You are here
Home > Books > Chapter 05. India Natural Vegetation And Wildlife (Geography Notes)

Chapter 05. India Natural Vegetation And Wildlife (Geography Notes)

INDIA NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

MAJOR INDIAN FOREST TYPES
(1) Tropical Evergreen Forest
Region : Areas having 200-300 cm or more annual rainfall such as windward side of Western Ghats, North-Eastern hills of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Important trees : Rosewood, Shisham, Ebony, Mahogany, etc.
(2) Tropical Monsoon Forests
Region : Areas having annual rainfall between 100-200 cm ( in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka).
Important trees : Sal, Teak, Sandalwood, Myrobalan, Bamboo, Rosewood, Ebony, Shisham, etc.
(3) Tidal or Littoral Forests
Region : Areas of West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh having annual rainfall above 200cm. ( deltaic regions).
Important trees : Sundari
(4) Montane Forests
Region : Eastern and Western Himalayas and Nilgiri, regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Important trees : The type of trees depends on the height of mountain: Sal ( lower Shiwalik range); Chir ( higher range); and Pine, Cedar, Fir, Spruce,( 1,600-3,300m).
(5) Thorn Forests
Region: Areas of Rajashtan, Punjab and Gujarat having annual rainfall between 25 to 80cm.
Important trees : Khajuri, Khair, Kikar and Babul.

No. Vegetation type Distribution Characteristic vegetation
1.Tropical Wet Evergreen VegetationIn areas where the annual rainfall is over 250 cm and the average annual humidity exceeds 77 per cent (North-East states, western portions of the Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar).Lofty, very dense, multilayered forest with mesosphytic evergreens, e.g., bamboos, ebony, rose wood, champa, toon, jamun, mesa, white cedar, mahogony.
2.Tropical Semi-Evergreen VegetationFound in regions where the annual rainfall is between 200-250 cm and the humidity approaches 75% (Upper Assam, lower eastern Himalayas, Orissa, the Andaman and Nicobar islands & Western Coast).Evergreen trees mixed with deciduous ones, less dense but more gregarious e.g., aini, semul, gutel, kadam, irul, thorny bamboo, rosewood, Kusum, hollock bonsum, white cedar, Indian chestnut, champa, mango, bamboos etc.
3.Tropical Dry Evergreen VegetationIn areas where the mean rainfall is about 100 cm, mostly from north-east monsoon, the mean annual humidity is 75%, and the mean annual temperature is 28°C (Tamil Nadu coast).Short statured trees, with complete canopy, coriaceous leaved trees of short boles, no canopy layer differentiation. e.g., khirmi, jamun, kokko, toddy palm, tarrina, ritha, neem etc.
4.Tropical Moist Deciduous Vegetation (Also known as monsoon forest)In areas having moderate rainfall of 100- 200 cm, a mean annual temperature of about 27°C, and an average relative humidity of 60 to 75% (Western Ghats, Odisha, eastern coastal plains, and Himalayan foothills).Trees which shed their leaves during spring & early summer season, very useful forests because they yield valuable timber & several other forest products, heavily buttressed trees, shrubby undergrowth with patches of bamboos, climbers & canes. e.g. sal, teak, sandalwood, siris, palas, mahua, sisam, amla etc.
5.Tropical Dry Deciduous VegetationIn areas where rainfall is less than 150 cm and dry period is relatively long (eastern Rajasthan, Kathiawar, rain shadow area of the Deccan plateau, Central India).Trees which grow relativity shorter then the tropical moist deciduous trees closed & uneven canopy. Examples include teak, sal, bijasal, palas, khair, tendu, rosewood, anjar etc.
6.Tropical Thorny VegetationMostly prevalent in areas having very low rainfall, i.e., 50 cm to 75 cm, the annual mean temperature between 25°C and 30°C, and the annual humidity less than 50% (Kutchh, Saurashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Upper Ganga plains and the Deccan plateau).Open stunted forest breaking down into xerophytic bush, e.g., babul, accasia, senegal, ber, khair, ak, neem, Cactii etc.
7.Sub-Tropical VegetationFound at 1,000-2000 m altitude in eastern and western Himalayas, and drier areas of Kashmir.Luxurious forests of evergreen species. Eg. – Oak, chestnut, ash, birch, pine, sal, chir pine, oak, wild olives.
8.Himalayan Dry Temperate VegetationIn the inner dry ranges of the Himalayas where precipitation is below 10 cm. (Ladakh Lahul, Chamba, Kinnaur, Garhwal, Sikkim).Predominantly coniferous forests with xerophytic shrubs, e.g., chilgoza, deodar, oak, maple, ash, celtis, etc.
9.Himalayan or Montane/ Mountain Moist Temperate VegetationIn the temperate eastern and western Himalayas, between 1,500 m and 3,300 m (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Darjeeling).Broad leaved evergreens mixed with dominant coniferous species, generally 30 to 50 m high, open forest with shrubby undergrowth. e.g., deodar, spruce, maple, ash, pine, fir, beach, etc.
10.Himalayan or Montane/ Mountain Wet Temperate VegetationFound between 1,800 m and 3,000 m of altitude (eastern Himalayas, Nilgiris, the Annamalai, Palni hills of South India, Sikkim, Nagaland, hills of West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh) where average rainfall is between 150 cm and 300 cm. & humidity is over 80%.Evergreen forests, short-boleds branchy trees, dense and rounded leaves. Examples include oak, magnolia, chilauni, birch, plum, deodar, laurel and maple.
11.Sub-Alpine and Alpine VegetationAbove 2,900 m of altitude in the eastern Himalayas and above 3,500 m of altitude in the western Himalayas and extends up to the snowline.Dwarf shrubs which degenerate into a low evergreen scrubs and into xerophytic vegetation; examples include fir, juniper, pine birch and Rhododendron, spruce.
12.Littoral or Tidal or Delta or Swamp VegetationIn and around the tidal creeks and along the deltas of the rivers Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna and Godavari.Evergreen trees having profuse growth and stiltlike roots, e.g., sundari in the great Sunderban delta, Rhizophora, nipa fruiticans (a type of palm), palms, keora, amur etc.

