade for profit, although commodities were still largely produced by non-capitalist methods.
Crusades :
➤ The crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church between the 11th and 16th centuries, especially the compaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of capturing Jerusalem from Islamic rule.
➤ Crusades were also fought for many other reasons such as to recapture Christian territory or defend Christions in non- Christain lands, resolve conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, gain political or territorial advantage, or to combat paganism and heresy.
➤ The term crusade itself is modern, and has in more recent times been extended to include religiously motivated Christian military campaigns in the Late Middle Ages.
➤ The first crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon military support for the Byzontine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks in Anatolio.
➤ Although one of Urban’s stated aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the holy sites in the Holy Land that were under Muslim contral, scholars disagree whether this was the primary motivation for Urban or for the majority of those who heeded his call.
➤ Urban’s wider strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, which had been divided since their split in the East-West Schism of 1054, and establish himself as head of the unified Church.
➤ Similarly, some of the hundreds of thousands of people who became crusoders by taking public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church were peasants hoping for Apotheasis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins.
➤ Others, historians argue, participated to satisfy fuedal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain.
➤ Regardless of the motivation, the response to Urban’s preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for later crusades.
➤ The crusades had profound import on Western Civilization, they reopened the Mediterranean to commerce and travel, consolidated the collective identity of the Latin Church under papal leadership, and were a wellspring for accounts of heroism, chivalry and piety.
➤ These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, philosophy and literature.
➤ The crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism and militarism.
Fascism in Italy :
➤ A number of political movements which arose in Europe after the first World War are generally given the name ‘fascist’.
➤ The common features of these movements were their hostility to democracy and socialism, and the aim of establishing dictatorships.
➤ They succeeded, in many countries of Europe such as Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Germany, Spain.
➤ Their success in Italy and Germany had the most serious consequences.
➤ The term ‘fascism’ is of Italian origin it was first used for the movement which started in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
➤ Mussolini had organised armed gangs against socialists and communists in 1919.
➤ The victory of Fascism Italy not only led to the destruction of democracy and the suppression of socialist movements it also led to the preparation for war.
Nazism in Germany
➤ It is the form of fascism developed in Germany, that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism.
➤ It is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th century German Nazi party and Nazi states, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of rocial hierarchy and social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan master race.
➤ It aimed to overcome social division and create a homogeneous society unified on the basis of “rocial purity”.
➤ Nazism rejected the Marnist concept of class struggle, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, and sought to convince all parts of a new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the “common good” and to accept the priority of political interests in economic organisation.
Feudalism
➤ Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
➤ Broadly defined it was a way of structuring society around relationship derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
➤ Feudal society includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but those of all three estates of the realm : the hobility, the clergy, and those living by their labour, most directly the peasantry bound by manorialism.
Socialism
➤ Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production, as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment.
➤ The socialist political movement includes a diverse array of political philosophies that originated amid the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 1700s and of a general concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism.
➤ Core dichotomies associated with these concerns include reformism versus revolutionary socialism and state socialism versus libertarian socialism.
Industrial Revolution
➤ The desire to produce more goods at low cost to make higher profits led to the industrial Revolution and further growth of capitalism.
➤ The industrial Revolution began in England in about 1750.
➤ It was then machines began to take over some of the work of men and animals in the production of goods and commodities.
➤ That is why we often say that the industrial Revolution was the beginning of a ‘machine age’.
➤ Of course, there were many machines in use before 1750. The plough, air-pump, printing press and spinning wheel are only a few of the many examples that could be listed. For hundreds of years each civilization had been trying to perfect old technical skills and develop a new ones.
But after 1750, new inventions came faster, and they were of a kind that brought morn rapid changes in more people’s lives.
➤ The industrial Revolution changed men’s way of living and thinking all over the world.
Capitalism :
➤ It is an economic system based on private ownership of means of production and their operation for profit.
➤ Characteristics central to capitalism include private property.
➤ Capital occumulation, wage labour, voluntary exchange a price system and competitive markets.
➤ In a capitalist market economy, decision making and investment is determined by the owners of the foctors of production in financial and capital markets, and prices and the distribution of goods are mainly determined by competition in the market.

