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Chapter 05. Physical Geography (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)

Chapter 05. Physical Geography (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)

1. A meteor is :(1995)
(a) a rapidly moving star
(b) a piece of mater which has entered the earth’s atmosphere from outer space
(c) part of a constellation
(d) a comet without a tail
2. Which one of the following does not belong to biosphere reserves set-up so far?(1995)
(a) Great Nicobar
(b) Sunderbans
(c) Nanda Devi
(d) Gulf of Kutch
3. The graph given below shows the mean average monthly temperatures (in ºC) and mean monthly rainfall (in cms) of a place:(1995)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_869.png
This graph is indicative of which one of the climatic zones of the world?
(a) Wet and dry tropical
(b) Rainy tropical
(c) Semi-arid tropical
(d) Temperate marine
4. Willy Willy is:(1995)
(a) a type of tree grown in temperate regions
(b) a wind that blows in a desert
(c) a tropical cyclone of the north-west Australia
(d) a kind of common fish found near Laccadives Islands
5. Which one of the following is the continent with the highest mean elevation in the world?(1995)
(a) Antarctica
(b) North America
(c) Asia
(d) South America
6. Which one of the following layers of the atmosphere is responsible for the deflection of radio waves?(1996)
(a) Troposphere
(b) Stratosphere
(c) Mesosphere
(d) Ionosphere
7. Given below are two statements one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R) . (1996)
Assertion (A) : Areas near the equator receive rainfall throughout the year.
Reason (R) : High temperatures and high humidity cause convectional rain in most afternoons near the equator.
In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
8. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R) :(1996)
Assertion (A) : Mangroves are very specialised forest eco-systems of tropical and sub-tropical regions bordering certain sea coasts.
Reason (R) : They stabilise the shoreline and act as bulwark against encroachments by the sea.
In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
9. Diamond ring is a phenomenon observed:(1996)
(a) at the start of a total solar eclipse
(b) at the end of a total solar eclipse
(c) only along the peripheral regions of the totality trail
(d) only in the central regions of the totality trail
10. Which one of the following factors is responsible for the change in the regular direction of the ocean currents in the Indian Ocean?(1997)
(a) Indian Ocean is half an ocean
(b) Indian Ocean has monsoon drift
(c) Indian Ocean is a land-locked ocean
(d) Indian Ocean has greater variation in salinity
11. Daily weather map showing isobars is an example of:
(a) Choropleth map(1997)
(b) Isopleth map
(c) Chorochromatic map
(d) Choroschematic map
12. The group of small pieces of rock revolving round the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are called:
(a) meteors
(b) comets (1997)
(c) meteorites
(d) asteroids
13. If the earth’s direction of rotation is reversed, what should be the IST when it is noon at the International Date Line? (1997)
(a) 06. 30 hrs
(b) 05. 30 hrs
(c) 18. 30 hrs
(d) 17. 30 hrs
14. Which one of the following stars is nearest to the Earth? (1997)
(a) Polaris
(b) Alpha Centauri
(c) Sun
(d) Sirius
15. Which one of the following conditions is most relevant for the presence of life on Mars?(1997)
(a) Atmospheric composition
(b) Thermal conditions
(c) Occurrence of ice caps and frozen water
(d) Occurrence of ozone
16. Consider the map given below:(1997)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_874.png
Of the four shaded areas in the map, which is characterised by hot dry summers, mild and moist winters and seasonal reversal of winds.
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
17. Consider the following statements regarding asteroids:(1998)
1. Asteroids are rocky debris of varying size orbiting the sun
2. Most of the asteroids are small but some have diameter as large and 1000 km
3. The orbit of asteroids lies between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn
Of these statements:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
(b) 2 and 3 are correct
(c) 1 and 2 are correct
(d) 1 and 3 are correct
18. Match the rivers labelled A, B, C and D on the given map with their names given in the list and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:(1998)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_879.png
Codes:
(a) A-4; B-3; C-2; D-1
(b) A-5; B-3; C-1; D-2
(c) A-5; B-4; C-1; D-3
(d) A-3; B-1; C-4; D-2
19. The correct sequence of different layers of the atmosphere from the surface of the Earth upwards is:(1998)
(a) Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere
(b) Stratosphere, Troposphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere
(c) Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere
(d) Stratosphere, Troposphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere
20. Estuaries possess distinct blooms of excessive growth of a pigmented dinoflagellates. These blooms are called(1998)
(a) red tides(b) sea tides
(c) black tides(d) sea flowers
21. Consider the following climatic conditions (northern hemisphere) : (1998)
Temp. Rainfall
°Ccm.
