➤ After the death of Aurangzeb, Muaazam emerged victorious in the war of succession.
➤ Muaazam ascended the throne with the name of Bahadur Shah-I in 1707 at the age of 67.
➤ During Bahadur Shah’s reign Jaziya was abolished.
➤ Bahadur Shah gave a high Mansab to Guru Govind Singh.
➤ Bahadur Shah released the Maratha Prince Sahu.
➤ Jahandar Shah came to the throne in 1712 A.D.
➤ He was dominated by his mistress Lal Kunwar. She imitated the style of Nur Jahan.
➤ Administration was virtually in the hands of Zulfiqar Khan.
➤ Jahandar Shah was the first later Mughal ruler to get the throne with the help of nobles.
➤ The policies of Aurangzeb were reversed.
➤ Jai Singh of Amber as given the title of Mirza Raja Sawai and appointed Governor of Malwa.
➤ Ajit Singh of Marwar was awarded the title of Maharaja and appointed governor of Gujarat.
➤ Sahu was granted Chauth and Sardeshmukhi of Deccan.
➤ Farrukh Siyar came to the throne in 1713 A.D. with the help of Sayyid Brothers.
➤ Sayyid brothers were known as King makers.
➤ Sayyid brothers dominated mughal court and empire from 1713 to 1719, the elder brother Abdullah Khan was Wazir and younger, Hussain Ali Khan was Mir Bakshi.
➤ Sikh leader Banda Bahadur executed by Farrukhsiyar.
➤ Sayyid brothers belonged to Hindustani group of Mughal nobility.
➤ In 1719, the Sayyid brothers deposed Farrukh Siyar and killed him.
➤ After Farrukh Siyar, Sayyid brothers placed Rafi-ud-darajat on the throne but he died soon
➤ Muhammad Shah came to the throne in 1719 A.D.
➤ Muhammad Shah was known as “Rangila”.
➤ Nadir Shah, the Napoleon of Iran invaded India and inflicted a crushing defeat on Mughal army at Karnal on Feb 13, 1739.
➤ Nadir Shah captured Delhi and Muhammad Shah was imprisoned.
He plundered Delhi.
➤ Nadir Shah’s total plunder has been estimated at Rs. 70 crores.
He also carried away the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond and the jewel studded Peacock Throne of Shah Jahan.
➤ Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded the kingdom for the first time during Muhammad Shah’s reign in 1748.
➤ Various provinces became independent like Bengal, Hyderabad, Awadh, Carnatic etc.
➤ The Jats under Badan Singh established themselves in the districts of Agra and Mathura and founded the Jat state of Bharatpur.
➤ Sayyid brothers were murdered in 1720 A.D.
➤ Ahmad Shah came to the throne in 1748 A.D.
➤ Safdar Jang, the Nawab of Awadh became the wazir of the Empire.
➤ His wazir (after Safdar Jang), Imad-ul-Mulk blinded him and placed Alamgir-II on the throne.
➤ Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India thrice during his reign.
➤ Alamgir-II came to the throne in 1754 A.D.
➤ Battle of Plassey (1757) was fought during the reign of Alamgir II.
➤ Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded fourth time in his reign in 1755.
➤ The Marathas were invited by his wazir to save guard the empire against Abdali.
➤ In 1759 he was murdered by his wazir, Imad-ul-mulk.
➤ Real name of Shah Alam II was Ali Gauhar.
➤ Along with Mir Qasim and Shujaud- daulah he was defeated by English at the battle of Buxar in 1764.
➤ He lived for several years at Allahabad as a pensioner of the East India Company.
➤ He regained the throne of Delhi with the help of Maratha sardar Mahadji Scindhia in 1772.
➤ British under Lord Lake captured Delhi and Agra in 1803.
➤ He was killed by Ghulam Qadir in 1806.
➤ English concluded treaty of Allahabad (1765)
➤ Bahdur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal Emperor.
➤ Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut in 1498 A.D.
➤ Vasco Da Gama returned to Portugal in 1499 with cargo worth 60 times of his expenses.
➤ Arrival of Pedro Alvarez Cabral in 1500 A.D.
➤ Second trip of Vasco da Gama to India in 1502.
➤ Portuguese set up trading stations at Calicut, Cochin, and Cannore in 1502.
➤ Cartaz system (passes given to ships) was introduced by Portugese.
➤ Cochin was the early capital of Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it.
➤ In 1503 Alfanso de Albuquerque arrived in India as commander of a squadron.
➤ Vasco da Gama bombarded Calicut on the Zamorin’s refusal to expel Muslim traders.
➤ In 1503, Raja of Cochin let Vasco build first fort.
➤ De Almeida was the first Portuguese governor (1505-1509) in India.
➤ Albuquerque was appointed second governor of Portuguese in India in 1509.
➤ Albuquerque captured Goa in 1510 from Bijapur.
➤ Albuquerque encouraged his country men to marry Indian womens. He persecuted the Muslims.
➤ At the time of Albuquerque’s death in 1515 Portuguese was the strongest naval power in India.
➤ Nino da Cunha (Governor 1529- 38) transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa in 1530.
➤ In 1530 Nino da Cunha acquired Diu and Bassein from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
➤ Martin Alfanso de Souza (Governor 1542-45) arrived in India with the famous Jesuit saint Francisco Xavier.
➤ Francisco de Almeida created fortresses at Kilwa, Anjadiva, Mannaur and Cochin.
➤ Portuguese lost Hoogli in 1631 during the reign of Shahjahan.
➤ In 1661, the Portuguese king gave Bombay to Charles-II of England for marrying his sister.
➤ The Marathas captured Salsatte and Bassien in 1739.
➤ In March 1602, the Dutch east India company was formed.
➤ The name of the company was ‘Uereenigde Oost Indische Companie’. (also known as Dutch United East India Company)
➤ It was the first multinational company to issue stocks.
➤ Till 1690 Pulicat was their main centre in India, thereafter Nagapattam replaced it.
➤ Their final collapse with their defeat by the English in the battle of Badera in 1759.
➤ Loss of their settlements one by one to the East India company of Britain.
➤ They were expelled from their last possession in India by the British in 1795.
➤ The English east India Company was formed by a group of merchants known as “The Merchant Adventurers’ in 1599”.
➤ Captain Hawkins arrived at Jahangir court in 1609 and was given a mansab of 400.
➤ Sir Thomas Roe was an ambassador of James-I to Jahangir’s court.
➤ In 1661 AD the Portuguese gave Bombay as a part of dowry to their princess, on her marriage with charles-II of Britain.
➤ In 1668, Bombay was transferred to East-India company by James II for 10 Rs. per year.
➤ In 1687, Bombay became seal of the western Presidency, it replaced Surat.
➤ In 1661 Shah Jahan’s Nishan granted free trade in Bengal for Rs. 3000 P.a.
➤ East-India Company was regulated by Court of Directors.
➤ Queen Elizabeth was the largest share holder of East India Company.
➤ Charter of 1632 empowered the company to control and punish its employees in India.
➤ Bombay was fortified by Charles Boon in 1720.
➤ Company’s mint was located in Bombay.
➤ Free Merchants were called interlopers by the EIC.
➤ Charles Eyre was the first President (Governor) of Fort William.
➤ General Aungier was the first governor of Bombay (1669-1677).
➤ Masulipatnam (1611) was first English settlement on East-coast.
➤ The immediate aim of the company was the acquisition of spices and peppers.
➤ In 1717 Farrukh Siyar confirmed the privileges (farman) of 1691 and extended them to Gujarat and Deccan also.
➤ The Danes formed an East India Company in 1616.
➤ Serampore was their headquarter in India.
➤ They sold their settlements to British in 1845.
➤ Establishment of the first French factory at Surat by Francois Caron in 1668.
➤ Establishments of a factory at Masulipatnam by Marcara in 1669.
➤ In 1673, acquisition of village of Valikondapuram (Pondicherry) and Bellanger de Lespinay by Francois
➤ Martin from Muslim governor, Sher Khan Lodi.
➤ Francois Martin was the first governor of Pondicherry.
➤ In 1690 they got Chandernagar in Bengal from Mughal governor, Shaista Khan.
➤ Arrival of Dupleix, French Governor in India in 1742 and the beginning of the Anglo-French conflict
(Carnatic wars), resulting in defeat of French power in India.
➤ French were finally defeated in the battle of Wandiwash (1760) by English and they lost almost all Indian settlements (by the treaty of Paris in 1763) to English.
Establishment of First European Factories in India.
Portuguese 1502 A.D. (Cochin- Kerala) Dutch 1605 A.D.
(Masulipatnam- A.P.) English 1611 A.D.
(Masulipatnam-A.P) Danish 1620 A.D. (Tranquebar, Tanjore-T.N.) French 1668 A.D. (Surat, Gujarat)
1. Portuguese : Portuguese settlements on west coast : Calicut (1500), Cochin (1501), Cannore (1503), Quilon (1503), Cheliyam (1531), Rahole (1535), Krengannore (1536), Mangalore (1568), Hanawer (1568), Diu (1509), Goa (1510), Surat (1599), Daman (1599) and Bhavanagar
Portuguese settlements on East coast : Meliyapur (San Thome), Chittagong, Hoogli and Bandel.
2. Dutch : Dutch factories : Masulipatnam (in 1605 by Vande Hagen), Pettappoli (Nizampatnam), Devanampettam/Tegnapattam (Called st. David under English), Palicut (1610, fort Geldiria), Surat (in 1616 by Van Broecke).
3. English : Masulipatnam (1611), Surat (1613), Madras (1639), In 1633, Hariharpur (Odisha), Balasore, Pipli (1661) Hoogli (1651) Patna, Qasim bazar, Rajmahal.
4. Danes : Tranquebar (1620), Serampore
5. French : Surat (1668), Masulipatnam (1669), Pondicherry, Chandernagar.
ENTRY OF EUROPEAN POWERS
Portuguese Dutch English Danes French Company Year of Estd.
Estado da India (Portuguese Company) 1498
British East India Company 1600
Verrenigde Oost Indische Companie (Dutch) 1602
Danish East India Company 1616
Compagnie des Indes Orientales (French) 1664
ESTABLISHMENT OF BRITISH RULES
➤ The Carnatic Wars, Battle of Plassey and Buxar, Anglo-Maratha wars, Anglo-Mysore wars established British Supremacy.
THE CARNATIC WARS
➤ These were the Anglo-French conflicts.
➤ These wars were continued for 20 years from 1744 to 1763 A.D.
➤ First War (1744-1748) : French captured Madras
➤ French defeated Nawab of Hyderabad at St. Thome.
➤ Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle, (1748) ended the War of Austrian Succession.
➤ Second War (1749-1754): Dupleix aligned with Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) and Chanda Sahib (Carnatic).