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1775-1783) :

➤ Following the French-Indian War (1754-1763) the British decided the colonies should pay more of the costs associated with them being a British colony, such as military protection.
➤ Britian imposed a series of taxes that proved to be very unpopular.
➤ The American Revolution started with the 13 colonies protesting against these taxes and other laws the colonists considered intolerable acts.
➤ The British were concerned to colonist protests might turn into revolt.
➤ They sent troops to Lexington and concord to capture leaders of the revolt and a store of weapons.
➤ Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride the rebellion’s leaders samuel Adams and John Hancock escaped, and the colonial militia were assembled and waiting for the British troops.
➤ Initially the fight was over rights as a British colony. Eventually the revolt evolved into a fight for independence with the goal of colonies to become a separate and independent united states of America. At the first continental congress the colonists is issued a request that Britian revoke the contentious taxes and laws. Britain refused, which fuelled the cries for independence. Second Continental congress was held, and on July 4, 1776 the colonies formally made their Declaration of Independence. A constitutional convention was held to define the government through the Articles of Confederation of the newly formed United States of America.
➤ The battles of the American Revolution–It started in Lexington on April 19, 1775. Declaring independence was one thing, achieving independence was much more difficult for the colonists.
➤ There were over 20 major battles during the revolution, spanning a period of 6 years.
➤ Initially the British held the advantage with more troops and a superior trained army.
➤ The continental Army eventually grew in size, and through considerable training, became a powerful fighting force.
➤ With the help of France, General George Washington and his continental Army defeated British General Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
➤ This led to the Treaty of Paris, officially ending the revolution on September 3, 1783.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1799) :

Feudalism and Unfair Taxation – No one factor was directly responsible for the French Revolution. Years of feudal oppression and fiscal mismanagment contributed to a French society that was ripe for revolt. Nothing a downward economic spriral in the late 1700’s.
➤ King Louis XVI brought in a number of financial advisor to review the weakned French treasury. Each advisor reached the same conclusion– that France needed a radical change in the way it taxed the public-and each advisor was in turn, kicked out.
➤ Finally the king realized that this taxation problem really did need to be addressed, so he oppointed a new controller general of finance, Charles de colonne, in 1783. Colonne suggested that, among other things, France begin taxing the previously exempt nobility. The nobility refused, even after colonne pleaded with then during the Assembly of Notables in 1787. Financial rain thus seemed imminent.
The Eastes General – In a final act of desperation, Louis XVI decided in 1789 to convene the Estate-General, an ancient assembly consisting of three different estates that each represented a portion of the French population.
➤ It the Estate General could agree on a tax solution, it would be implemented. However, since two of the three estates-the clergy and the nobility– were tax- exempt, the attainment of any such solution was unlikely.
➤ Moreover, the outdated rules of order for the Estate-General gove each estate a single vote, despite the fact that the Third Estate – constisting of the general French public was many times larger than either of the
➤ Feuds quickly broke out over this disparity and would prove to be irreconciable. Realizing that its numbers gave it an automatic advantage, the third Estate declared itself the sovereign National Assembly.
➤ Within days of the announcement, many members of the other two estates had switched allegiances over to this revolutionary new assembly.
The Bastille and the Great Fear – Shortly after the National Assembly formed, its member took the Tennis Court Qath, swearing that they would not relent in their efforts until a new constitution had been agreed upon.
➤ The National Assembly’s revolutionary spirit galvanized France, manifesting in a number of different ways. In pairs, citizens stormed the city’s largest prison, the Bastille, in pursuit of arms. In the countryside, peasants and farmers revolted against their fuedal contracts by attacking the manors and estates of their landlords.
➤ Dubbed the “Great Fear” these rural attacks continued until the early August issuing of the August Decrees, which freed those peasants from their oppressive contracts.
➤ Shortly thereafter, the assembly released the Declaration of the Rights of man and of the citizen, which established a proper judicial code and the autonomy of the French people.
Rifts in the Assembly – Though the National Assembly did succeed in drafting a constitution, the relative peace of the moment was short-lived.
➤ A rift slowly grew between the radical and moderate assembly members, while the common laborers and workers began to feel overlooked. When Louis XVI was caught in a foiled escape plot, the assembly become especially divided.