J394. 7
F445. 7
M8. 38. 2
A14. 49. 2
M20. 09. 2
J23. 317. 7
J27. 814. 5
A27. 814. 0
S22. 312. 7
O18. 37. 0
N12. 25. 0
D6. 73. 5
World
climatic types
00119.jpeg
These are most likely to be found in the natural regions of:
(a) China type
(b) equatorial type
(c) hot desert type
(d) monsoon type
22. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below the lists: (1998)
List-I List-II
(Special characteristic) (Name of planet)
A. Smallest planet 1. Mercury
of the solar system
B. Largest planet of 2. Venus
the solar system
C. Planet second from the3. Jupiter
Sun in the solar system
D. Planet nearest to the Sun4. Pluto
5. Saturn
Codes :
(a) A-2; B-3; C-5; D-1
(b) A-3; B-5; C-1; D-2
(c) A-4; B-1; C-2; D-3
(d) A-4; B-3; C-2; D-1
23. Physical regions marked as 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the given map are respectively:(1999)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_884.png
(a) Andes, Brazilian Shield, Guyana Highlands and Amazon Basin
(b) Andes, Guyana Highlands, Brazilian Shield and Amazon Basin
(c) Amazon Basin, Guyana Highlands, Brazilians Shield and Andes
(d) Guyana Highlands, Brazilian Shield Andes and Amazon Basin
24. Which one of the following types of coal contains a higher percentage of carbon than the rest? (1999)
(a) Bituminous coal(b) Lignite
(c) Peat
(d) Anthracite
25. Which one of the following scholars suggested the earth’s origin from gases and dust particles?(1999)
(a) James Jeans
(b) H. Alfven
(c) F. Hoyle
(d) O. Schmidt
26. In the given map, which one of the following pairs of ocean currents are shown?(1999)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_889.png
(a) Benguela and Falkland
(b) Canary and Humboldt
(c) Agulhas and Guinea
(d) Benguela and Guinea
27. Which one of the areas marked as A, B, C and D in the given figure of the cyclone, witnesses heavy torrential short duration rainfall accompanied by thunderstorms?(1999)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_894.png
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
28. Consider the following temperature and rainfall data: (1999)

MonthTemperature (ºC)Rainfall (cm)
January6. 714. 0
February6. 713. 2
March7. 211. 4
April8. 99. 4
May11. 18. 1
June13. 98. 1
July15. 09. 6
August15. 012. 2
September13. 910. 4
October11. 114. 4
November8. 914. 0
December7. 816. 8

The climate to which this data pertains is :
(a) St. Lawrence type
(b) China type
(c) West European type
(d) Mediterranean type
29. At which one of the following positions shown in the diagram will the height of the ocean tide be maximum?

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_899.png
(1999)
(a) Ml
(b) M2
(c) M3
(d) M4
30. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:(1999)
List-I (Timber) List-II (Country)
A. Cedar1. Myanmar
B. Douglas Fir2. Canada
C. Mahogany3. Mexico
D. Teak4. Honduras
Codes:
(a) A – 3; B- 2; C- 1; D-4
(b) A – 3; B- 2; C- 4; D-1
(c) A – 2; B- 3; C- 4; D-1
(d) A – 2; B- 3; C- 1; D-4
31. Along which one of the following meridians did India experience the first light of the sunrise of the new millennium?(2000)
(a) 2°30′ W
(b) 82°30′ E
(c) 92°30′ W
(d) 92°30′ E
32. Consider the following statements:(2000)
1. Tides are of great help in navigation and fishing.
2. High tide enables big ships to enter or leave the harbour safely
3. Tide prevents siltation in the harbours
4. Kandla and Diamond Harbour are tidal ports
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 4
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
33. Consider the following statements about the ‘Roaring Forties’:(2000)
1. They blow uninterrupted in the northern and Southern Hemispheres
2. They blow with great strength and constancy
3. Their direction is generally from north-west to east in the Southern Hemisphere
4. Overcast skies, rain and raw weather are generally associated with them
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2 and 4
34. Which one of the following weather conditions is indicated by a sudden fall in barometer reading?
(a) Stormy(2001)
(b) Calm weather
(c) Cold and dry weather
(d) Hot and sunny weather
35. Who amongst the following was the first to state that the earth was spherical ?(2001)
(a) Aristotle
(b) Copernicus
(c) Ptolemy
(d) Strabo
36. If the stars are seen to rise perpendicular to the horizon by an observer, he is located on the:(2001)
(a) Equator
(b) Tropic of Cancer
(c) South Pole
(d) North Pole
37. Consider the following statements made about sedimentary rocks:(2001)
1. Sedimentary rocks are formed at earth’s surface by the hydrological system
2. Formation of sedimentary rocks involves the weathering of preexisting rocks
3. Sedimentary rocks contain fossils
4. Sedimentary rocks typically occur in layers
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
38. Volcanic eruptions do not occur in :(2001)
(a) Baltic Sea
(b) Black Sea
(c) Caribbean Sea
(d) Caspian Sea
39. Quartzite is metamorphosed from:(2001)
(a) limestone
(b) obsidian
(c) sandstone
(d) shale
40. Identify the correct order of the process of soil-erosion from the following:(2001)
(a) Splash erosion, Sheet erosion, Rill erosion, Gully erosion
(b) Sheet erosion, Splash erosion, Gully erosion, Rill erosion
(c) Rill erosion, Gully erosion, Sheet erosion, Splash erosion
(d) Gully erosion, Rill erosion, Sheet erosion, Splash erosion
41. Temperature and rainfall of a meteorological station are given below:(2001)

Temperature (0°C)Rainfall (cm)
J9. 412. 2
F10. 69. 1
M11. 77. 9
A12. 22. 5
M13. 31. 0
J13. 90. 3
J13. 9
A14. 4
S15. 60. 8
15. 02. 5
N13. 36. 1
D10. 611. 7

Average temperature: 12. 8°C
Average rainfall: 54. 9 cm per annum
Identify the region having the above climatic patterns from amongst the following:
(a) Mediterranean region
(b) Monsoon region
(c) Steppe region
(d) N. W. European region
42. Assertion (A) : During the neap tides. The high tide is lower and the low tide is higher than usual.
Reason (R) : The neap tide, unlike the spring tide, occurs on the new moon instead of on the full moon. (2001)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
43. Sun’s halo is produced by the refraction of light in:
(a) water vapour in Stratus clouds (2002)