➤ After initial reverses, Robert Clive emerged victorius.
➤ Godeheau signed the treaty of Pondicherry in 1755 with the English.
➤ Third War (1758-1763) : French, Count de Lally captured ‘Fort St. David’.
➤ French were defeated at Wandiwash (1760) under General Eyre Coote.
➤ Pondicherry was returened to French by the Treaty of Paris.
CONQUEST OF BENGAL
➤ Nawab Sirajuddaulah was against the misuse of Dastaks.
➤ Nawab Sirajuddaulah seige the English factory at Qasim Bazaar.
➤ On 20th June, 1756 Fort William (Calcutta) was caputred.
➤ The Nawab placed Calcutta under the charge of Manik chand.
➤ The Black Hole Episode took place at Calcutta.
➤ Calcutta recovered by Clive in early 1757.
➤ Nawab was forced to sign the Treaty of Alinagar in February 1757.
➤ Battle of Plassey was fought on 23rd June, 1757.
➤ The English East India Company’s forces under Robert Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah.
➤ Mir jaffar, Manikchand, Aminchand, Jagat Seth betrayed Nawab.
➤ Mir Jaffar was proclaimed Nawab of Bengal.
➤ The company recieved the Zamindari of 24 Parganas.
➤ Company gained a huge amount of wealth from Bengal treasury.
➤ The company recieved free trading rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
➤ Mir Jaffar was replaced by Mir Qasim in 1760 A.D.
➤ Mir Qasim-Shifted capital to Monghyr.
➤ Mir Qasim ceded Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong.
➤ Mir Qasim checked the misuse of the Farman of 1717.
➤ War with the company began in 1763.
➤ Mir Qasim fled to Awadh and formed a confederacy.
➤ Shujauddaulah and Shah Alam were part of the confederation.
➤ Battle of Buxar was fought on 22nd October, 1764.
➤ Mir Qasim was defeated by Major Munro.
➤ The Battle of Buxar placed Awadh under the company.
➤ Mir Jaffar was again placed on throne.
➤ After the death of Mir Jaffar Nizamud- daulah was placed on the throne.
➤ Nizam-ud-daulah signed the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765 with Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
➤ The company got the Diwani of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.
➤ The Diwani was granted by Mughal Emperor.
➤ Clive introduced the Dual system of government.
➤ Warren Hestings ended the Dual system in 1772.
ANGLO MYSORE WARS
➤ First War (1766-1769) : Haider Ali defeated the British army.
➤ The Treaty of Madras Signed.
➤ Second War (1780-1784) : Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe, which was in Haider Ali’s territory.
➤ Haider Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot.
➤ In 1781, Haider Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyre Coot.
➤ Treaty of Mangalore (1784) was signed by Tipu Sultan.
➤ Third War (1789-1792) : Marathas and Nizam aided the British, Cornwallis captured Bangalore. By Treaty of Srirangapatnam, Tipu ceded half of his territories.
➤ Fourth War (1799) : Tipu enlisted himself as a member of the Jacobin Club, also planted a tree of liberty at Srirangapatnam. Lord Wellesley attacked and Tipu died.
Arthur Wellesley who was the brother of the Governor-General, also participated in this war.
➤ First Anglo Maratha War was fought from 1775-1782 A.D.
➤ The Britishers signed Treaty of Surat with Raghunath Rao (1775).
➤ The Treaty of Purandhar was made in 1775.
➤ The Treaty of Salbai (1782) gave 20 years of peace.
➤ The Second Maratha war was fought from 1803-1806 A.D.
➤ The Primary cause was the Treaty of Bassein (1802).
➤ The Scindia and the Bhonsle were defeated.
➤ The Third Anglo Maratha War was fought in 1817-1818.
➤ Lord Hasting’s moves against Pindaris transgressed the authority of the Marathas.
➤ The Maratha confederacy was completely destroyed.
➤ Peshwa Baji Rao-II was dethroned and pensioned off at Bithur near Kanpur.
➤ Period of political instability prevailed after Ranjit Singh.
➤ The First War was fought in 1845- 1846.
➤ The Sikhs were defeated in four battles.
➤ Battle of Sabraon is also known as ‘Battle of guns.’
➤ Treaty of Lahore (1846) ended the War.
➤ The Second War was fought in 1848-1849.
➤ The Sikhs were defeated.
➤ Lord Dalhousie annexed Punjab in 1849.
➤ On 29th March, 1857 the sepoys at Barrackpore refused to use the greased cartridge.
➤ Mangal Pandey attacked and fired on the Adjutant.
➤ The 34 Native Infantry was disbanded.
➤ 85 sepoys of 3rd cavalry were court-martialled on their refusal to use the greased cartridge.
➤ General Hewitt was the commanding officer at Meerut.
➤ Delhi was seized by the rebels on 12th May 1857.
➤ Lt. Willoughby was the officer in charge of magazine at Delhi.
➤ The British officer of Delhi, Col. Ripley was killed.
➤ The British army entered Delhi on 14 sept. 1857, after 5 days of battle.
➤ Sadruddin led the revolt in Mewat.
➤ Rao Tularam led the revolt in Rewari (Haryana).
➤ Devi Singh led the revolt in Mathura.
➤ Kadam Singh was an important leader in Meerut.
➤ Rango Bapuji Gupte led the revolt in Maharashtra.
➤ Copy of the manifesto of Nana Saheb was pasted in Pune college.
➤ Chinta Bhupati revolted in Golkonda region.
➤ Deepuji Rana revolted in Goa.
➤ Nana Saheb issued a manifesto for Deccan on 18 April, 1858.
➤ Major Changes were introduced through the proclamation of Queen Vitoria (1858)
THE SPREAD OF MUTINY AND CIVIL REBELLION (1857-1858)
➤ 2nd February, 1857 : Mutiny of the 19th Native Infantry at Behrampur.
➤ 29th March, 1857 : Mangal Pandey killed his British commander and was hanged at Barrackpore.
➤ 10 May, 1857 : Mutiny of Sepoys at Meerut and march to Delhi.
➤ 11-30 May, 1857 : Outbreaks in Delhi, Ferozepur, Bombay, Aligarh, Etawah, Bulandshahar, Nasirabad, Bareilly, Moradabad, Shahjehanpur and other stations in U.P.
➤ The Mughal emperor proclaimed as the Emperor of India.
➤ June 1857 : Mutinies at Gwalior, Bharatpur, Jhansi, Allahabad, Faizabad, Sultanpur, Lucknow etc.
➤ July 1857 : Mutinies at Indore, Mhow, Sagar and certain Places in the Punjab like Jhelum Sialkot etc.
➤ August 1857 : Civil rebellion spreads throughout Sagar and Nerbudda districts.
➤ September 1857 : The English recapture Delhi.
➤ October 1857 : Revolt spreads to Kota State.
➤ November 1857 : The rebels defeat General Windham outside Kanpur.
➤ December 1857 : Sir Colin Campbell wins the battle of Kanpur.
Tatia Tope escapes.
➤ March 1858 : Lucknow recaptured by the English.
➤ April 1885 : Jhansi falls to the English. Fresh rising in Bihar led by Kunwar Singh.
➤ May 1858 : The English recapture Bareilly, Jagdishpur and Kalpi
➤ July-December 1858 : English authority re-established in India.
1857 REVOLTS : AT A GLANCE
|11 May, 57||Nicholson and|
|20 Sep., 57|
|Kanpur||Nana Saheb, Tatia Tope||5 June, 57||Colin Campbell||Dec., 57|
|Luckow||Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir||4 June, 57||Colin Campbell||31 Mar., 58|
|Jhansi,||Rani Laxmibai,||4 June, 57||Gen. Hugh||17 June,|
|Jagdish-||Kunwar Singh,||12 June, 57||Major William||December,|
|Faizabad||Maulvi Ahmadullah||June 1857||—||5 June,|
|Allahabad||Liakat Ali||June 1857||Col. Neill||1858|
|Bareilly||Khan Bahadur||June 1857||Campbell||1858|
VIEW OVER THE REOVLT 1857
➤ R.C. Majumdar : Neither first nor National nor War of Independence
➤ V.D. Savarkar : First war of Indian Independence
➤ Sir John Seeley : Wholly unpatriotic and selfish sepoy Mutiny
➤ Joutram and W Taylor : Hindu- Muslim Conspiracy
➤ John Lawrence : He was a single leader of ability arisen among the rebels.
➤ Hugh Rose : Here lay the woman
(Laxmi Bai), who was the only man among the rebels.
➤ T.R. Holmes : Conflict between civilisation and Barbarism.
CAUSES OF FAILURE
➤ The revolt remained confined to small part of North India.
➤ lack of resources as compared to those of the British.
➤ The rebel leaders lacked political leadership, military experience and strategic knowledge and limited social base
➤ Sikh, Marathas, Rajputs and some other sections of society supported British Authorities.
LAND REVENUE SYSTEM DURING BRITISH RULE
Zamindari System (Permanent Settlement)
➤ This land revenue system was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1973
➤ It was introduced in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Varanasi.
➤ Zamindars were made the owner of the lands and given them rights to collect the rent from the peasants.
➤ The realized amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11 of the share belong to Zamindar and 10/ 11 of the share belongs to East India Company.
➤ This land revenue system was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820.
➤ Major areas of introduction include Madras, Bombay, Parts of Assam and Coorgh provinces of British India.
➤ In Ryotwari System the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants.
➤ British Government collected taxes directly from the peasants.
➤ The revenue rates of Ryotwari System were 50% where the lands were dry and 60% in irrigated land.
➤ This land revenue system was introduced in 1833 during the period of William Bentick.
➤ It was introduced in central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India.
➤ In this system, the land was divided into Mahals.
➤ Each Mahal comprises one or more villages. Owenship rights were vested with the peasants.
➤ The Villages committee was held responsible for collection of the taxes.
BOOKS AND WRITERS ASSOCIATED WITH 1857 REVOLTS
S. N. Sen -1857
P. C. Joshi – Rebellion, 1857
H. P. Chattopadhyaya – Sepoy Mutiny 1857
R.C. Majumdar Sepoy Mutiny and the Revolt of 1857 Maulana Azad Eighteen Fifty Seven
V.D. Savarkar First War of Indian Independence
S. B. Chaudhari Civil Rebellion in the Indian Mutinies, Theories of Indian Mutiny. A. T. Embree 1857 in India
➤ The architect of Indian National congress was Allan Octavion Hume a retired English ICS officer, who founded this in December 1885 along with seventy one other political workers.
➤ The first meeting of the INC was organised by A.O. Hume at Gokaldas Tejpal Sanskrit College on December 28th, 1885 in Bombay.
➤ The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by 72 delegates.