➤ The moderate Girondians took a stance infavor of retaining the constitutional monarchy, while the radical Jacobins wanted the king completely out of the picture outsider of France, some neighbouring countries feared that France’s revolutionary spirit would spread beyond French land.
➤ In response, they issued the Declaration of Pillnitz which insited that the French return Louis XVI to the throne.
➤ French leader interpreted the declaration as hostile, so the Girondin-led assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia.
The Reign of Terror – The first acts of the newly named National convention were the abolition of the monarchy and the declaration of France as a republic.
➤ In January 1793, the convention tried and executed Louis XVI on the grounds of the treason.
➤ Despite the creation of the committee of public safety, the war with Austria and Prussia went poorly for France, and foreign forces pressed on into French territory.
➤ Enraged citizens overth rew the Girondin-led National Convention, and the Jacobins, led by Maximilien Robespierre took control.
➤ Backed by the newly approved constitution of 1793, Robespierre and the committee of Public Safety began conscripting French soldiers and implementing laws to stabilize the economy.
➤ For time, it seemed that France’s fortunes might be changing. But Robespierre, growing increasingly paranoid about counterrevolutionary influences, embarked upon a reign of Terror in late 1793-1794, during which he had more than 15,000 people executed at the guillotine. When the French army successfully removed.
➤ Foreign invaders and the economy finally stabilized, however, Robespierre no longer had any justification for his extreme actions, and he himself was arrested in July 1974 and executed.
The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory – The era following the outstanding of Robespierre was known as the Thermidorian Reaction, and a period of governmental restructuring began, leading to the new constitution of 1795 and a significantly more conservative National convention.
➤ To control executive res responsibilities and oppointments a group known as the Directory was formed.
➤ Though it had no lagislative abilities, the Directory’s abouse of power soon came to rival that of any of the tyrannous revolutionaries France had faced.
Napoleon – Meanwhile, the committee of public safety’s war effort was realizing unimaginable success.
➤ French armies, especially those led by young general Napoleon Bonaparte, were making progress in nearly every direction.
➤ Napoleon’s forces drove through italy and reached as far as Egypt before facing a deflating defeat. In the face of this rout, and having received word of political upheavals in France, Napoleon returned to Paris.
➤ He arrived in time to lead a coup against the Directory in 1799, eventually stepping up and naming himself ‘first consul’ effectively, the leader of France. With Napoleon at the helm, the revolution ended, and France entered a fifteen-year period of military rule.

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917-1918) :

➤ The Russian Revolution of 1917 centres around two primary events the February Revolution and October Revolution.
The February Revolution – The February Revolution, which removed Tsar Nicholas-II from the power, developed spontaneously out of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots on the streets of petrograd
(St. Petersburg). during a time when the Tsar was away from the capital visiting troops on the World War-I front.
➤ Though the February Revolution was a popular uprising it did not necessarily express the wishes of the majority of the Russian population, as the event was primarly limited to the city of petrograd.
➤ However most of those who took power after the February Revolution, in the provisional government (the temporary government that replaced the tsar) and in the petrograd Soviet can influential local council representing workers and soldiers in petrograd), generally favored rule that was at least pantially democratic.
The October Revolution – The October Revolution (also called the Bolshevik Revolution) overturned the interim provisional government and established the Soviet Union.
➤ The October Revolution was a much more deliberate event, orchestrated by a small group of people.
➤ The Bolsheviks, who led this coup, prepared their coup in only six months.
➤ They were generally viewed as an extremist group and had very little popular support when they began serious efforts in April 1917.
➤ By October, the Bolsheviks popular base was much larger, though still a minority within the country as a whole, they had built up a majority of support within Petrograd and other urban centres.
➤ After October, the Bolsheviks realized that they could maintain power in an election-based system without sharing power with other parties and compromising their principles.
➤ As a result, they formally abandoned the democratic process in January 1918 and declared themselves the respressentatives of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
➤ In response the Russian Civil War broke out in the summer of that year and would last well into 1920.

WORLD WAR-I (1914-1919) :

The Start of the war – World War-I began on July 28, 2014 when Austria- Hungary declared war on serbia.
➤ This seemingly small conflict between two countries spread rapidly. Soon Germany, Russia, Great Britain and France were all drawn into the war, largely because they were involved in treaties that obligated them to defend certain other nations.