(b) ice crystals in Cirro-Cumulus clouds
(c) ice crystals in Cirrus clouds
(d) dust particles in Stratus clouds
44. Consider the following statements:(2002)
1. Ocean currents are slow-surface movement of water in the ocean.
2. Ocean currents assist in maintaining the Earth’s heat balance
3. Ocean currents are set in motion primarily by prevailing winds
4. Ocean currents are affected by the configuration of the ocean
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
45. Consider the following statements:(2002)
1. In equatorial regions, the year is divided into four main seasons
2. In Mediterranean region, summer months receives more rain.
3. In China type climate; rainfall occurs throughout the year
4. Tropical highlands exhibit vertical zonation of different climates
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 3 and 4
46. Consider the following ecosystems:(2002)
1. Taiga
2. Tropical Evergreen
3. Tropical Deciduous
4. Tundra
The correct sequence in decreasing order of the Albedo values of these ecosystems is :
(a) 1, 4, 3, 2
(b) 4, 1, 3, 2
(c) 4, 1, 2, 3
(d) 1, . 4, 2, 3
47. Assertion (A) : 60° – 65º latitudes in both the hemispheres have a low pressure belt instead of high pressure.
Reason (R) : The low pressure areas are permanent over oceans rather than on land. (2002)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
48. Assertion (A) : The surface winds spiral inwards upon the centre of the cyclone.
Reason (R) : Air descends in the centre of the cyclone. (2002)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
49. Consider the following climatic and geographical phenomena:(2002)
1. Condensation
2. High temperature and humidity
3. Orography
4. Vertical wind
Thunder cloud development is due to which of these phenomena?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2 , 3 and 4
50. For short-term climatic predictions, which one of the following events, detected in the last decade, is associated with occasional weak monsoon rains in the Indian sub-continent?(2002)
(a) La Nina
(b) Movement of Jet Stream
(c) El Nino. and Southern Oscillations
(d) Greenhouse effect at global level
51. Which one of the following is not a lagoon?(2002)
(a) Ashtamudi lake(b) Chilka lake
(c) Periyar lake
(d) Pulicat lake
52. Which one of the following statements is correct with reference to our solar system?(2002)
(a) The earth is the densest of all the planets in our solar system
(b) The predominant element in the composition of earth is silicon
(c) The sun contains 75 percent of the mass of the solar system
(d) The diameter of the sun is 190 times that of the earth
53. Assertion (A) : The amount of moisture in the atmosphere is related to latitude
Reason (R) : The capacity to hold moisture in the form of water vapour is related to temperature. (2003)
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
54. Assertion (A) : Unlike temperate forests, the tropical rain forests, if cleared, can yield productive farmland that can support intensive agriculture for several years even without chemical fertilizers.
Reason (R) : The primary productivity of the tropical rain forest is very high when compared to that of temperate forests. (2003)
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
55. Assertion (A) : Areas lying within five to eight degrees latitude on either side of the equator receive rainfall throughout the year.
Reason (R) : High temperatures and high humidity cause convectional rain to fall mostly in the afternoons near the equator. (2003)
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
56. Which one among the following covers the highest percentage of forest area in the world?(2003)
(a) Temperate coniferous forests
(b) Temperate deciduous forests
(c) Tropical monsoon forests
(d) Tropical rain forests
57. Among the following which planet takes maximum time for one revolution around the Sun?(2003)
(a) Earth
(b) Jupiter
(c) Mars
(d) Venus
58. Assertion (A) : Thickness of the atmosphere is maximum over the Equator.
Reason (R) : High insolation and strong convection currents occur over the Equator. (2004)
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
59. Where is the volcanic mountain, Mount St. Helens located?(2005)
(a) Chile
(b) Japan
(c) Philippines
(d) United States of America
60. Assertion (A) : The same face of the moon is always presented to the earth.
Reason (R) : The moon rotates about its own axis in 23 and half days which is about the same time that it takes to orbit the earth. (2005)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
61. Assertion (A) : Existence of human life on Venus is highly improbable.
Reason (R) : Venus has extremely high level of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere. (2005)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
62. Assertion (A) : Wind patterns are clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and anti-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Reason (R) : The directions of wind patterns in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere are governed by the Coriolis effect. (2005)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
63. Where are the Balearic Islands located? (2005)
(a) Mediterranean Sea(b) Black Sea
(c) Baltic Sea
(d) North Sea
64. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?(2005)
(a) Bahamas: Nassau
(b) Costa Rica: San Jose
(c) Nicaragua: Balmopan
(d) Dominican Republic: Santo Domingo
65. Consider the following statements:(2005)
1. The Axis of the earth’s magnetic field is inclined at 23 and half to the geographic axis of the earth.
2. The earth’s magnetic pole in the Northern Hemisphere is located on a Peninsula in Northern Canada.
3. The earth’s magnetic equator passes through Thumba in South India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 2 only
(d) 3 only
66. Consider the following statements:(2005)
1. Total land area of earth is approximately 1475 lakh square kilometers.
2. Ratio of land area to water area of earth is approximately 1 : 4.
3. Maximum percentage of earth’s water is in the Pacific Ocean.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 only
(d) 3 only
67. In which one of the following oceans Diamantine Trench is situated?(2006)
(a) Pacific Ocean
(b) Atlantic Ocean
(c) Indian Ocean
(d) Arctic Ocean
68. Assertion (A) : To orbit around the Sun the planet Mars takes lesser time than the time taken by the earth.
Reason (R) : The diameter of the planet Mars is less than that of earth. (2006)
Codes:
(a) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are individually true and ‘R’ is the correct explanation of ‘A’ .
(b) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are individually true but ‘R’ is not the correct explanation of ‘A’.
(c) ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false.
(d) ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true.
69. What is the average distance (approximate) between the sun and the earth?(2007)
(a) 70 × 105 km
(b) 100 × 105 km
(c) 110 × 106 km
(d) 150 × 106 km
70. Consider the following statements:(2007)
1. Either of the two belts over the oceans at about 30° to 35° N and S Latitudes is known as Horse latitude.
2. Horse latitudes are low pressure belts.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
71. Consider the following statements:(2007)
1. Annual range of temperature is greater in the Pacific Ocean than that in the Atlantic Ocean.
2. Annual range of temperature is greater in the Northern Hemisphere than that in the Southern Hemisphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
72. Consider the following statements:(2008)
l. Albedo of an object determines its visual brightness when viewed with reflected light.