1. Jammu and Kashmir8. Uttar Pradesh13. Bihar19. Sikkim29. Kerala
National ParksDudwaValmikiNational ParksEravikulam
DachigamSanctuariesSanctuariesKhangchendzongaPeriyar
HemisChandra PrabhaBhimbandhSanctuariesSilent Valley
KishtwarChillaChandra PrabhaFambong LhoSanctuaries
SanctuariesHastinapurKabarKyongasia AlpineAralam
BaltalKaimurKaimurMaenamChimony
ChangthangKateraniaghatNakti DamShingba RhododendronChinnar
GulmargKishanpurRajgir20. ManipurIdukki
HirporaMaahavir SwamyValmikinagarKeibul LamjaoNeyyar
HokarsarNational ChambalUdaipurSiroiParambikulam
KanjiNawabganj14. JharkhandSanctuaryPeechi Vazhani
KarakoramRanipurDalmaYagoupokpi LokchaoPeppara
LachiporaSamaspurGautam Buddha21. MeghalayaPeriyar
LimberSohagabarwaHazaribaghBalphakramShendurney
Nandini9. UttaranchalKodermaNokrekThattekkad Bird
OveraNational ParksLawalongSanctuaryWynad
Overa-AruCorbettMahuadanrBhagmara30. Tamil Nadu
RamnagarGangotriPalamauNongkhyllemGuindy
Surinsar-MansarGovindParasnathSijuIndira Gandhi
TongriNanda DeviTopchanchi22. Arunachal Pradeshor Anamalai
2. Himachal PradeshRajaji15. MaharashtraMoulingSanctuaries
National ParksValley of flowersNational ParksNamdaphaKalakad
Great HimalayanSanctuariesGugamalSanctuariesKarikili
Pin ValleyAskotNawegaonD’Ering MemorialMudumalai
SanctuariesBinsarSanjay GandhiDibang ValleyMukurthi
BandliGovind PashuTadobaEagle nestMundanthurai
ChailKedarnathSanctuariesItanagarPoint Cali mere
ChurdharSonanadiAndhariKamlangPulicat
Daranghati10. Madhya PradeshAner DamKaneSrivilliputhur
DarlaghatNational ParksBhimashankarMehaoVedantangal
Gamgul SiahbehiBandhavgarhBorPakhuiVettangudi
Gobind Sagar and Naina DeviDinosaur FossilsChandoliSessa Orchid31. The Andaman Islands
KaisGhatiChaprala23. MizoramNational Parks
Kalatop & KhajjiarKanhaDhakna KolkazMurlenCampbell Bay
KanawarMadhavGandhariPhawngpuiGalathea
KhokhanPannaGautala AutramghatSanctuariesWandur
KugtiPenchGreat Indian BustardDampaMount Harriet Island
Lippa AsrangSanjayJaikwadiKhawnglungSaddle Peak
MajathalSatpuraKalsubai HarishchandraNgengpuiSanctuaries
ManaliVan ViharKatepurna24. NagalandBarren Island
Naina DeviSanctuariesKoynaNitangkiBattimalve Island
NarguAchanakmarMalvan MarinePulebatzeBenett Island
Pong Dam SanctuaryBadankhohMelghatFakimBluff Island
Raksham ChitkulBagdaraNagzira25. TripuraBondoville Island
RenukaBarnawaparaNandur MadmeshwarCharilamBuchaan Island
Rupi BhabhaBhairamgarhPaingangaSepahijalaCinque Island
Sechu Tuan NalaBoriPhansadRishnaCrocodile (Lohabrrack)
Shikari DeviGandhi SagarRadhangiriBisonDefence Island
ShilliGhatigaonSagareshwarClouded LeopardEast (Inglis) Island
SimbalbaraGomardahTansa26. AssamEast Island
TalraKareraWaingangaKazirangaFlat Island
TirthanKen GharialYawalNambiarInterview Island
TundahKuno-Palpur16. GujaratDibru-SaikhowaJames Island
3. PunjabKheoniVansdaSanctuariesKyd Island
SanctuariesNarsingarhGirDipor BeelLandfall Island
AboharNational ChambalMarine (Gulf of Kutch)GarampaniNarcondum Island
Harike LakeNoradehiVelavadar/BlackbuckLaokhowaNorth Reef Island
Bir GurdialpuraPachmarhiSanctuariesManasPaget Island
Bir BunnerheriPalpurBalaram-AmbajiNameriPitman Island
Bir MotibaghPamed Wild BuffaloBardaOrangPoint Island
4. HaryanaPanpathaDhumkhalPabhaRanger Island
SultanpurPenchGirPobitaraFleef Island
SanctuariesFensatalliteJambughodaSonai RupaiRoper Island
Bir ShikargarhRatapaniJessore27. Andhra PradeshRoss Island
ChautalaMajor Wildlife ReservesKhijadiyaNational ParksSandy Island
5. DelhiSailana FloricanKutch DesertShri VenkataswaraShearme Island
Indira PriyadarshiniSanjay (Dubrj)Marine (Gulf of Kutch)SanctuariesSir Hugh Rose Island
6. ChandigarhSardarpur FloricanNalSarovarCoringaSouth Brother Island
SukhnaSamarsotNarayan (Chenkars)EturnagaramSouth Reef Island
7. RajasthanSinghori (Sindhari)SarovarGundlabrahmeswaramSouth Sentinel Island
National ParksSitanadiPaniyaKoundinyaSpike Island
DesertSone GharialPurnaKawaiSwamp Island
KeoladeoTamor PinglaRamparaKinnerasaniTable (Delgarno) Island
RanthamboreUdanti Wild BuffaloRatanmahalKolleruTable (Excelsior) Island
Sariska11. ChhattisgarhShoolpaneshwarKrishnaTalabaicha Island
SanctuariesIndravatiWild AssLanjamaduguTemple Island
Bandh BarthaKanger Ghati17. Goa, Daman andManjiraTillonchang Island
Bassi12. OdishaDiuNagarjunasagar-SrisailamWest Island
BhensrodgarhNational ParksBhagwan MahavirNeelapattu
DarahBhitar KanikaSanctuariesPakhal
JaisamandSimlipalBhagwan MahavirPapikonda
Jamwa RamgarhSanctuariesCotigaoPocharam
Jawahar SagarBadrama18. West BengalPranahita
KeladeviBaisipalliNational ParksPulicat
KumbhalgarhBalukhand KonarkNeora ValleyRollapadu
Mount AbuBhitarkanikaSingalilaSrilanka Malleswara
NahargarhChandaka DamparaSundarbanSiwaram
National ChambalChilka Lake (Nalaban)Sanctuaries28. Karnataka
National GarhialDebrigarhBuxaNational Parks
PhulwariHadgarhBibnutibhushanAnshi
Ramgarh BundiKarlapatBetuadaharyBandipur
Sawai MansinghKhalasuniBallavpurBannerghatta
ShergarhKotgarhChapramariKudremukh
Sita MataKuldihaGorumaraNagarhole
Sunda MataLakhari ValleyHalliday IslandSanctuaries
Todgarh RaoliSatkosia GorgeJaldaparaArabithittu
TalChapperSimlipalJorpokhriDandeli
Van ViharSunabedaLothian IslandGhataprabha
UshakothiMahanandaBiligiri