➤ Western and eastern fronts quickly opened along the borders of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
The Western and Eastern Fronts – The first month of combat consisted of bold attacks and rapid troop movements on both fronts.
➤ In the west. Germany attacked first Belgium and then France.
➤ In the east, Russia attacked both Germany and Austria-Hungary.
➤ In the south, Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia. Following the Battle of the Marne (Sept. 5-9, 1914), the western front become entrenched in central France and remained that way for the rest of the war.
➤ The fronts in the east also gradually locked into place.
The Ottom Empire – Lote in 1914, the ottoman Empire was brought into the fray as well, after Germany tricked Russia into thinking that Turkey had attacked it. As a result, much of 1915 was dominated by Allied actions against the Ottomans in the Mediterranean.
➤ First, Britain and France launched a failed attack on the Dardanelles.
➤ This campaign was followed by the British invasion of Gallipoli Peninsula.
➤ Britain also launched a separate compaign against the Turks in Mesopotamia.
➤ Although the British had some successes in Mesopotamia, the Gallipoli compaign and the attacks on the Dardanelles resulted in British defeats.
Trench Warfare – The middle part of the war, 1916 and 1917, was dominated by continued trench warfare in both the east and the west soldier fought from dug-in positions, striking at each other with machine guns, heavy artillery and chemical weapons.
➤ Though soldiers died by the millions in brutal conditions, neither side had any substantive success or gained any advantage.
The United States Entrance and Russia’s Exit – Depite the stalemate on both fronts in Europe, two important developments in the war occurred in 1917.
➤ In early April, the United States, angered by attacks upon its ship in the Atlantic declared war on Germany.
➤ Then in November, the Bolshevik Revolution prompted Russia to pull out of the war.
The End of the War and Armistice – Although both sides launched renewed affensives in 1918 in an all-or-nothing effort to win the war, both efforts failed.
➤ The fighting between exhausted demoralized troops continued to plod along until the Germans lost a number of individual battles and very gradually began to fall back.
➤ A deadly outbreak of influenza, meanwhile took heavy tolls on soldiers of both sides, Eventually, the governments of both Germany and Austria- Hungary began to lose control as both countries experienced multiple mutinies from within their military structures.
➤ The war ended in the late fall of 1918, after the member countries of the central powers signed armistice agreements one by one. Germany was the lost, signing its armistice on November 11, 1918.
➤ As a result of these agreements, Austria-Hungary was broken up into several smaller countries.
➤ Germany under the treaty of versailles, was severely punished with hefty economic reparations, territorial losses, and strict limits on its rights to develop militarily.

WORLD WAR-II (1939-1945)

German Aggression – The war in Europe began in September 1939, when Germany, under chancellor Adolf Hitler, invoded Poland. Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany but took little action over the following months.
➤ In 1940, Germany launched its next initiative by attacking Denmark and Norway, followed shortly thereafter by attacks on Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. All of these nations were conquered rapidly.
Battle of Britain – Later in the summer of 1940. Germany launched a further attack on Britain, this time exclusively from the air.
➤ The Battle of Britain was Germany’s first military failure as the German air force, the Luftwafte, was never able to overcone Britains Royal Air Force.
Greece and North Africa – As Hitler plotted his next steps. Italy, an ally of Germany, expanded the war even further by invoding Greece and North Africa.
➤ The Greek campaign was a failure, and Germany was forced to come to Italy’s assistance in early 1941.
The USSR : Later in 1941, Germany began its most ambitious action yet, by involding the Soviet Union.
➤ Although the Germans initially made swift progress and advanced deep into the Russian heartland, the invassion of the USSR would prove to be the downfall of Germany’s war effort.
➤ The country was just two big and although Russian’s initial resistance was weak, the nation’s strength and determination, combined with its brutal winters would eventually be more than the German army could overcome.
➤ In 1943, after the battles of stalingrad and kursk, Germany was forced into a full scale retreat.
➤ During the course of 1944, the Germans were slowly but steadily forced completely out of Soviet territory, after which the Russians pursued them across eastern Europe and into Germany itself in 1945.
The Normandy Invasion – In June 1944, British and America forces launched the D-Day invasion, landing in German-occupied France via the coast of Normandy. Soon the German army was forced into retreat from that side as well.