2. Albedo of Mercury is much greater than the albedo of the Earth.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
73. For India, China, UK and USA, which one of the following is the correct sequence of the median age of their population?(2008)
(a) China<India<UK<USA
(b) India<China<USA<UK
(c) China<India<USA<UK
(d) India<China<UK<USA
74. In order of their distances from the Sun, which of the following planets lie between Mars and Uranus?(2008)
(a) Earth and Jupiter
(b) Jupiter and Saturn
(c) Saturn and Earth
(d) Saturn and Neptune
75. Which one of the following planets has largest number of natural satellites or moons?(2009)
(a) Jupiter
(b) Mars
(c) Saturn
(d) Venus
76. In the structure of planet Earth, below the mantle, the core is mainly made up of which one of the following?(2009)
(a) Aluminium
(b) Chromium
(c) Iron
(d) Silicon
77. Consider the following statements : (2010)
1. On the planet Earth, the fresh water available for use amounts to about less than 1% of the total water found.
2. Of the total fresh water found on the planet Earth 95% is bound up in polar ice caps and glaciers.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
78. A geographic area with an altitude of 400 metres has following characteristics. (2010)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_904.png
If this geographic area were to have a natural forest, which one of the following would it most likely be?
(a) Moist temperate coniferous forest
(b) Montane subtropical forest
(c) Temperate forest
(d) Tropical rain forest
79. A new type of El Nino called El Nino Modoki appeared in the news. In this context, consider the following statements:(2010)
1. Normal El Nino forms in the Central Pacific Ocean whereas El Nino Modoki forms in Eastern Pacific Ocean
2. Normal El Nino results in diminished hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean but El Nino Modoki results in a greater number of hurricanes with greater frequency.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
80. Which one of the following reflects back more sunlight as compared to other three?(2010)
(a) Sand desert
(b) Paddy crop
(c) Land covered with fresh snow
(d) Prairie land
81. A geographic region has the following distinct characteristics:(2010)
1. Warm and dry climate
2. Mild and wet winter
3. Evergreen Oak trees
The above features are distinct characteristics of which one of the following regions?
(a) Mediterranean
(b) Eastern China
(c) Central Asia
(d) Atlantic coast of North America
82. What causes wind to deflect toward left in the Southern Hemisphere?(2010)
(a) Temperature
(b) Magnetic field
(c) Rotation of the earth
(d) Pressure
83. If a tropical rain forest is removed, it does not regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical deciduous forest. This is because (2011 – I)
(a) the soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients
(b) propagules of the trees in a rain forest have poor viability
(c) the rain forest species are slow-growing
(d) exotic species invade the fertile soil of rain forest.
84. A layer in the Earth’s atmosphere called ionosphere facilities radio communication. Why ?
1. The presence of ozone causes the reflection of radio waves to earth.
2. Radio waves have a very long wavelength.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only(b) 2 only(2011 – I)
(c) Both 1 and 2(d) Neither 1 nor 2
85. La Nina is suspected to have caused recent floods in Australia. How is La Nina different from El Nino ?
1. La Nina is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperature in equatorial Indian Ocean whereas El Nino is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperature in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.
2. El Nino has adverse effect on south-west monsoon of India, but La Nina has no effect on monsoon climate. (2011 – I)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
86. What is difference between asteroids and comets ?
1. Asteroids are small rocky planetoids, while comets are formed of frozen gases held together by rocky and metallic material.
2. Asteroids are found mostly between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars, while comets are found mostly between Venus and Mercury.
3. Comets show a perceptible glowing tail, while asteroids do not. (2011 – I)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 3 only(d) 1,2 and 3
87. Westerlies in southern hemisphere are stronger and persistent than in northern hemisphere. Why ?(2011 – I)
1. Southern hemisphere has less landmass as compared to northern hemisphere.
2. Coriolis force is higher in southern hemisphere as compared to northern hemisphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
88. What could be the main reason/reasons for the formation of African and Eurasian desert belt ?(2011 – I)
1. It is located in the sub-tropical high pressure cells.
2. It is under the influence of warm ocean currents.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
89. The jet aircrafts fly very easily and smoothly in the lower stratosphere. What could be the appropriate explanation ?
1. There are no clouds or water vapour in the lower stratosphere.
2. There are no vertical winds in the lower stratosphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context ?(2011 – I)
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
90. Which of the following is/are cited by the scientists as evidence/evidences for the continued expansion of universe?(2012 – I)
1. Detection of microwaves in space
2. Observation of redshift phenomenon in space
3. Movement of asteroids in space
4. Occurrence of supernova explosions in space
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) None of the above can be cited as evidence
91. Consider the following factors:(2012 – I)
1. Rotation of the Earth
2. Air pressure and wind
3. Density of ocean water
4. Revolution of the Earth
Which of the above factors influence the ocean currents?
(a) 1 and 2 only(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 4(d) 2, 3 and 4
92. Normally, the temperature decreases with the increase in height from the Earth’s surface, because(2012 – I)
1. the atmosphere can be heated upwards only from the Earth’s surface
2. there is more moisture in the upper atmosphere
3. the air is less dense in the upper atmosphere
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
93. Which one of the following is the characteristic climate of the Tropical Savannah Region?(2012 – I)
(a) Rainfall throughout the year
(b) Rainfall in winter only
(c) An extremely short dry season
(d) A definite dry and wet season
94. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(2013 – I)
Geographical FeatureRegion
(a) Abyssinian Plateau:Arabia
(b) Atlas Mountains:North-Western Africa
(c) Guiana Highlands:South-Western Africa
(d) Okavango Basin:Patagonia
95. Variations in the length of daytime and nighttime from season to season are due to(2013 – I)
(a) the earth’s rotation on its axis
(b) the earth’s revolution round the sun in an elliptical manner
(c) latitudinal position of the place
(d) revolution of the earth on a tilted axis.