➤ The first president of the congress was an Indian Christian W.C. Banerjee, the second was a Parsi Dadabhai Naoroji, the third, a Muslim, Tyabji and the forth and fifth were two Englishman, George youle and wedderburn respectively.
➤ The first congress was attended by representatives of all communities.
➤ The first congress was attended by two muslims, the 2nd by 33 and the sixth in 1890, by 156 out of 702 delegates i.e. 22 percent.
➤ Hume’s main purpose in encouraging the foundation of the congress was to provide a ‘safety valve to the growing discontent among the educated Indians.
➤ This was a myth and the core of the myth is that a violent revolution was on the varge at the time and was avoided and nipped in the bud, by the foundation of the INC.
Aims and Objectives of Congress :
➤ The promotion of personal intimacy and friendship amongst all the more earnest workers in our country’s cause in various parts of the empire.
➤ The eradication of all possible race, creed, caste and development and consolidation of sentiments of national unity.
➤ Recording of the opinions of educated classes on pressing problems.
➤ The authoritative record.
➤ Pressing social questions of the day.
➤ The determination of the lines upon and methods, by which, during the twelve months, it is desirable for native politicians to labour in the public interest.
Facts relating to INC
➤ Lord Duffering was the viceroy of India during the foundation of Indian National congress (INC)
➤ Congress, term has been taken from the history of US. which means ‘the group of people.’
➤ The first session of INC was planned to organised in Pune but due to plague it was organised in Bombay (now Mumbai)
➤ According to Lala Lajpat Rai, The congress was the origin of Dufferin’s mind.
➤ Sir Sayyid Ahmad was against INC.
➤ Curzon said to congress ‘a rebellion organisation.’
➤ On 27 December, 1936 congress session held in village first time in Faizpur.
➤ Bankim Chandra Chatterjee said the people of congress are greedy of posts.
➤ Lala Lajpat Rai said that the sessions of INC were the annual national fairs of uneducated Indians.
THE PARTITION OF BENGAL AND SWADESHI MOVEMENT
➤ At the close of the 19th century the province of Bengal comprising besides Bengal proper, Bihar, Orissa and Chhotanagpur, was the largest and the most populated province in British India.
➤ In 1904 the viceroy and the Governer General Lord Curzon announced the scheme of the partition of Bengal into two separate provinces on the ground of administrative consideration namely lightening the burden of Bengal, but the real motive was to curb the growth of national feeling in Politically advanced Bengal by driving a wedge between the Bengali speaking Hindus and Muslims and destroying the solidarity of the people of Bengal by dividing them into two blocks.
➤ The partition was declared in Shimla in 7 July, 1905.
➤ The partion took place on 20 July, 1905.
➤ The people of Bengal organised protest meeting and observed the day of mourning. The whole political life of Bengal under went a change.
➤ Gandhiji wrote that the real awakening in India took place only after the partition of Bengal.
➤ The anti partition movement culminated into the Swadeshi movement and spread to other parts of India.
➤ The aggressive nationalists forced Dada Bhai Naoroji to speak of ‘Swaraj’ in the session of Calcutta in 1906.
➤ This movement involved programmes like the boycott of government’s service, court, schools, and colleges and of foreign goods, promotion of swadeshi goods, promotion of national education through the establishing of national schools and colleges.
➤ The swadeshi movement was a great success.
➤ In Bengal labours also joined the movement.
➤ The government adopted several tough measures. It passed several acts to crush the movement.
➤ Indian National Congress took the swadeshi call first at Banaras session of 1905 presided over by G.K. Ghokhle.
➤ Lal, Bal, Pal and Arbindo Ghosh played the important role.
➤ October 16, 1905 the day of partition formally came into force was observed as the day of mourning throughout Bengal.
➤ People fasted, bathed in the Ganga and walked barefoot in processions singing Vande Mataram.
➤ R.N. Tagore invoked the people to celebrate the partition as a ‘Rakhi Day’.
Revolutionary leader with swadeshi movement
1. B.G. Tilak – Mumbai & Pune
2. Ajit Singh – Punjab
3. Lala Lajpat Ray – Uttar Pradesh
4. Sayyid Haider – Delhi Raza
5. Chidambaram – Madras Pillai
➤ Ashwani Kumar Datta setup a ‘Swadesh Bandhava Committee’ to flash the message of this movement.
➤ R.N. Tagore set ‘Bengal National College’ for National education.
Aurbindo Ghosh was the Principal of this college.
➤ During Swadeshi Movement R.N.
Tagore wrote a song named ‘Amar Sonar Bangla’ later this song became the national song of Bangladesh.
Act passed by Government to suppress the Movement
1. Sedition meeting Act, 1907.
2. Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1908.
3. Indian Newspaper Act, 1908.
4. Explosive substances Act, 1908.
5. Indian press Act, 1910.
Leaders & their journals
Yugantar – Barindra Ghosh
Sanjivini – K. K. Mitra
Bharat Mata – Ajit Singh
Sandhya – B. Upadhyaya
New India – Anne Besent
Calcutta Session of Congress
➤ Calcutta session of congress was held in 1906 this session was presided over by Dadabhai Naoroji.
➤ In this session Naoroji first time used the terms – ‘Swaraj’.
➤ Bhupendra Nath Basu was the president of welcome committee of this session.
The Surat split (1907)
➤ This session was took place in Surat on the bank of river Tapti under the presidentship of Ras Bihari Ghosh.
➤ This was the 23rd session.
➤ During the Surat split, Lord Minto was the viceroy of India.
➤ The INC split into two groups – the extremists and the moderates.
➤ Extremists were led by Lal, Bal and Pal while the moderates by
➤ Controversy rose over the elected president, Ras Bihari Ghosh as extremists did not accept this.
Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be chosen.
➤ The moderates were succeeded to make Ras Bihari Ghosh as president of INC Surat session. Due to this congress split into two parts.
Foundation of Muslim League (1906)
➤ Muslim League setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-mulk.
➤ Vakar-ul-mulk was the first president of Muslim League.
➤ A deputation of about 35 muslims, representing different parts of the country and led by Aga Khan met lord Minto on 10 October, 1906 in Shimla.
➤ Muslim League put before him two points –
1. At all elections, whether for legislative councils or for local bodies muslims must be seperately represented and their representatives seperately elected by partly Muslims electors.
2. The extent of the muslim community’s representation must be commensurate not merely with thier numerical strength but with their political importance and the value of the contribution which they make to the defence of the Empire.
The objective of muslim league :
(i) To promote among Indian Muslim feeling of loyalty towards the British Government.
(ii) To protect the political and other rights of Indian Muslims and to place their needs and aspirations before the Government in temperate language.
(iii) The fomation of the muslim league was a great success of British Government and his policy of ‘Divide & Rule’
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
➤ After Curzon, Lord Minto became the viceroy of India
➤ It envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims.
➤ Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate
➤ Aimed at dividing the rationalist ranks and at rallying the moderate and the muslims to the governments side.
➤ One Indian (for the first time) was to be appointed to the viceroy’s executive council.
➤ Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the Law member.
Komagata Maru ship Incident (1914)
➤ Canada Government was unhappy with the increasing number of India settlers in Canada.
➤ It harassed the immigrants and planned to shift all of them to Island which was known for its unhealthy climate.
➤ In order to arrest the inflow of Indians, the Canadians Government passed an immigration Act which permitted only those Indians to land in Canada who were direct passengers from Calcutta.
➤ Unfortunately no passenger ship in those days sailed directly for Canada from only India bound ship either from Hongkong or Shangai.
➤ Baba Gurdit Singh, a man of affluent means and a contractor of repute came to rescue of Indians stranded in Hongkong in 1910.
➤ He hired a Japanese ship Komagatamaru. The ship reached Calcutta and accommodated nearly 500 passengers.
➤ It reached the fort of vancouver on 22 May, 1914. These people did not come under the restrainsts of the Canadian Act.
➤ Canadian Government did not allow the ship to enter Vancouver hence the passenger did not get down.
➤ After two months stay in Canadian after, Komagata maru started returning on 23rd July.
➤ When ship reached Budge- Budge, angry passengers fought with police many were wounded and died.
➤ The main centres of revolutionary movement were three –
➤ The revolutionary movement was started from Maharashtra in 1897.
➤ Tilak’s attempt to propagate militancy among the youth was the Shivaji and Ganapati Festivals.
➤ Tilak published journals –Kesari & Maratha.
➤ By the inspiration of Tilak ‘Acharya Bandhav Committee’ was established in Maharashtra.
➤ Chapekar Brothers – Damodar Hari Chapekar & Balkrishna Hari Chapekar established ‘Vyayama Mandal’ in Pune in 1896-97.
➤ Chapekar brothers were associated with revolutionary institute – ‘Hindu Dharma Sangh’.
➤ In 22 June, 1897 Chapekar Brothers shot dead plague commissioners Rand and Amerst in Pune.
➤ Chapekar brothers hanged on 18 April, 1898.
➤ In 1899 V.D. Savarkar and his brother Ganesh organised a secret society named – ‘Mitra Mela’.
➤ They were co-accused in Nasik and Gwalior conspiracy cases.
➤ In 1904 Mitramela and Abhinava Bharat were merged.
➤ In 1909 District Magistrate Jackson of Nasik was assassinated by Anant Lakshman Kanhare.
➤ Shyamji Krishna Varma setup Indian Home Rule Society and India House and brought out journal named ‘The sociologist’ in London in 1905.
➤ Madan Lal Dhingra murdered Curzon Wyllie in 1909.
➤ Madam Bhikaji Cama operated from Paris and Geneva and brought out journal ‘Bande Matram’.
➤ In Bengal the revolutionary movements was organised by Bhadralok society.
➤ ‘Anushilan committee’ was the first revolutionary Institute in Bengal which was founded by
P. Mitra, Barindra Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendra Nath Dutta in 24 March, 1903.
➤ Another Anushilan committee was founded by Pulin Biharidas in Dhaka in Bangladesh.
➤ Many newspapers advocated revolutionary activity like Sandhya by Brahmabandhav Upadhyaya, Vande Matram by Arbindo Ghosh, Yugantar by Bhupendra Dutta.
➤ In 1907, Avanish Chandra Bhattacharya wrote a bookpresent strategy (Vartman Ranniti). This book advocated to youths to take military education.
➤ In 1908, Praffula Chaki and Khudiram Bose attempted to murder Muzaffapur Judge kingsford.
➤ Praffula Chaki committed suicide and Khudiram Bose was arrested and hanged on May 11, 1908.
➤ Aurobindo Ghosh, Varindra Ghosh, Ullas Dutta, Hemchandra Das etc were involved in this case.
➤ Aurobindo Ghosh was released due to lack of evidence after that he published an English paper ‘Karmyogini’.
➤ He became saint in course of time and set Ashram in Puducherry.