Name LocationFauna
1.Nilgiri Biosphere ∆Western GhatNilgiri Tahr,
2.Reserve, Tamilnadu, Kerala KarnatakaWestern Himalyas CoastLion talked macaque
3.Nanda Devi, Utrakhand ∆East Himalayas
4.Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu ∆Gangatic DeltaDugong
5.Nokrek, Meghalya ∆East HimalayasRed Panda
6.Sunderbans, West Bengal ∆Deccan PeniusulaRoyal Bengal Tiger
7.Manas, AssamEastern Himalayas Semi-AridRed Panda
8.Simlipal, Odissa ∆Maikals HillsRoyal Bengal Tiger,
9.Dihang – dibang, Arunachal PradeshDesertGanv, Wild elephant
10.Panchmarhi Biosphere ∆Western Himalayas
11.Amerkantak, Madhya Padesh Chhatisgarh ∆East HimalayasFlying squirrel
12.Rann of Kutch, GujaratWestern GlatsGiant Squirrel
13.Pin valley national parkIslandsIndian wild ass
14.(Cold Desert), Himachal PradeshEast HimalayasShow Leopased
15.Khangchendzonga, SikkimEastern GhatsRed Panda
16.Agasthyamalai Biosphere resurve, Kerala,Catchment area of Ken RiverNilgiri Tahr Elephants
17.TamilnaduWestern GhatSaltwater Crocodile
18.Nicobar Biosphere Reserve, A & Nicobar,Western Himalyas CoastGolden Langur
19.Islands ∆East HimalayasTiger, Chital, Chinkara,
20.Dibru-Saikhowa, AssamGangatic DeltaSembhar and Sloth bear
21.Seshachalam Hills, Andhra PradeshEast HimalayasNilgiri Tahr,
22.Panna, Madhya PradeshDeccan PeniusulaLion talked macaque

Top
error: Content is protected !!