96. On the planet earth, most of the freshwater exists as ice caps and glaciers. Out of the remaining freshwater, the largest proportion(2013 – I)
(a) is found in atmosphere as moisture and clouds
(b) is found in freshwater lakes and rivers
(c) exists as groundwater
(d) exists as soil moisture
97. Consider the following pairs:(2013 – I)
1. Electromagnetic radiation
2. Geothermal energy
3. Gravitational force
4. Plate movements
5. Rotation of the earth
6. Revolution of the earth
Which of the above are responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3, 5 and 6 only
(c) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
98. The most important fishing grounds of the world are found in the regions where(2013 – I)
(a) warm and cold atmospheric currents meet
(b) rivers drain out large amounts of freshwater into the sea
(c) warm and cold oceanic currents meet
(d) continental shelf is undulating
99. Which of the following is/are unique characteristic/characteristics of equatorial forests?(2013 – I)
1. Presence of tall, closely set trees with crowns forming a continuous canopy
2. Coexistence of a large number of species
3. Presence of numerous varieties of epiphytes
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
100. The annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high as compared to coastal areas. What is/are the reason/reasons?(2013 – I)
1. Thermal difference between land and water
2. Variation in altitude between continents and oceans
3. Presence of strong winds in the interior
4. Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
101. “Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty and the people used to be nomadic herders. ”(2013 – I)
The above statement best describes which of the following regions?
(a) African Savannah
(b) Central Asian Steppe
(c) North American Prairie
(d) Siberian Tundra
102. Which of the following phenomena might have influenced the evolution of organisms?(2014 – I)
1. Continental drift
2. Glacial cycles
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
103. Consider the following statements(2015 – I)
1. The winds which blow between 30° N and 60° S latitudes throughout the year are known as westerlies.
2. The moist air masses that cause winter rains in North-Western region of India are part of westerlies.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
104. Tides occur in the oceans and seas due to which among the following?(2015 – I)
1. Gravitational force of the Sun
2. Gravitational force of the Moon
3. Centrifugal force of the Earth
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
105. “Each day is more or less the same, the morning is clear and bright with a sea breeze; as the Sun climbs high in the sky, heat mounts up, dark clouds form, then rain comes with thunder and lightning. But rain is soon over. ” Which of the following regions is described in the above passage?(2015 – I)
(a) Savannah
(b) Equatorial
(c) Monsoon
(d) Mediterranean
106. In the South Atlantic and South-Eastern Pacific regions in tropical latitudes, cyclone does not originate. What is the reason?(2015 – I)
(a) Sea surface temperatures are low
(b) Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone seldom occurs
(c) Coriolis force is too weak
(d) Absence of land in those regions
107. What explains the eastward flow of the equatorial counter-current?(2015 – I)
(a) The Earth’s rotation on its axis
(b) Convergence of the two equatorial currents
(c) Difference in salinity of water
(d) Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator
108. Which of the following is/are tributary tributaries of Brahmaputra?(2016-I)
1. Dibang
2. Kameng
3. Lohit
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
109. With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) ‘ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2017-I)
1. IOD phenomenon is characterized by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.
2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
 

Solutions

1. (b) Meteor is a small celestial body which has entered the earth’s atmosphere by the gravitational force of earth, when they pass close to it. Meteors typically occurs in the mesosphere, and most range in altitude from 75 km to 100 km.
2. (d) As per the question answer is (d) . Gulf of Kachchh has been declared a bio-sphere reserve in 2008.
There are 18 notified Bio-sphere reserves in India. Out of them, 10 Biosphere Reserves are in the UNESCO’s MAB world Network.
3. (a) In the graph the temperature ranges from 15° to 25°. So, the graph indicates wet and dry tropical region, and in this region rain fall does not exceed 25 cm.
4. (c) It is a tropical cyclone of north-west Australia. Willy Willy originates in the Timor sea and causes rainfall in different parts of Australia.
5. (a) Antarctica is the highest continent on the planet with an average elevation of 7,545 feet above sea level. The elevation of Antarctica at the south pole is 9,300 feet.
6. (d) Ionosphere is the top layer of the atmosphere. Radio waves are deflected in the ionosphere of the atmosphere. Ionosphere is composed of D, E and F layers. D layer (60 km from earth) is good at absorbing AM radio waves.
7. (a) The assertion is correct and reason correctly explains the assertion because due to high temperature the atmospheric air gets heated and rises up. It cools down and precipitates while the cool air descends down to take the place of the vaccum.
8. (a) Both the statement are correct and reason is correctly explained.
Mangroves are found in the bordering region of tropical and sub-tropical sea coast. Mangroves stabilise the shoreline and act as bulwark against sea erosion which make it a specialised forest ecosystem.
9. (c) Diamond ring is observed during solar eclipse, only along the peripheral regions of the totality trail.
10. (b) Due to the monsoon drift of Indian ocean, its regular direction of the ocean currents changes twice an year.
11. (b) Daily wheather map showing isobars is an example of isopleth map. Isopleth map shows an imaginary surface by means of lines joining points of equal values.
12. (d) The asteroids are group of small pieces of rock revolving round the sun between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter. They are approximately 40,000 in number.
13. (a)
14. (c) Sun is the star nearest to the earth. It is 150 million kilometer away from earth. Sun has temperatures of over 15 million ºC.
15. (c) Mars is the only planet with similar day time temperatures and an atmosphere similar to earth. The most relevant condition for presence of life on Mars is occurrence of ice caps and frozen water.
16. (a) In the given world map ‘1’ refers the hot, dry summers, mild and moist winter in California (U. S. A) .
17. (c) The asteroids are group of small pieces of rocky debris of different sizes. Some asteroids are small and some asteroids even have diameter 1000 km. The asteroids revolve between Mars and Jupiter.