➤ Lord Hardinge decided to shift the capital of country from Calcutta to Delhi. When he triumphantly entered the historic city of Delhi Chandani Chowk a huge ceremonial procession was taken out. As the procession passed through the crowded ‘bazar of Chandni Chowk suddenly a bomb exploded as if to crack the sheel of viceroy’s. The bomb missed the target.
➤ The bomb had been thrown by a great patriot Ras Bihari Bose. He slipped away quietly.
➤ Under fictitious name he went away to Japan with R.N. Tagore and raised INA.
➤ Later he handed it over to the leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
➤ This incident is known as Delhi conspiracy case. In this case Amirchandra, Avadh Bihari and Bal Mukund hanged on in Delhi and Basant Kumar in Ambala.
➤ In Punjab, the revolutionary activists were Lala Lajpat Rai, Ajit Singh, Aga Haider Syed Haider Raza, Bhai Parmananda, Lalchand Falak and Sufi Amba Prasad.
Ghadar Party (1913)
➤ The Ghadar Party, which began as an association to protect and defend the rights of Indian settlers in the United States and Canada, later grew into a movement to liberate the country from alien yoke.
➤ In 1907 Ramnath Puri established Hindustan Assosiation in San Fransisco and edited ‘sarkular- i-Ajadi in urdu.
➤ Taraknath Das brought out free Hindustan in 1908 from Vancouver, Canada.
The Lucknow Pact (1916)
➤ The Lucknow session was important not only in that it brought the moderates and the Extremists together, it also led to an entente between the congress and the Muslim League.
➤ On 2nd october, 1911 the partition of Bengal was annulled.
➤ The Muslims community in India was further disappointed by the hostile attitude of the British Government towards the sultan of Turkey during the Tripoli and Balkan wars in 1911, 1912 & 1913.
➤ They looked upon the Sultan as the Calipha of Islam and did not like that he should has been humbled by Italy and the Balkan powers through the connivance of England.
➤ The Participation of Turkey in the Great war on the side of Germany convinced the Indian Muslim that British was not the real friend of Islam.
➤ The first step towards national solidarity and common action was taken by Jinnah and some of his associates. They invited the league to hold its annual session at Bombay in December 1915 where the congress was holding its own session.
➤ The congress and the league decided to cooperate in formulating a common scheme of post-war reforms and in pressing its adoption by the British authorities.
➤ This session was presided over Ambika Charan Majumdar.
➤ The architect of congress-league were Jinnah & Tilak.
➤ The cooperation of Muslims League was welcomed by INC at karachi Session in 1913 under the Leadership of Nawab Sayyid Mohammad Bahadur.
Home Rule Movement
➤ After Tilak’s return, having served sentence of six years in Mandalay.
➤ He tried securing the need to involve himself and other extremists into Indian National Congress.
➤ A committee of its members were formed for Home Rule.
➤ On the recommendation of this committee Tilak setup Home Rule in Belgaon in 28 April, 1916.
➤ Tilak’s League had six branches and restricted to Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central provinces and Berar.
➤ Josef Baptista became the president and N.C. Kelkar secretary.
➤ A similar organisation was setup in Madras in September 1916 by Annie Besant.
➤ She was a great leader of India and was deeply interested in the educational religious and social uplift of the Indian people.
➤ Annie Besant’s League had 200 branches and covered the rest of the country, that was not included in Tilak’s League.
➤ The British authorities became seriously concerned about the Home Rule Movement in India.
➤ British Government decided to curb the Home Rule leagues.
➤ Circulars were issued prohibiting school and college boys from participating in the Home Rule Movement.
➤ In July 1916, Tilak was prosecuted, allegedly, for delivering seditious speeches and was ordered to furnish a personal boend of Rs. 20,000 with two sureties of Rs 10,000 each.
➤ Annie Besant was called upon to furnish security for her press and papers.
➤ ‘The commonweal’ and ‘The New India’, and altogether she deposited and forfeited a sum of Rs. 20,000 on 14 June, 1917.
➤ The Government of Madras issued order of internment against Besant and her two associates.
G.S. Arundale and B.P. Wadia.
➤ Subramaniam Iyer returned his ‘knighthood’ due to the detention of Annie Besant and her two associates.
➤ Later in September, 1917 She was released. She was the first women president of congress.
Montague Declaration (1917)
➤ A British policy was announced which aim at increasing association of Indian in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible Government in India as an integral part of the ‘British empire’ this came to be the August Declaration or Montague Declaration.
➤ Moderates called it ‘the Magna Carta of India’.
➤ Tilak called it ‘Morning Without the Sun’.
The Montague -Chelmsford reforms (1919)
(The Indian council Act 1919)
➤ This act was come into force in 1921.
The main provisions of this Act—
➤ The Imperial Legislative Council was abolished and in its place a bicameral legislature, composed of the legislative Assembly and Council of state, was established.
➤ The Indian executive comprised of the Governer -General and his Executive council. The former was the head of the Executive and distributed the portfolioes among the executive councillors.
➤ The most important provision of the Act was the introduction of “Dyarchy”, a sort of double government in the province. The provincial subjects were divided into ‘Reserved’ and ‘Transferred’ subjects.
➤ It separated, for the first time, provincial budgets from the central budget.
➤ Important departments such as Finance, Police, General Administration etc were ‘Reserved’ and were to be dealt with by the Governor and his Executive Council.
less important department called, ‘Transferred’ subject were to be dealt with by Minister chosen from the elected members of the provincial legislature.
➤ It extended the principle of communal representation by providing separate electorates for Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians and Europeans.
➤ Part V of the act made provision for a statutory commission to be setup, at the expiration of ten years after the passing of the act for the purpose of inquiring into the working of the system of Government.
The Third phase of National Movement
(Ghandhi Era -1919-1947)
➤ The third phase of the national movement is called the ‘Ghandhi- Era’.
➤ Gandhiji returned from south Africa to India on 9 Jan, 1915 and joined the national movement.
➤ Here Gandhiji met with Gokhale, The thought of Gokhale influenced Gandhiji much and he accepted him his political Guru.
➤ Initialy Gandhiji worked for British government but soon he disappointed with the policy of British Government.
Champaran Satyagrah (1917)
➤ Gandhiji tried the efficacy of his weapon in India first in Champaran.
➤ Champaran was a district of the Tirhut division of the Bihar province.
➤ The tenants of this district were bound by contract to plant trees out of twenty parts of his land with Indigo for his land lord who, by and large , were Englishman.
➤ This system was known as ‘tinkathia system’.
➤ But when Indigo became unremunerative, the European planters imposed higher taxes to compensate their loses in the international trade at that time.
➤ Gandhiji was requested by Rajkumar Shukla to look into the problems of the Indigo planters.
➤ Gandhiji was successful in abolishing the tinkathia systems and refund was made to the cultivators in wages.
Movement of Ahmedabad Mill workers (1918)
➤ In Ahmedabad the disputes was between the mill owners and workers over the ‘plague bonus’ which the owner wanted to withdraw once the epidemic was over.
➤ Gandhiji requested the mill owners to pay wages but they refused to do so.
➤ Gandhiji advised the workers to go on strike and explained them what it meant. Gandhiji advised the workers to go on strike and he undertook hunger strike after which the mill owners press into accepting the tribunal award of 35% increase in wages.
➤ This was the second victory of Gandhiji’s fight for justice.
Khera Satyagrah (1918)
➤ Hardly was the Ahmedabad mill strike over, that his attention was drawn to the deplorable plight of the Peasants of Khera district, in Bombay province.
➤ The peasants of Khera district were in extreme distress due to a failure of crops and the government ignored their appeals for the remission of land revenue.
➤ The peasants of Khera were already hard pressed because of Plague, high prices and draught.
➤ Due to Gandhiji’s effort, the government bound and a compromise was made between them.
➤ Indulal Yagnik and Sardar Patel took leading role in movement with Gandhiji.
Rowlatt Act (1919)
➤ The 1919 sedition committee headed by justice Rowlatt led to the Rowlatt Act. where by war time restrictions of civil rights were to be made permanent by—
(a) System of Special court
(b) Detention without trial for maximum 2 years.
(c) Greater police power.
➤ This act authorized the government to imprison any person without trial and conviction of the court of law.
➤ It was first countrywide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of non-cooperation movement.
➤ During March and April 1919, the country witnessed a remarkable political awakening in India.
➤ This Act was criticized as ‘Black Act.’
➤ This act was called ‘Bina Apeel Bina Daleel Bina Vakil’.
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (13 April, 1919)
➤ A meeting was called in to oppose the detention of Dr Satyapal & Kitchlew.
➤ In the forenoon of the April -the Baisakhi day’ along with troops of the 45th British Regiment marched through the main streets, proclamation that if more than 4 person gathered at one place would be shot.
➤ The people who gathered there were absolutely unarmed.
➤ As soon as the proceedings commenced, Dyer ordered the troops to fire. ‘till the ammunition exhausted.”
➤ With one hour, about 380 person were killed and 2000 were wounded.
➤ The Lt. Governor of the Punjab, applauded his action and the British business community in India hailed him as a valiant hero’ and presented him a purse of 26 thousand pounds and a ‘Sword of honour’.
➤ Due to this massacre, R. N.
Tagore returned ‘Knighthood’ and Shankaran Nair resigned from the executive council of viceroy.
➤ Government setup enquiry commission under the chairmanship of Hunter hence known as ‘Hunter commission’.
➤ On March 13, 1940 Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when he was addressing a meeting in caxton hall, London. Udham Singh took the revenge of Jallianwala massacre by killing O’Dyer.
Khilafat Movement (1920)
➤ In the first world war, Turkey, which had joined the Axis powers was defeated by the Allied powers. When the war ended the victorious Allied powers took a very stern attitude towards Turkey and finally dismembered the once mighty Turkish ottoman empire.
➤ The sultan of Turkey who was also the Khalif was deposed.
➤ On May 14, 1920 the term of the treaty of serves that were proposed to be offered to the sultan of Turkey, were published.
These convinced the Indian Muslims that the sultan was going to be deprived of all his territories in Europe and in Asia and that the Holy places of Islam were going to pass into non-muslim hands.
➤ Much resentment was expressed by the Indian Muslims against the deposition of the Sultan of Turkey and dismemberment of his empire.
➤ A deputation of the prominent Indian Muslim leaders led by Dr. M.A. Ansari demanded to (Unable to judge) Lord Chelmsford, and urged that the empire of the sultan must be preserved intact and sovereigty of the sultan as ‘Calipha’ not be disturbed.
➤ These demands which were also supported by the INC. and included as one of the main demands for launching of the Non- Cooperation Movement led to the launching of Khilafat Movement.