➤ Thus by early 1945, Allied forces were closing in on Germany from both east and west.
➤ The Soviets were the first to reach the German capital of Berlin, and Germany surrendered in May 1945, shortly after the suicide of Adolt Hitler.
Pearl Harbor – The war in pacific began on December 7, 1941 when war planes from Japan’s launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Navy base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
➤ By this time, Japan had already been at war with China for several years and had seized the Chinese territory of Manchuria.
➤ After the Pearl Harbor attack, Japan began a massive campaign of expansion throughout the southeast Asia-Pacific region.
The U.S. Entrance and Battle of Midway – Although the Pearl Harbor attack provoked a declaration of war by the United States on Japan the very next day, it would be several months before U.S. forces would get seriously involved militarily.
➤ In late spring of 1942, the United States and Japan engaged in a series of noval battles, climaxing in the Battle of Midway on June 3-6, 1942, in which Japan suffered a caterstrophic defeat.
The Approach to Japan –Fighting continued throughout the pacific in 1944 and early 1945, including major battles at Leyte, lwo Jima and Okinawa.
➤ By the late spring of 1945, most of Japan’s conquest had been liberated, and Allied forces were closing on the Japanese home islands.
➤ As they neared Japan proper, the Allies began heavy bombing campaigns against major Japanese cities, including Tokyo.
➤ This process continued through the summer of 1945 until finally, in early August, the United States dropped two automic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Stumed by the unexpected devastation, Japan surrendered a few days later.
The Cold War (1947-1991)
The tense relationship between the United states (and allies), and the Soviet Union (USSR and its allies) between the end of world war-II and the demise of Soviet Union.
➤ The start of the Cold War in 1947 was due to a belief that all governments would become either communist or capitalist.
➤ The Western allies feared that the Soviet Union would use force to expand its influence in Europe, and was especially concerned that Soviet agents had obtained information on making the Atom Bomb after the war.
➤ Most of the countries on one side were allied in NATO whose most powerful country was the United States.
➤ Most of the countries on the other side were allied in the Warsaw Pact whose most powerful country was the Soviet Union.
➤ In this the Western-Capitalist bloc includes Western Europe, the Americas, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Thialand, Iran, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and the Eastern Socialist block includes Eastern Europe. Soviet Union, Angola, Ethiopia, Cuba, North Korea, China and Vietnam.
➤ After WW-II, Germany was left in rains. The Victorious Allies that occupied it split it into four parts one part was given to the United Kingdom, one part to France, one part to United States, and eastern port was occupied by the USSR.
➤ The city of Berlin was partitioned among the four parties even though it was in the part occupied by the USSR.
➤ The Western parts of Berlin were called West Berlin, inside the German Democratic Republic. The Berlin wall built in 1961 divided the two parts of Berlin was part of iron curtain that divided Europe.
➤ After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and without communist rule holding together the countries that comprised the Soviet Union, the USSR broke into smaller countries like Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Georgia.
The nations of Eastern Europe returned to capitalism, and the period of Cold War was over.
➤ The Soviet Union ended in December 1991.
WORLD HISTORY : IMPORTANT FACTS
➤ 3400 B.C. – 2700 B.C. constitutes the Age of Pyramids.
➤ Pyramids of Egypt were constructed by the Pharaohs of Egypt.
➤ The great Pharaoh Akhnaton ruled from 1375 B.C. – 1358 B.C.
➤ Cleopetra was the most beautiful queen of the Ancient World.
➤ Mesopotamian civilization flourished in the Tigris – Euphrates Valley.
➤ Sargon of Akkad unified the whole of Mesopotamia.
➤ The Han dynasty of China started conducting Civil Services Examinations.
➤ Mandarins were the civil servants in Chinese Empire.
➤ Confucius was born in the state
➤ Confucius dies in 479 B.C.
➤ Tqaism was founded on the basis of the writings of Lao Tze (604 B.C – 517 B.C.).
➤ Mencius (372 B.C – 289 B.C.) was a great chinese philosopher.
➤ Indian Buddhist monks Kashyapa Matanga and Dharamarakshita helped in the spread of Buddhism in China.
➤ Shi-Huang-Ti constructed the Great wall of China.