18. (b) In the given diagram of North America and South America.
‘a’ marked river is Yukon
‘b’ marked river is Mackenzie
‘c’ marked river is St. Lawrence
‘d’ marked river is Orinoco.
19. (c) The correct sequence of different layers of atmosphere from the surface of earth is Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Ionosphere.
Troposphere extends upto 8 km from earth surface, but at equator it is 16–18 km.
Stratosphere extends above Troposphere 18–50 km.
Mesosphere extends up to 80 km and above Mesosphere Ionosphere is present, which extends up to 400 km.
20. (a) Red tides are a special type of blooms, which are found at the estuaries. These blooms are pigmented dinoflagellates. These single celled organisms are able to swim short distances. When the algae is present in high concentration, the water appears purple or pink in colour.
21. (a) The climatic conditions, which are given in the table denotes the climatic condition of China type climate.
22. (d) A. The smallest planet of the solar system is–Pluto
B. The largest planet of the solar system is–Jupiter
C. The planet second from the Sun in the solar system is–Venus
D. Planet nearest to the Sun is – Mercury.
23. (a) In the given figure :
•Andes is marked as ‘1’, which is located at the western coast of South America.
•Brazilian shield is marked as ‘2’, this area is located at the eastern part of South America. The shield extends over 8. 5 million square.
•Guyana highland is marked as ‘3’ Guyana highland is a plateau and low mountain region of South America located north of Amazon river and South of Orinoco river.
•Amazon basin is marked as ‘4’, it is the tropical rain forest in the world. Amazon river drains more than half of Brazil, part of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador.
24. (d) Anthracite is a dense, shiny coal that has a high carbon content. Very little volatile matter is present in it. It gives a clean flame while burning. Anthracite contains 91% of carbon; is very little volatile and has almost smokeless burning.
25. (d) O. Schmidt in 1943 gave Interstellar Dust Hypothesis for the origin of the earth and solar system.
26. (d) Benguela is a cold current flows from south to north along the west coast of Africa.
Guinea current is a warm current flowing east of Guinea along the west coast of Africa.
27. (d) In the given figure ‘B’ lies between two cyclone zone ‘A’ and ‘D’. At the ‘B’ marked region rainfall would be accompanied by thunder storms.
28. (c) The given data shows the climatic condition of Mediterranean type. In this climatic zone the temperature varies from 7 – 15°C and rainfall varies from 6 – 16 cm.
29. (d) At ‘M4’ position of the diagram the height of the tide is at maximum, because in this position earth, moon and sun lies in a straight line.
30. (c) • Cedar—Canada
• Douglas Fir—Mexico
• Mahogany—Honduras
• Teak—Myanmar
31. (d) The first light of the sunrise of new millenium in India experienced at Kathal island of Andaman and Nicobar, which is located at 92°30 E meridian.
32. (d) All the given statements are true.
33. (b) The westerlies in the southern hemisphere is called as roaring forties; lies between 40°S to 50°S and is a permanent wind. It is slow over landmass.
34. (a) In stormy weather condition the pressure of atmosphere varies, which causes sudden fall in barometer reading.
35. (a) Aristotle in 340 B. C first stated that the earth was spherical in his book “On the Heaven”.
36. (a) If the stars are seen to rise perpendicular to the horizon by an observer then the observer is at the equator because celestical equator is an imaginary circle around the sky directly above the earth’s equator. It is always 90º from the pole. All the stars rotate in a path that is parallel to the celestical equator.
37. (d) All the statements are true about the sedimentary rock.
38. (a) The basaltic rock found in Baltic sea is transported by glacier.
39. (c) Quartzite is a metamorphosed form of sandstone.
40. (a) The correct order of soil erosion process is splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion and gully erosion. Splash occurs when the raindrop hits the surface; explosive impact soil into individual particles. Sheet erosion is the detachment of soil particles by rain drop and their removal down slope by water flowing overland as a sheet in definite channels. Rill erosion refers to the development of small ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sedimentary source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hill slopes. Sheet erosion removes the this top layer by raindrop kill or orion occurs in lines which are less than 30 cm deep when these rills are deeper than 30 forming channels are called as gully erosion. Gully erosion occurs when water flows in narrow channels after heavy rain and melting snow.
41. (a)
42. (c) The sun, the earth and the moon come in the position of quadrature (form-a right angle) on seventh and eighth day of every fortnight of a month and thus the tide producing forces of the sun and the moon works in opposite direction, causing low tide. This is lower in height than the normal tide and is called neap tide. But the spring tide occurs during full moon and are called high tides.
43. (c) Sun halo also known as 22 degree halo, the ring is caused by sunlight passing through ice crystals in cirrus clouds with in the Earth’s atmosphere.
44. (b) Ocean currents are not slow most of the time and can be subsurface current also. So, statement ‘1’ is wrong. But ‘2’, ‘3’ and ‘4’ statements are correct.
45. (d) 1st statement is wrong: Equational region has only two seasons.
2nd statement : Mediterranean gets rainfall during winter season is also wrong.
46. (b) According to ecosystem, the maximum albedo would be of Tundra, then Taiga, then Tropical Deciduous then Tropical ever green.
47. (c) A is true but R is false.
Sub-polar low pressure is located between 60–65º latitude in both hemisphere. Low pressure is produced in this area, because the surface air spreads outward from this zone due to rotation of earth.
48. (a) Air begins to slowly descend in the centre of the storm, creating a rain-free area. This is a newly formed eye. On land,, the centre of the eye is, by for, the calmest part of the storm.
49. (d) The thunder clouds develop by the above climatic and geographic phenomena. High temperature and humidity causes the wind to rise vertically up and due to orography and pressure of mountains these winds get condensed and form cumulonimbus clouds or thunder clouds.