➤ An all India Khilafat Conference under the chairmanship of Gandhiji met in Delhi and resolved to withdraw all cooperation with the Government until the Khilafat demands were redeemed.
➤ An all India Khilafat committee was also setup to organise mass support for Muslims cause.
➤ On 17 october, 1919, ‘Khilafat day’ was celebrated.
➤ Gandhiji suggested khilafat committee to start non cooperation movement. Committee accepted the suggestion.
The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-21)
➤ It was the first mass – based on political movement under Gandhiji.
➤ Gandhiji launched this movement on 1 August, 1920.
➤ It was based on three demands–
(i) The Khilafat issue.
(ii) Justice for Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
(iii) Issue of self Rule.
➤ A special session of the congress was convened at Calcutta in September, 1920, to approve of the non-cooperation scheme.
➤ The Tilak Swaraj Fund was started to finance the non-cooperation movement.
➤ In July 1921, the Ali brothers gave a call to the Muslims to resign from the Army.
➤ The movement envisaged –
(i) Boycott of school, college, law courts.
(ii) Surrender of titles honorary offices.
(iii) Resignation from nominated offices and posts in the local bodies.
(iv) Refusal to attend government offices.
(v) Refusal of general public to offer themselves for military and offer government jobs.
(vi) Boycott of foreign goods.
➤ C. R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru gave up their legal practices.
➤ Subhash Chandra Bose resigns from the civil services.
➤ During this movement the Prince of Wales visited India and were greeted with strikes and demonstrations.
Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922)
➤ The congress session at Allahabad in December 1921 decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement.
➤ Gandhiji was appointed its leader.
➤ But before it could be launched, a mob of the people clashed with police at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh on 5 February, 1922.
➤ The mob burnt 22 policemen. Gandhiji shocked with this incident.
➤ This incident compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the non-cooperation movement on February 12, 1922.
➤ After the suspension of the movement inorder to isolate Mahatma Gandhi from the masses, the British authorities put him under arrest on March 13, 1922.
➤ Gandhi took upon himself the responsibility for this incident.
➤ The judge sentenced him to six years imprisonment.
Swaraj Party (1923)
➤ Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das and N.C. Kelkar demanded that the nationalists should end the boycott of the legislative council, enter them and expose them but the No Changers like Rajendra Prasad and Rajgopalachari ordered to the Gandhi’s Programme of boycott of legislatures.
➤ The Pro-changers formed the Swaraj Party On Jan 1, 1923, contested the elections and embarrassed the government by opposing its measures.
➤ In the elections of 1923 the Das- Nehru group under the banner of the Swaraj Party emerged the single largest party in the central Assembly, Bombay and Bengal Councils.
➤ The swarajists pursued an obstructionist strategy to defeat all proposals for legislative enactments.
➤ The two sections were reunited in 1930 after the Lahore session.
The Simon Commission (1927-28)
➤ In 1927, the British decided to appoint a commission to recommend further constitutional reforms.
➤ This commission was under the chairmanship of Simon.
➤ During the time of Simon commission Lord Irwin was the viceroy of India.
➤ All the members of this commission were the british that’s why congress opposed this and called it white commission.
➤ On 3rd February, 1928 Simon and his colleagues landed in Bombay and were greeted with hatrals and black-flag demonstrations.
➤ The commission’s arrival in India led to a powerful protest movement in which nationalist enthusiasm and unity reached new heights
➤ In protest Lala Lajpat Rai Succumbed to injuries on Oct 30, 1929.
Nehru Report (1928)
➤ After boycotting the Simon commission, all political parties constituted a committee under the chairmanship of motilal Nehru to evolve and determine the principles of a constitution of India.
➤ It remained memorable as the first major Indians effort to draft a constitutional framework for India complete with lists of central and provincial subjects and fundamental rights.
➤ It demanded responsible government both in the centre and in the province , but it advocated Dominion Status and not complete independence.
➤ The report recommended equal rights for women, freedom to form unions and dissociation of the state from religion.
➤ The committee comprised Tej Bahadur Sapru, Ali Imam M.S. Aney, Mangal Singh, Sohaib Qureshi,
G.R. Pradhan and Subhash Chandra Bose.
The Lahore Session of the Congress (1929)
➤ On December, 1929, INC declared ‘Purna Swaraj’ at Lahore session under the chairmanship of J.L. Nehru.
➤ Decision taken at Lahore Session —
(i) Round table conference to be boycotted.
(ii) Purna Swaraj was the main aims of congress.
(iii) Launch programme of civil disobedience including non payment of taxes.
(iv) All members of legislatures asked to resign their seats.
➤ On December 31, 1929, the newly adopted tricolour flag was unfurled and January 26, 1930 was fixed as the first independence day which was to be celebrated every year.
Civil Disobedience Movement
➤ Civil Disobedience Movement began with Dandi March by Gandhi on 12 March, 1930. The breaking of salt laws on 6 April, 1930 formally inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement.
➤ Salt law violated in many parts of the country.
➤ In this movement foreign liquor and cloth shops picketed.
➤ Lawyers gave up practice public boycotted law courts by refraining from litigation.
➤ Government Servents were resigned from their posts.
➤ People refused to pay tax.
➤ The movement reached the extreme North-Western frontier province under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
➤ Surya Sen’s Chittagong Revolt Group carried out a raid on two armouries and declared the establishement of a provisional government.
➤ In Sholapur (Maharashtra) Textile workers went on a strike, burnt liquor shop, railway stations, Municipal building, law courts and declared the establishment of paralled government.
➤ In Bihar chowkidari tax were refused.
➤ Forest law breached in central region of the country.
➤ In Manipur Rani Gaidinliu raised the banner of revolt against foreign rule.
First Round Table conference (1930)
➤ It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals.
➤ It was held on Nov. 12, 1930 in London to discuss Simon Commission.
➤ Congress and most business leaders were kept away
➤ Participants —
(i) Muslim league – Represented by Mohammad Ali, Agha Khan, Fazlul Haq and Jinnah.
(ii) Hindu Mahasabha — Represented by Moonje and Jaykar
(iii) Liberals – Represented by Sapru, Chintamani and Srinivas Shashtri.
(iv) Princes – Represented by Akbar Hydar and Mirza Ismail, the Diwans of Hyderabad and Mysore respectively.
(v) Dalits – Represented by B.R.
(vi) Sikh – Sardar Purna Singh
(vii) Business – Homi Modi
Gandhi -Irwin Pact (1931)
➤ Tej Bahadur Sapru, M.R. Jayakar and Srinivas Shashtri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the Governments.
➤ The two signed a pact on March 5, 1931.
➤ Gandhiji agreed to suspend Disobedience movement and agreed to join the 2nd round table conference.
➤ The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast and withdrawal of emergency ordinances.
2nd Round Table conference (1931)
➤ Ramsay Macdonald was the Prime Minister of Britain.
➤ 2nd round table conference was organised under his chairmanship.
➤ At that time Wellington was the Viceroy of India.
➤ Gandhiji was the only member to participate in this conference.
➤ Gandhiji demanded control over defence and foreign affairs.
➤ Hindu Mahasabha demanded federal responsibility, which was opposed by muslim league and the princess.
➤ Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for Dalits, which was opposed by Gandhiji.
➤ The government refused to concede the basic nationalist demand of freedom on the basis of immediate grant of dominion status.
Communal Award and Poona Pact (1932)
➤ On August the 1932 Mac Donald announced the proposal on minority representation, known as the ‘Communal Award’ which recommended —
(i) To double the existing seats in provincial legislatures.
(ii) To retain the system of separate electorate for the minorities.
(iii) To grant weightage to muslims in provinces where they were in minority.
➤ The Communal Award declared the depressed classes also be minorities and entitled them to separate electorates.
➤ The reserve 3% seats for women in all provincial legislatures.
➤ To allocate seats to labour, landlords, and traders and industrialists.
➤ Gandhiji was in Yervada jail at that time. He started fast upto death against it.
Poona Pact (Sep 25, 1932)
➤ Gandhi started fast from the jail due to given the right of separate electorates to the Depressed class.
➤ He regarded the Depressed classes as an integral part of Hindu society.
➤ In an anxiety to save his life, the Poona Pact with the following main terms was concluded between Gandhiji and Ambedkar.
(i) 148 seats were to be allotted to the depressed classes in the Provincial legislatures as against 71 promised by the communal Award and 18% of the total in central legislature.
(ii) Ambedkar to accepted the principle of joint electorate.
➤ Leamders like Madan Mohan Malaviya,
M.C. Rajah and B.R.
Ambedkar became active to settle issue.
➤ Harijan upliftment now become the principal concerns of Gandhiji.
➤ An All-India anti untouchability league was started in September, 1932 and a weekly ‘Harijan’.
➤ He decided to begin a 21 day fast for the Purification of himself and his associates for the Harijan Cause.
Third Round table conference (November 1932)
➤ The third round table conference met in London in November 1932 congress boycotted it.
➤ It was attended by a much smaller number of representative than before.
➤ The outcome of the Round Table conference and subsequent discussions was the Government of India Bill which became an act in 1935.
The Government of India Act, 1935
➤ This Act was the last of the constitutional means were prepared by the British parliament for India.
1. The most conspicuous features of the constitution was the concept of an all India Federation. It was to consist of the British Indian provinces and the Native states. For the British India provinces it was compulsory to join the proposed federation. But for the Indian states it was voluntary.
It was unnatural to think that the autocratic princes of the native states would join the Fedration of the democratically conscious Indian provinces they, therefore did’t join and they hoped for All India Federation was never formed. A good portion of the act thus remained set contradictory.
2. The real significance of the Act of 1935 lay in the changes it brought in the provincial sphere. The Dyarchy in the province as introduced by the Act 1919, was abolished and the provincial powers were transferred into the hands of elected Indian Ministers. The real merit of Provincial autonomy lay in the powers vested in the elected Ministers, but in practice this autonomy was set contradicting because the governor was vested with so much authority that the powers of the responsible ministers appeared unreal.
3. The members of the provincial legislative Assemblies were to be directly elected by the people, but the election to the central as well as provincial Legislatures was to be on the special electorates.
4. In both Houses of the Federal Legislature has native states were given their quota of representation, but the members from the states were not to be elected. They were to be nominated by the rulers.
5. It provided for the establishment of a Federal court, which was set up in 1937.
6. Subject of administration divided in three sections federal, provincial and concurrent.
The second world war and Resignation of congress ministries
➤ The second world war broke out on September 1, 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland.
➤ Britain and France came to the aid of Poland and declared war against Germany.
➤ Soon afterwards the Government of India declared India to be at war with Germany without consulting the congress or the elected members of the central legislature.
➤ But congress declared that is could not associate herself in war unless the British Government publicly stated that India would be granted political independence at the end of war. The congress also demanded immediate transfer of maximum of control over country’s administration to Indians.