➤ The Aegean Empire flourished between 2500-1400 B.C.
➤ The Aegean civilization on the Island of crete was destroyed by a Volcano.
➤ Homer wrote epic-poems Iliad and Odyssey.
➤ Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes were Greek city States.
➤ In Greece Zeus was the Sky God and Apollo, the Sun-God.
➤ Olympic games were organized in Ancient Greece once in four years.
➤ The Renaissance in Europe was an intellectual movement in 14th century.
➤ Petrarch wrote ‘Sonnets to Laura’.
➤ Machia Velli (1469-1527) wrote ‘The Prince’.
➤ Medici family of Florence patronised various artists.
➤ ‘Monalisa’ and ‘The last supper’ are the creations of Leonardo Da Vinci.
➤ ‘The Last Judgement’ is the most famous work of Michel Angelo.
➤ Sir Thomas More wrote ‘Utopia’.
➤ The Reformation was a movement aimed towards reforming the Roman Catholic Church.
➤ The Reformation Movement in Germany was led by Martin Luther.
➤ Zwingli and Calvin led the movement in Switzerland.
➤ The earliest Nation state to emerge in Europe was England.
➤ The Elizabethan age is regarded as the ‘Golden Age’ in the history of England.
➤ Elizabeth I ruled from 1558-1603 A.D.
➤ After Elizabeth’s death England came to be ruled by Stuart rulers.
➤ James I (1605-1625) was the first Stuart ruler.
➤ King Henry IV founded the House of Bourbons.
➤ Bourbon dynasty continued till the French Revolution (1789 A.D.).
➤ Louis XIV declared “I am the State”.
➤ Spain was liberated from the Moors in 1492.
➤ During the first half of the 16th century, Spain was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
➤ Phillip II married the English Queen, Mary.
➤ In 1664, the English renamed New Amsterdam as New York.
➤ Seven Year’s war continued from 1756-63.
➤ The incident called ‘Boston Tea Party’ occurred on December 16, 1773.
➤ Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet ‘Common Sense’.
➤ Thomas Jefferson wrote ‘The Declaration of American Independence.’
➤ The Declaration of Independence was issued on 4th July 1776.
➤ In 1783, the British signed the Treaty of Paris, by which she recognized the independence of the 13 colonies.
➤ Slogan “No taxation without representation” originated during American revolution.
➤ The Americans fought for their Independence under the command of George Washington.
➤ The Constitution of America came into force on June 21, 1788.
➤ George Washington was elected the first President of America.
➤ The period of 18th century is called as the “Age of Enlightenment”.
➤ Montesquieu (1689-1755) was a French Philosopher.
➤ ‘The Spirit of Laws’ is the most famous book of Montesquieu.
➤ Voltaire’s ideas had great impact on the French Revolution.
➤ Rousseau wrote the famous book ‘Social Contract’.
➤ Rousseau wrote in ‘Social Contract’ that “Man is born free but he is everywhere in chains”.
➤ The slogans of equality, liberty and fraternity during the French Revolution were inspired by Rousseau’s ideas.
➤ Saint Simon wrote the famous book
➤ The ‘Communist Manifesto’ was published in 1848.
➤ The first volume of ‘Das Capital’ was published in 1867.
➤ “First International” was formed in 1864.
➤ “Second International” was formed in 1889.
➤ Karl Heinrich Marx was born in 1818 in Germany.
➤ Karl Marx died in 1883 in London.
➤ The French Revolution begin with the siege of Bastille on July 14, 1789.
➤ Louis XVI was the ruler at the time of French Revolution.
➤ Louis XVI was executed in 1793.
➤ The period of September 1792 – July 1794 is known as the reign of trerror.
➤ In 1795 the exective power was vested with the Directory.
➤ Napolean Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio on the island of corsica in 1769.
➤ Napolean defeated the Egyptians in the battle of Pyramids.
➤ Napolean ruled France from 1799 to 1815.
➤ Napolean faced crushing defeat in the battle of Leipzig.
➤ Napolean was banished to the island of Elba.
➤ The battle of Waterloo (1815) finally ended the career of Napolean.
➤ Napolean went into exile in the island of St. Helena.
➤ Napolean died in 1821.