50. (c) E1 Nino and La Nina are opposite phases of what is known as the E1 Nino-southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. The ENSO cycle is a scientific term that describes the fluctuations in temperature between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central.
Impact of E1 -Nino:
– Normal or High rainfall in Eastern/Central Pacific.
– Drought or Scant rainfall in western Pacific/Asia.
51. (c) Periyar Lake is favoured by the construction of the dam across the Mulloperiyar River. It is an artificial lake in the middle of the periyar wildlife sanctuary.
52. (a) The earth is the densest of all the planet. Density of Earth is 5. 52, Venus–5. 50, Mercury 5. 27, Mars – 3. 95, Jupiter and Saturn – 0. 69, Uranus – 1. 27.
53. (a) The amount of moisture in atmosphere is related to latitude because the temperature depends upon the latitude and capacity to hold moisture is related to temperature.
54. (d)
55. (a) The highest rainfall totals occur near the equator in the tropics, where the strong heating by the sun creates significant vertical uplifts of air and the formation of prolonged heavy showeas and frequent thunderstorms.
56. (a) Temperature coniferous forests covers the highest percentage of forest area in the world.
57. (b) Jupiter takes maximum time for one revolution i. e. , 11 year 86 days. Mars take 687 days, Venus takes 267 days.
58. (d) The circulation of atmosphere and oceans is funda-mentally caused by the fact that the amount of incoming solar radiation varies from a maximum at the equator to a minimum at the poles. More reflection and absorption of incoming radiation takes place in high latitude because of the greater thickness of atmosphere that must be penetrated. Thickness of the earth is maximum over the pole.
59. (d) Volcanic mountain. St. Helen is located in United States of America.
60. (c ) The moon rotates about its own axis in 27. 322 days. When the Moon first formed, its rotational speed and orbit were very different than they are now. Over time, the Earth’s gravitational field gradually slowed the Moon’s rotation until the orbital period and the rotational speed stabilized, making one side of the moon always face the Earth.
61. (a) The atmosphere of Venus is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and much denser and hotter than that of Earth.
The atmosphere of Venus supports opaque clouds made of sulfuric acid, making optical Earth-based and orbital observation of the surface impossible.
62. (a) A is true as the direction of wind in the northern hemisphere is clock wise and in southern hemisphere it is anti clock wise. The explanation is correct as this is mainly due to coriolis effect.
63. (a) The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the Western Mediterranean sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian peninsula.
64. (c) Managua is the capital of Nicaragua, not Balmopan. Balmopan is the capital city of Balize.
65. (b) Earth magnetic field is inchined between –90° to 90°. In the northern hemisphere it points downwards and upward in the southern hemisphere.
66. (a) Total land area is 148226000 km2 square kilometers. So, the ratio of land area to water area of earth is approximately 1 : 3. The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean, so maximum percentage of earth’s water is present in it.
67. (c) Diamantine Trench is istuated in south-east part of Indian Ocean. The depth of Diamantine Trench is 8047 m.
68. (d) A is incorrect as the mars revolution round the sun takes 1. 88 years of Earth’s revolution. The diametre of earth is almost double to the diameter of mars.
69. (d) The actual average distance between the sun and the earth is 152 × 106 km which is near to 150 × 106 km.
70. (a) The horse latitudes are located between latitude 30°–35° north and south of the equator. The region lies in an area where there is a ridge of high pressure that circles the earth. The ridge of high pressure is also called a sub-tropical high.
71. (b) The maximum and minimum annual temperatures of Ocean water are recorded in August and February respectively in the northern hemisphere.
The annual range of temperature is higher in the enclosed seas than in the open sea.
The Atlantic Ocean records relatively higher annual range of temperature than the Pacific Ocean.
Since the Northern hemisphere has more landmass as compared to the Southern hemisphere, the annual range of temperature will be greater in northern hemisphere.
72. (a) Albedo is the fraction of the incident sunlight that is reflected. When an object reflects most of the light that hits it and looks bright then it has high albedo. Albedo of mercury is 0. 1 and that of the earth is 0. 30.
73. (b) For India, China, UK and USA, the correct sequence of the Median age of their population is
74. (b) Jupiter and Saturn are located between Mars and Uranus.
75. (a) Jupiter has maximum moons accounting to 63 whereas Satun has 61, Mars has 2 and Venus has none.
76. (c) The core of earth is made up of nickle and iron.
77. (b) About 2. 75 percent of water is fresh water an earth and about 95% of it is frozen in glaciers.
78. (d) Tropical rainforests are warm and humid. The temperature ranges from 21 to 30 degree celsius (70 to 85°F)
The average annual temperature of tropical rainforests is above 20°C.
The tropical rainforests receive annual precipitation amounts of 60 to 160 inches. (152 to 406 cm) . Some rainforests in the world experiences annual rainfall amounts of almost 400 inches.
79. (b) Normal El Nino forms in south–eastern Pacific whereas as El Nino Modoki forms in central Pacific and causes greater number of hurricanes.
80. (c) The Albedo of Snow is hightest.
81. (a) Mediterrian climate have mild, rainy winter and hot, dry summers and Evergreen, Oak trees.
82. (c) Rotation of the earth causes wind to deflect towards left in the Southern Hemisphere.
83. (a)
84. (b) Statement 1 is wrong, ionosphere contains charged particles due to which electromagnetic radio waves gets reflected and communication becomes possible. Ozone is found mainly in stratosphere and in traces in troposphere. Its main function is absorption of UV rays. While the ions give the ionosphere its name, it is the free electrons that effect the radio waves and radio communications. Also Radio waves have the longest wave length in the EM spectrum.
85. (d)

img_ext_export_H49ey7GSRS_919.png
86. (b) Comets found beyond Nepture i. e. kupier belt. Asteroids are tiny planetary bodies revolving around the sun between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars. While comets are mode up of small icy particles and Neteoric fragments.