➤ Pt. J.L. Nehru said “ It was absurd to drag slave India for defending the freedom of other countries.’ Resignation of the congress Ministries-
➤ Lord Linlithgow declared India to be at war without the prior assent of the central legislature.
➤ The congress ministries gave the resign.
➤ The muslim league celebrated the ‘Deliverance Day’ on the day of the resignation of the congress ministries in the provinces.
August Declaration (August 8, 1940)
➤ With the outbreak of world war II in September 1939 and India’s automatic involvement in it without consultation, the Indian National Congress demanded a clearcut definition of the British Government’s war and peace aims as aplicable to India.
➤ Lord Linlithgow put forward a proposal that included —
(i) Dominion status in the unspecified future.
(ii) A post war body to enact the constitution.
(iii) Expansion of governor -General’s council with representation of the Indians.
(iv) Establishing a war advisory council.
(v) Made consent of minorities necessary for adoption of future constitution. (indirectly veto power given to Muslim League) The Demand for Pakistan (1940)
➤ In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the frontier province, Baluchistan, Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim state within the federation.
➤ Choudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1933.
➤ ‘The demand for Pakistan’ proposal was prepared by Khaliquzzaman.
➤ Muslim league first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940.
Individual Satyagraha (October 1940)
➤ The rejection of the congress demands once again exasperated the congress as well as Gandhiji.
➤ On 13th October the congress working committee met in Wardha where Gandhiji unfolded his plan of individual civil disobedience.
➤ England was facing the most critical hour of her life
➤ By starting a mass movement Gandhiji did not like to embarrass the Government. So, he dicided to offer individual Satyagrah simply with a view to register his mild protest against the uncompromising attitude of the Government.
➤ Gandhiji selected his disciple Vinoba Bhave to inaugurate the movements. He stood delivering anti-war speeches and was arrested for four days.
➤ J.L. Nehru was arrested next.
➤ The Satyagrahis in their speeches appealed to the people not to extend war help to the Government.
➤ By May 1941, nearly 14000 satyagrahis courted arrest.
Cripps’ Proposals (March, 1942)
➤ After the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese the British decided to send the cripps mission to India for constitutional proposals, which included.
(i) Dominion status to be granted after the war.
(ii) Setting up a constitutional making for India after the war whose members would be elected by the provincial assemblies and nominated by the rulers in case of the princely states.
(iii) Defence of India would remain in British hands and the governor general’s powers would remain intact.
(iv) Gandhiji stated cripps proposal as “post-dated cheque on a crashing bank”.
Quit India Movement (1942)
➤ Quit India resolution was passed on August 8, 1942 at Gowalia Tank, Bombay.
➤ Gandhiji told the British to quit ‘Leave Indian in God’s hand’. His massage was ‘Do or Die.’
➤ The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and, there being no programme of action. The movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country several government offices were destroyed telegraph wires were cut and communication paralyzed.
➤ It was the only all India movement, which was leaderless. In many areas, the government lost all control and the people established swaraj.
➤ The participation was on many levels. School and college students remained in the forefront, women activiely participated and workers went on strike.
➤ Ram Manohar Lohia, Aruna Asaf Ali, Achyut Patwardhan and Jayaprakash Narayan emerged as leader.
➤ Usha Mehta started underground Radio.
➤ The movement did not envoke much response from the merchant community. They had profited heavily during the war.
The parallel Governments
➤ Parallel governments were established.
I. Satara — under Nana Patil
II. Tamluk Jatiya Sarkar Midhapur, West Bengal — under Satish Samant.
III. Balia — under Chittu Pandey
IV. Katak — under Lakshman Nayak.
The Indian National Army
➤ After releasing from jail Bose was kept in his home in Calcutta.
From there they escaped secretly 14 Jan, 1941 and finally reached Berlin via Kabul, and Moscow on March 28, 1941.
➤ Bose was well received by Ribben trop, the foreign minister of Germany, that he would broadcast anti-British propaganda from Berlin and raise free Indian units from Indian prisoners of war in Germany.
➤ The Idea of the Indian National Army to liberate India was originally conceived by Rasbihari Bose, who fled to Japan in 1915 and had become a Japanese citizen, with the help of Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British India Army in Malaya.
➤ Later Rasbihari Bose handed over the chairmanship of INA to
➤ Rani Lakshmi Bai Regimenl was established by Lakshmi Swaminathan.
➤ The INA headquarters were formed in Rangoon & Singapore.
➤ INA had three fighting brigade – Gandhi brigade, Nehru brigade & Azad brigade. Rani Jhansi brigade was an exclusive women force.
➤ S.C. Bose gave a call from Jubilee place of Rangoon. “You give me blood and I will give you freedom”.
➤ INA won Andaman and Nicobar Island on December 1943, and named them ‘Shahid’ and ‘Swaraj’ respectively.
➤ Abid Husain escaped Gandhi Brigade from the British Army. He was given a title‘Sardar-A-Jung’ by
S.C. Bose for his daring work.
➤ INA trials were held at Red Fort, Delhi.
➤ P. K. Sehgal, Shah Nawaj and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial at the Red Fort.
➤ The congress took up their defence.
➤ Bhula bai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru,
J.L. Nehru, K.N. Katju and Arun Asaf Ali appeared for the defence.
➤ Muslim league also joined the countrywide protest.
➤ Wavell used veto power and set them free.
➤ November 12, 1945 was celebrated as the INA Day.
Wavell Plan (4 June, 1945)
➤ This plan was given by Viceroy Wavell.
➤ The plan was that with the exception of the governor-general and the commander-in-chief, all members of the executive council were to be Indians.
➤ Caste Hindus and Muslims were given equal representation in assembly.
➤ Simla conference was convened in this regard but was rejected by Jinnah.
➤ Governor had veto power.
➤ Foreign matters were given to Indians, but not tribals and border related areas.
Shimla Conference (25 June, 1945)
➤ This was proposed by wavell.
Revolt of the Royal Army (1946)
➤ 18 February, 1946, Bombay Ratings of HMIS Talwar struck work due to flagrant racial discrimination unpalatable food and abuse by superior officers. After the arrest of B. C. Dutt who has scrawled ‘quit India’ on the ship mutinied.
➤ In Bombay, the Mutineers haisted the tricolour together with a portrait of S.C. Bose and shouted ‘Jai Hind’ in the barracks.
➤ Their demands included release of all political prisoners, including those belonging to the Indian National Army.
➤ Seeing the strict attitude of British government Aallabhai Patel and Jinnah persuaded the ratings to surrender.
➤ After the government’s assurance they surrendered.
Cabinet Mission (1946)
➤ Cabinet Mission reached Delhi on 24 March, 1946.
➤ Three members were there in the Mission –
(i) Pethick Lawrence
(ii) Stafford Cripps
(iii) A.V. Alexander
➤ On May 16, 1946 the mission put forward its proposal.
➤ Rejection of the demand for a full fledged Pakistan.
➤ Provincial legislatures would elect a constituent Assembly. The members were divided into three sections.
➤ All these sections would have the authority to draw up. Provincial constitutions and even group constitutions.
Section – A : Non muslim majority provinces.
Section – B : Muslim Majority provinces in the north -west Section – C : Muslim majority provinces in north-east.
➤ Communal questions in central legislatures were to be decided by a single majority in both communities.
➤ Provinces were to have full autonomy and residual powers.
➤ Princely states were no longer to be under paramountcy of British Government.
➤ Both congress and Muslim league accepted it.
➤ The elections of the constituent assembly were held in July 1946.
The congress got 209 of the total 273 seats.
➤ Based on Cabinet mission Plan, an interim government consisting of congress nominees was formed on 2 September, 1946
J.L. Nehru was the vicepresident and the Governer general remained as its president.
➤ Muslim league did not joined it initially but finally wavell succeeded in having five members of the league join the government on 26 October, 1946.
➤ Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the muslim league was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent Assembly.
➤ Therefore muslim league withdraw its acceptance of the cabinet mission plan on 29 July, 1946.
➤ Cabinet mission returned on 29 June, 1946.
➤ It pass a ‘Direct action’ resolution.
➤ Jinnah celebrated ‘Pakistan Day’ on May 27, 1947.
Lord Attlee’s Declaration (1947)
➤ British Goverment decided to quit Inda by a fix date (30 June, 1948)
➤ Mr. Attlee made an announcement in the House of commons on February 20, 1947.
Mountbatten Plan (3 June, 1947)
➤ Lord Mountbatten was sworn in as Governor General on 24, March, 1947.
➤ On June 3, 1947, he put forward his plan which taken the steps for the solution of India’s political problem.
Outlines are —
➤ India to be divided into India and Pakistan.
➤ Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NWFP and sylhet district of Asam would be held.
➤ There would be a separate constitutional Assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution.
➤ Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either in Pakistan or India or remain independent.
➤ August 15, 1947 was the date to hand over power to India and Pakistan.
Indian Independence Act (1947)
➤ On 18 July the British Partiment passed ‘Independence of India Act, 1947.
➤ This act was implemented on August 15, 1947.
➤ Sovereignty of British parliament was abolished.
➤ Dominions of India and Pakistan were created.
➤ Abolished the office of Viceroy and provided, a governor general for each dominion.
➤ At the time of independence there were 562 small and big princely states in India.
➤ By 15 August, 1947 all except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh and Signed the instrument of Accession with India, Bhawalpur with Pakistan.
➤ Goa, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli were under control of portuguese and pondicherry under french domination.