➤ The task of Italian unification was carried at by Mazzini Cavour and Garibaldi.
➤ Garibaldi is known as “the sword of Italian unification”.
➤ Zollverein was the custom union formed by Prussia.
➤ Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of Germany’s unification.
➤ Bismarck followed the policy of
➤ Czar Nicholas II (1894-1917) was the ruler during the Russian Revolution
(1917).
➤ Rasputin was the notorious Minister of Czar Nicholas.
➤ The Czar was forced to abdicate in March 1917.
➤ The Social Democratic Party was formed in 1898.
➤ In 1903 the Social Democratic Party bifurcated into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
➤ The events of 12 March 1917 has been called the February Revolution.
➤ A provisional government was set up under Alexander Kerensky.
➤ Nikolai Lenin (1870-1924) was the leader of the Bolsheviks.
➤ Lenin promised to people “Peace, Land and Bread”.
➤ The overthrowing of Provisional Government on November 7, 1917, is known as October Revolution.
➤ New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced in 1921.
➤ Lenin died in 1924.
➤ Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) assumed charge as the leader of Russia.
➤ The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife in Sarjevo on 28 June 1914 provided the immediate cause for the outbreak of World War I.
➤ In 1882 Triple Alliance was formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
➤ On 1 August 1914 Germany declared war on Russia and on 3 August on France.
➤ France, Russia and their allies came to be known as Allied Powers.
➤ Germany, Austria and their allies came to be known as the Central Powers.
➤ Woodrow Wilson presented the
➤ The Paris Peace conference was organised in January, 1919.
➤ The Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany on 28 June, 1919.
➤ The Paris Peace Conference led to the creation of the league of Nations.
➤ The League Headquarters were located in Geneva (Switzerland).
➤ The USA and Soviet Union remained outside the League of Nations.
➤ Mussolini was popularly known as Duce.
➤ The Economic Depression in Europe continued from 1929 to 1933.
➤ The Nazis were popularly known as the Brownshirts.
➤ On 30 January, 1933 Hitler was appoined as the Chacellor of Germany.
➤ Hitler was an Austrian by birth.
➤ Hitler’s organisation came to be known as the National Socialist Party.
➤ Hitler wrote the book Mein Kampf
(My battle) in Prison.
➤ In 1934 Hitler became the President as well as the Chacellor.
➤ Second World war was began in September, 1939.
➤ German forces attackd Poland on September 1, 1939.
➤ Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3rd September, 1939.
➤ The Pearl Harbour was attacked on December 7, 1941, on August 6, 1945 U.S. dropped the first atom bomb on Hiroshima.
➤ On August 9, 1945, U.S. dropped the second atom bomb on Nagasaki.
➤ The Japanese forces surrendered on September 2, 1945.
➤ Yalta conference was organised from 4 to 11 February, 1945.
➤ Dumbarton Oaks conference
(1944) was organised to discuss the formation of the United Nations
➤ The United Nations charter become effective on 24 October 1945.
➤ May Fourth Movement started on 4 May, 1919 in China.
➤ In 1921 the communist party of China was formed.
➤ In 1868 the rule of Shogun ended in Japan and Meiji came in to power.
➤ Cold war developed between USA and USSR after the second World
War.
➤ In 1949 Germany was divided into Eastern and Western Germany.
➤ The North Atlantic Traty Organisation (NATO) was formed on April 4, 1949.
➤ In 1955, the communist countries formed the Warsaw Pact.
➤ Germany was reunited on 3 October, 1990.
➤ The Korean War broke out in 1950.
➤ In 1954, the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) was set up.
➤ In January 1959, there was a revolution in Cuba under Fidel Castro.
➤ In 1961, East Germany built a wall between East and West Berlin.
➤ U.S. started its ‘Star-Wars programme’ in 1980s.
➤ On 26 December, 1991 the Soviet Union broke up into 15 Independent Republics.
➤ In 1960, 17 African countries became Independent.
➤ The system of racial segregation called apartheid was practised in South Africa.
➤ The African National Congress
(ANC) led the movement against apartheid.
➤ Nelson Mandela was released from Jail in 1990 after about 26 years.
➤ The Arab League was set up in 1945.
➤ ASEAN was set up in 1967.
➤ SAARC was set up in 1985.

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