87. (a) The speed of these winds are higher and persistence in southern hemisphere. The land mass in southern hemisphere is lesser in comparison to northern hemisphere. As these winds crosses the landmass its velocity decreases. Thus the effect of westerlies is less over northern hemisphere than in southern hemisphere.
88. (a) It is under the influence of cold ocean current. So given second statement is wrong.
89. (c) Jet fly in the lower stratoshpere to avoid the turbulence. There are no clouds and the air is dry with little water vapour. There are no vertical winds in the lower strato-sphere.
90. (a) The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation left over from the “Big Bang”.
The CMB is well explained as radiation left over from an early stage in the development of the universe and its discovery is considered a landmarks test of the Big Bang model of the universe.
Red shift and Blueshift describes how light changes as objects in space (such as stars or galaxies) move closer or farther away from us. The concept is key to charting the universe’s expansion.
91. (b)
1. Rotation of the Earth
2. Air pressure and wind
3. Density of ocean water. Revolution has no impact on ocean currents.
92. (c) Atmosphere is heated by infrared radiation, Moisture is more in lower atmosphere. In the upper atmosphere Air is less dense which hold less heat thus temperature is low.
93. (d) Savannah covers approximately 20% of the Earth’s land area. The largest area of Savannah is in Africa. The tropical Savannah region has a definite dry and wet season. Savannah grasslands are much richer in humus than the equatorial forests.
94. (b) Atlas mountain ranges are situated in the north western part of Africa. They extend almost 2000 km. They pass through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
95. (d) Variations in the length of daytime and nighttion from season to season are due to the revolution of the earth on a tilted axis.
96. (c) Out of all the water on Earth, Saline water in oceans, seas and saline groundwater make up about 97% of it. Only 2. 5 – 2. 75% is fresh water, including 1. 75-2% frozen in glaciers, ice and snow, 0. 5 – 0. 75% as fresh groundwater and soil moisture and less than 0. 01% of it as surface water in lakes, Swamps and rivers.
97. (d) From electromagnetic radiation to revolution of the earth, everything is responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth. For example: Electromagnetic radiation brings changes in the field of microwaves, wavelengths of radio, UV rays, infra red rays, X rays and gamma rays. Geothermal energy is the heat received from the earth’s core. This heat continuously flows outward. It transfers to the surrounding layers of rock, the mantle. When temperature and pressure becomes very high some mantle rocks melt becoming magma. It then either comes out as lava or heat up the nearby rocks and water which comes out as hot springs or geysers. Gravitational force is constantly working on all physical bodies. It is giving weights to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. Plate movement is a dynamic change on the surface of the earth. It explains many aspects of the interrelationship of volcanoes, earthquakes, climate change, and the evolution of life itself. Everything about our planet is related either directly or indirectly to plate tectonic. Rotation causes day and night. Revolution causes seasons, change in the length of day and night.
98. (c) The mixing of warm and cold current in the region where planktons are found, is food for fishes. The temperature is just right for them to survive.
The temperature is just right for the growth of firsh food called planktons.
99. (d) The canopy is the primary layer of the forest forming a roof over the two remaining layers. The densest of the biodiversity is found here along with a large variety of epiphytes.
100. (a) The first statement is correct. One major factor affecting the distribution of the temperature of Earth is distribution of Land and Oceans. Since there is more land in Northern Hemisphere and more waters in Southern hemisphere and there is a big difference between the specific heat of land and water; the loss of heat from the continents is bigger than the oceans. The continents get heated faster and get cooled faster in comparison to the Oceans. This is the reason that the temperatures of the Oceans are moderate while that of continents is extreme. The moderating effect on temperature of the land due to proximity of the seas is called Maritime influence. The increasing effect on temperature of the land at interior of the continents is called Continental Influence.
101. (b) The central Asian steppes run through Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Mongolia. The climate here is harsh with dust storms, little to no rainfall and temperature ranging from – 4 to 50 degree Celsius.
102. (c) Continental Drift has effected the evolution of animals, the world’s geographical positions and the world’s climates.
The split of the original super land mass Pangea into Gondwanaland and the laurasia created new geographical/climatic regions.
The rearrangement and displacement of huge landmasses has helped create the diversity which we see in modern day species.
The final stages of evolution of Genus Homo occurs in the last 3 glacial cycles.
103. (c) The Westerlies are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. They originate from the high-pressure areas in the horse latitudes and tend towards the poles and steer extra tropical cyclones in this general manner. The moist air masses that cause winter rains in North-Western region of India are part of westerlies.
104. (d) Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of gravitational forces exerted by the Moon, Sun, and rotation of the Earth.
105. (b) The passage points out equatorial region.
106. (a)
107. (a) The Earth’s rotation on its axis explains the eastward flow of the equatorial counter-current. If the earth would have been rotating east to west, the piled up water would have come down on the west side. Therefore, essentially it’s the earth’s rotation that explains the eastward flow of equatorial counter current.
108. (d) The Brahmaputra enters India in the state of Arunachal Pradesh from its original source Tibet, and is joined by the Dibang River and the Lohit River at the head of the Assam Valley. It is joined in Sonitpur by the Kameng River (or Jia Bhoreli) .
Brahmaputra’s main left bank tributaries, viz. , Dibang or Sikang and Lohit. The important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas and Sankosh.
Therefore, all 3 correct.
Ref. NCERT Physical Geography Class11, Ch. 3 Drainage system Page, 26
109. (b) •The Hindu: Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is an event which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the Indian ocean. So first statement is wrong.
•A positive IOD leads to greater monsoon rainfall and more active (above normal rainfall) monsoon days while negative IOD leads to less rainfall and more monsoon break days (no rainfall) . So yes, IOD can influence El Nino’s impact on Monsoon. So second statement is right.
 

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