Flow-Chart of Popular Movement during freedom struggle
Swadeshi Movement 1905
Home Rule Movement 1916
Champaran Satyagrah 1917
Khera Satyagrah 1918
Movement of Ahmedabad 1919
Millworkers Non Co-operation 1920
Movement Protest of Simon 1928
Commission Dandi March 1930
Civil Disobedience 1930
Movement Individual Satyagrah 1940
Quit India Movement 1942
The INA Agitaion 1945
India become Independent Nation 1947
|Santhals||Rajmahal hills||1855-56||Siddhu and Kanhu|
|Naikadas||Gujarat||1858-68||Rup Singh and Jogia Bhagat|
|Mundas||Chota Nagpur||1899-1900||Birsa Munda|
|Konda Dora||Visakhapatnam||1900||Korra Mallaya|
|Bhils||South Rajasthan||1913||Govind Guru|
|Oraons||Chota Nagpur||1914-1915||Jatra Bhagat|
|Rampa||Andhra Pradesh||1916||Alluri Sitaram Raju|
|Kukis||Manipur||1917-19||Jadonang and Rani Gaidiniliu|
|Chenchus||Nallamalla Hills||1921-22||Motilal Tejawat|
SOME SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS
|Brahmo Samaj (earlier Atmiya Sabha)||1828||Calcutta||Raja Ram Mohan Roy||Propagated monotheism, opposed incarnation, sacrifr- ices, existence of priests, idolatry, superstition and sati practices, Sought for reforms in Hindu society.|
|Young Bengal||(1826-||Calcutta||Henry Louis||Opposed the vices|
|Movement||1831)||Vivian Derozio||in society, believed in truth, freedom and reason.|
|Dharma Sabha||1830||Calcutta||Radha Kanta Deva||Opssposed to liberal|
and radical reforms, including Sati.
|Namdhari/||1841-||N.W.F. Pro-||Bhai Balak Singh||A politico-religious|
|Kuka Move-||1871||vince and||and Baba Ram||movement of the|
|1851||Bombay||S.S. Bangali, Dadabhai Naoroji Naoroji Furdonji, J.B. Nacha, etc.||Founded for the restoration of Zoro- astrian religion to its pristine glory and social regeneration of the Parsi community through modern education and emancipation of women.|
|Radha Swami Satsang||1861||Agra||Tulsi Ram also known as Shiv Dayal Saheb||Belief in one Supr- me Being, religious unity, emphasis on simplicity of social life and social service.|
|1867||Bombay||Atmaram Pandurang Govind Ranade||Worship and reform of society through emphasis on monotheism, uplift of women and abolition of caste discrimination.|
|Indian Reform Association||1870||Calcutta||Keshab Chandra Sen||To create public opinion against child marriages and for legalising the Brahmo form of civil marriage. To promote the intellectual and social status of Indian women.|
|Arya Samaj||1875||Bombay||Dayanand Saraswati (originally founder Mool Shankar)||Asserted Hindu faith over other religions, with in a revivalist framework, denounced rites, Brahmin Superm- acy, idolatry, superstition.|
|The Theosop- hical Society||1875||New York (In India Adyar, Madras)||Madam H.P. Blavatsky, Col. H.S. Olcott (In India-Annie Besant)||Drew inspiration from Upanishads, Philosophy of the Vedanta, etc to aim at religious revival and social reform.|
|1884||Pune||M.G. Ranade, V. G. Chib- donkar, G. G. Agarkar, etc.||To contribute to the cause of education and culture in Western India. The Society founded the Ferguson College, Pune in 1885.|
|Seva Sadan||1885||Bombay||Behramji M. Malabari||Campaign against child marriages and enforced widowhood and care for socially exploited women.|
|Indian National Social Conference||1887||Bombay||M.G. Ranade and Raghunath|
|To focus attention on matters relating to social reforms.|
|Deva Samaj||1887||Lahore||Shiva Narain Agnihotri||Religious ideas closer to Brahmo Samaj. Impressed upon its followers to follow social code of conduct and ethics, such as not to accept bribe, indulge in gambling, consume intoxicants and non-vegetarian food.|
|Madras Hindu Association||1892||Madras||Viresalingam|
|A social purity movement concerned with the plight of widow and to combat the Devadasi System.|
|1897||Bengal||Vivekananda||Sought to revive Hinduism based on ancient India’s religious texts and concepts (eg. Vedanta, etc); against caste restrictions,|
|oppression, superstition in Hinduism, aimed to uplift women and overhaul the education system.|
|Bharat Dharma Mahamandala||1902||Varanasi||Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and Pandit Din Dayal Sharma||Orginisation of the orthodox Hindus, pupularly known are Sanatandhar- mis to counter the teaching of the Arya Samaj, movement.|
|The Servants of India Society||1905||Bombay||Gopal Krishna Gokhale||To work for social reforms and to train “national missionaries for the service of India”.|
|Poona Seva Sadan||1909||Pune||G.K. Devadhar and Ramabai Ranade (wife of M.G. Ranade)||Establish institu- tions for the eco- nomic uplift and useful employment of women.|
MUSLIM SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS AND ORGANISATIONS
|Haji Shariatullah and dadu Miya||To rid the Muslim society of non Islamic social customs, rituals and practices. Antilandlord and antiBritish movement.|
|1839||Dacca||Karamati Ali Jaunpur||Opposed to the Faraizi movement and supported the British rule.|
|Dar-ul-ulum (A school of Islamic||1867||Deoband||Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid||To improve the spiritual and moral conditions of|
|Theology at Deoband, Sharanpur, U.P.)||Ahmad Gangohi||Indian Muslims. This movement supported the INC and was opposed to the pro-British Aligarh movement.|
|1875||Aligarh||Sir Syed Ahmad Khan||Liberalisation of Indian Islam and modernisation of Indian Muslims through religious reinterpretation, social reform and modern education.|
|Ahmadiya||1889-||Qadiani||Faridkot||Mirza Ghulam be|
|Movement||1890||(Punjab)||Ahmad of Qadiyan||lieved in the universal religion of all humanity, opposed to Islamic orthodoxy and spread of western liberal education among Indian Muslims.|
|Nadwatul||1894-||Lucknow||Maulana Shibli||To reform the tra-|
|Ulama||1895||Numani||ditional Islamic system of education, to strengthen Hindu-Muslim unity and to arouse nationalism among Indian Muslims.|
LOWER CASTE MOVEMENTS AND ORGANISATIONS
|Satya Shodhak Samaj||1873||Mahara|
|Jyotiba Phule||Opposed to untouchability, Priestly of Brahmin domination, belief in social equality and uplift of the lower castes by educating them.|
|Shri Narayan Guru (18561928)||Opposed to religious disabilities against lower castes, believed in social equality, attacked Brahmin|
|Shri Narayan||1902-||Kerala||Shir Narayan||domination and worked for the uplift of lower castes by educating them. Demanded free entry of the people of lower castes to the temples. In 1920, T.K.|
|Dharma||1903||Guru, Dr. Palpu||Madhavan|
|Paripalana Yogam or S.N.D.P. Movement The Depressed||1906||Bombay||and Kumaran Asan|
|launched the temple entry movement.|
Launched by the
|Class Mission Society|
|1910||Satara,||Mukund Rao||Prarthana Samaj as an Independent association to organise education facilities for lower castes. Opposed to the|
|exploitation of the lower castes by the upper caste Brahmins, landlords, merchants and moneylenders.|
A movement of the
|Movement||1916||Tamil Nadu||T.M. Nair and||intermediate castes.|
|Depressed Cla-||1924||Bombay||P. Tyagaraja Chetti|
Dr. B. R.
|Opposed to Brahmin predominance in education, service and politics.|
To propagate the
|sses Welfare Institute (Bahis- kirt Hitkarini|
|1925||Madras||Ambedkar E. V. Rama-||gospel of social equality among caste Hindus and untouchables. Demanded constitutional safeguards for the depressed classes.|
|Movement||(Tamilnadu)||swami Naicker||Hindu orthhodoxy|
|radical movement, which advocated wedding without priests, forcible temple entry, total defiance of Hindu social laws and also theism at times.|
An all-India organi-
|Sangh||Gandhi||sation for the removal of untouch- ability and all social discriminations against untouchables and other lower castes. To provide medical, educational and technical facilities to untouchables.|
|Majnum Shah, Devi Chaudhrani||Bengal|
|Bengal||The immediate cause was the restrictions imposed upon pilgrims visiting holy places.|
|Pagal Panthis||1825-50||Tipu Shah, Karam Shah||North|
|Resentment of peasants against oppression of Zamin- dars|
|Wahabi||1820-||Syyaid Ahmed of||North||To revive and rest-|
|ore Muslim power in India by overthrowing the Sikhs and the British|
|Jawahar Mal, Ram Singh||Punjab||In about 1840, its aim was to purify the sikh religion, after the conquest of Pujab by the British. The revival of Sikh sovereignty become their chief programme.|
|Chittur Singh||Satara||In protest against heavy assessment of land revenue and very harsh methods of its collection. In 18251826 again rose in rebellion on account of acute famines and scarcity in Pune.|
|1844||Kolhapur||Against arbitrary methods of land revenue collection and then dismissal from service.|
|1844||Phond Sawant, Anna Sahib||Appointment of a British administrator. To drive away the British. The revolt later transformed into a popular movement.|
|Revolt of Velu Thampi||1808|
|Velu Thampi||Travancore||Against the British attempts to remove the Dewan-ship and the heavy burden imposed on the state through the subsidiary Alliance system.|
|When the British refused to recognise heir to the Gaddi of Kittur and took over the administration.|
|Due to attachment of properties of Zamindars and other harsh measures for non-payment of revenue.|
|Titu Mir’s Movement||Bengal||(1782|
|Mir Nithar Ali/Titu Mir|
|Indigo Revolt||Bengal||1859||Bishnu and Digambar Biswas|
|Pabna||Bengal||1870||Ishwar Roy, Sabu Pal, Khoodi Mollah|
|Deccan Riots||Maharashtra||1875||Vasudev Balwant Phadke|
|Ramosi Movement||Maharashtra||1879||Vasudev Balwant Phadke|
|Bijolia||Rajasthan||1913||Sitaram Das, Vijay Pathak Singh|
|Kheda||Gujarat||1918||Vallabh Bhai Patel and Gandhiji|
|Awadh Kisan Sabha||Uttar Pradesh||1920||Baba Ramchandra|
|Eka Movement||Awadh||1921||Madari Pasi|
|Moplah||Kerala||1921||Sayyad Ali and Saiyed Fazl|
|Bardoli/Borsad||Gujarat||1928||Vallabh Bhai Patel|
|Forest Satyagrah||South India||1931||N V Rama Naidu, N G Ranga|
POLITICAL AND NATIONALIST ORGANISATIONS OF MODERN INDIA
|1838||Landholders Society||Dwarikanath Tagore||Calcutta|
|1839||British India Society||Willian Adams||London|
|1843||British India Society||—||Calcutta|
|1851||British India Association||Devendranath Tagore||Calcutta|
|1852||Madras Native Association||—||Madras|
|1852||Bombay Association||Jagannath Shankar||Bombay|
|1862||London India committee||C. P. Mudaliar||London|
|1866||East India Association||Dadabhai Nauroji||London|
|1867||National India Association||Mary Carpenter||London|
|1872||Indian Society||Anand Mohan Bose||London|
|1876||Indian Association||Anand Mohan Bose, S.N. Banerjee||Calcutta|
|1883||Indian National Society||Shishir Chandra Bose||Calcutta|
|1884||Indian National Conference||S. N. Banerjee||Calcutta|
|1885||Bombay Presidency Association||F. S. Mehta and K. T. Telang||Bombay|
|1888||United India Patriotic Association||Sir Syed Ahmad Khan||Aligarh|
|1905||Servants of India Society||G. K. Gokhale||Bombay|
|1906||Muslim League||Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah and Mohsin- ul-Mulk||Dhaka|
|1915||Hindu Mahasabha||Madan Mohan Malviya||Uttar Pradesh|
|1916||Home rule league||B. G. Tilak and Annie Besant||Pune and Adyar|
|1918||U. P. Kisan Sabha||M. M. Malviya, Gauri Shankar and Indra Narayan||Lucknow|
|1920||Communist Party of India||M. N. Roy||Tashkent|
|1920||Indian Trade Union Congress||N. M. Joshi (founder) Lala Lajpat Rai (President)||Lucknow|
|1923||Swaraj Party||Moti Lal Nehru & C. R. Das||Delhi|
|1924||All India Communist Party||Satyabhakta||Kanpur|
|1925||Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangha||K. B. Hedgewar||Nagpur|
|1926||Naujawan Sabha||Bhagat Singh, Yashpal||Lahore|
|1927||All Women Conference||Lady Sadashiva lyer||Madras|
|1928||Hindustan Socialist Republican Association||Bhagat Singh, B-Vohra, B.K. Singh||Delhi|
|1928||Labour Swaraj Party||Qazi Nazrul Islam||—|
|1929||Khudai Khidmatgar||Abdul Gaffar Khan||Peshawar|
|1934||Congress Socialist Party||Acharya Narendra Dev and Jaiprakash Narayan|
|1936||Progressive Writers Group||Munshi Prem Chand||Lucknow|
|1936||All India Kisan Sabha||Sahjananda and N.G. Ranga||Lucknow|
|1939||Forward Block||Subhash Chandra Bose||Calcutta|
|1939||India Party Bolshevik||N. D. Majumdar||Calcutta|
|1940||Radical Democratic Party||M. N. Roy||Calcutta|
|1941||Indian Bolshevik Lenin Party||Ajit Rai and Indrasen||Calcutta|
|1942||Revolutionary Socialist Party||Satyendra Nath Tagore||Calcutta|
Indian National Congress INC
➤ Founded in 1885 by A.O. Hume
➤ First President- W.C. Banerjee.
➤ Women Presidents – Annie Besant (1917), Sarojini Naidu (1925) and Nellie Sengupta (1933).
➤ Thrice Presidents (Maximum times) – Dadabhai Nauroji (1886, 1893, 1906), J.L. Nehru (1929, 1936, 1937).
➤ Complete Independence was demand for the first time-(1929), Lahore
➤ For the first time National song was sung in the Calcutta session (1896) of INC. i.e. Vande Mataram.
➤ For the first time National Anthem (Jana-Gana-Mana) was sung in Calcutta session (1911) of INC. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was the youngest president of INC.
➤ During Guwahati session of INC (1926), wearing of Khadi was made compulsory for its workers.
In Madras session of INC (1927), proposals for independence and to boycott Simon Commission were passed. Gandhi did not participate.
During its 1932 and 1933 session Government had declared it an illegal organisation.
➤ During Faizpur session (1937) congress decided to take part in election of 1937.
➤ Only session of congress held in a village Faizpur (1937)
➤ In Ramgarh session (1940), decision on Individual Satyagraha were taken.
ANNUAL SESSIONS OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
|1885||Bombay||W. C. Banerjee|
|1890||Calcutta||F. S. Mehta|
|1891||Nagpur||P. Anand Charlu|
|1892||Allahabad||W. C. Banerjee|
|1894||Madras||Mr. Alfred Webb|
|1895||Poona||S. N. Banerjee|
|1896||Calcutta||M. A. Sayani|
|1898||Madras||A. M. Bose|
|1899||Lucknow||Ramesh C. Dutt.|
|1900||Lahore||H. G. Chandavarkar|
|1901||Calcutta||Dinshaw E. Wacha|
|1902||Ahmadabad||S. N. Banerjee|
|1903||Madras||Lal Mohan Ghosh|
|1905||Varanasi||Gopal Krishna Gokhale|
|1907||Surat||Ras Bihari Ghosh|
|1908||Madras||Ras Bihari Ghosh|
|1909||Lahore||Madan Mohan Malviya|
|1910||Allahabad||Sri William Wedderburn|
|1911||Calcutta||Bishan Narayan Dhar|
|1912||Bankipur||R. N. Mudhukar|
|1913||Karachi||Nawab S. Muhammad|
|1914||Madras||Bhupendra Nath Basu|
|1915||Bombay||S. P. Sinha|
|1916||Lucknow||Ambika Charan Majumdar|
|1918||Delhi||Madan Mohan Malviya|
|1920||Calcutta||Lala Lajpat Rai (suspended)|
|Nagpur||C. Vijayraghava Chariar (Annual)|
|1921||Ahmedabad||C. R. Das (in prision) Hakim Ajaml Khan (acting)|
|1922||Gaya||C. R. Das|
|1923||Delhi||Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (suspended)|
|Kakinada||Mohammad Ali (Annual)|
|1926||Gauhati||S. Srinivas lyengar|
|1927||Madras||M. A. Ansari|
|1930||—||No session due to CDM|
|1932||Delhi||Amrit Ranchoddas Seth (session banned)|
|1933||Calcutta||Mrs. Nelline Sengupta (session banned)|
|1938||Haripura||Subhash Chandra Bose|
|1939||Tripuri||Subhash Chandra Bose (later Rajendra Prasad)|
|1940||Ramgarh||Maulana Abul Kalam Azad|
|1946||Meerut||Acharya J. B. Kriplani|
|1885||Bombay||At Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College Bombay 72 delegates|
|1887||Madras||Tayyabji became first Muslim President|
|1888||Allahabad||George Yule became first English President|
|1889||Bombay||Congress represented all areas of British India|
|1890||Calcutta||Decision taken to organise a session of Congress in London|
|1895||Poona||Demand for a representative body only for educated class|
|1898||Madras||Social reform was set as the main goal|
|1905||Benaras||Expressed resentment against the partition of Bengal.|
|1906||Calcutta||Word Swaraj was first used from congress platform.|
|1908||Madras||Constitution for the Congress|
|1916||Lucknow||Congress merger, Pact with Muslim League, Gandhi attended|
|1917||Calcutta||Annie Besant became first women President|
|1920||Nagpur||Gandhian programme was adopted. Change in Congress Constituion|
|1921||Ahmedabad||Hasrat Mohani demanded for complete independence.|
|1922||Gaya||Formation of Swaraj Party|
|1924||Belgaun||Only session presided over by Gandhiji|
|1925||Kanpur||Sarojini Naidu became first Indian women President|
|1927||Madras||Nehru and S C Bose moved resolution for independence and it was passed for the 1st time|
|1928||Calcutta||First All India Youth Congress|
|1929||Lahore||Poorna Swaraj Resolution and pledge for Independence day on 26 January 1930|
|1931||Karachi||Resolution for Fundamental Rights and National Economic Policy Passed|
|1934||Bombay||Formation of Congress Socialist Party|
|1936||Lucknow||Support for socialism through democracy|
|1937||Faizpur||Demand for Constituent Assembly|
|1938||Haripura||Poorna Swaraj was to cover also princely states|
|1939||Tripuri||S C Bose resigned due to differenece with Gandhi|
SECRET REVOLUTIONARY SOCIETIES
|Anushilan Samiti||1902||Pulin Das||Earliest Secret|
|Dacca Mitra Mela||1902||V. D. Savarkar||Society in Bengal Earliest Secret|
|(Maharashtra) Abhinav Bharat||1904||Ganesh||Society in Ganesh was the|
|(Maharashtra)||Savarkar||elder brother of|
|Anushilan Samiti (Calcutta)||1907||Barindra Kumar Ghosh &|
|Hindustan||1924||Sachindra||It was an all India|
|Republican Association (HRA)||Sanyal &|
|Nasik conspiracy||1909-1910||Vinayak Savarkar|
|Alipore Case||1908||Aurobindo Ghosh|
|Hawrah Case||1910||Jatin Mukherjee|
|Dacca Case||1910||Pulin Das|
|Delhi Case||1915||Amir Chand, Awadh Bihari and Bal Mukund|
|Lahore Case||1929-1930||Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev|
|Banaras Case||1915-1916||Sachindranath Sanyal|
|Kakori Case||1925||Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqullah Khan|
REVOLUTIONARY ORGANISATION OUTSIDE INDIA
|1904||India House||Shyamaji Krishna Verma||London (England)|
|1906||Abhinav Bharat||V. D. Savarkar||London (England)|
|1907||India Independence Leauge||Taraknath Das||America|
|1913||Gadar Party||Lala Hardayal||San Fransisco (America)|
|1914||India Independence League||—||Berlin (Germany)|
|1915||India Independence League and Government||Raja Mahendra Pratap||Kabul|
|1942||India Independence League.||Ras Bihari Bose||Tokyo (Japan)|
|1942||Indian National Army (INA)||Ras Bihari Bose (In 1943 reorganized by Netaji in Singapore)||Tokyo (Japan)|
GOVERNORS OF BENGAL AND GOVERNOR GENERALS OF INDIA
|Name and Tenure||Well Known For||War fought|
|Robert Clive (1758-60) and (1765-67)||Diarchey of Dual Government of Bengal from 1765-72.|
Considered one of the creators of British power in India.
|Battle of Plassey (1757)|
Battle of Condore (1758)
|Henry Vansittart (1760-65)||• Deposed Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal, and replaced him with his son-in-law Mir Qasim.||• Battle of Buxar|
|Harry Verelst 1767-69||Increased tax revenue of the East India Company.|
Exposed corruption within the company.
|John Cartier (1769-1772)||• The Great Famine of Bengal 1770 occured in his regime which claimed about two million lives|
|Warren Hastings (1772-85)||Founding Asiatic Society of Bengal|
Auctioning the right to collect land revenue to its highest bid
Starting Diwani and Fauzdari Adalats in district level and Nizam Adalats at Kolkata
|Rohilla war (1774)|
1st Anglo-Maratha War (1776-82)
2nd Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)
|Lord Cornwallis (1786-93)||Codifying laws in 1793 so as to separate the administration for revenue and justice|
Abolition of all the superfluous posts.
Creating the post of District judge.
Establishment of lower grade court.
Father of Civil Services in India.
|• 3rd Anglo-Mysore War against Tipu Sultan and signed the treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1792|
|Sir John Shore (1793-98)||• 1st Charter of Act in 1793||• Battle of Kharda between Nizam and Marathas in 1793|
|Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)||Started subsidiary alliance to achieve British dominancy over India|
Forming Madras Presidency
|4th Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 and with defeat and death of Tipu Sulatan|
Treaty of Bassein in 1802
2nd Anglo-Maratha war from 1803-1805 defeating Scindia, Bhonsle and Holkar
|Sir George Barlow (1805-1807)||• Vellore Mutiny in 1806|
|Lord Minto (18071813)||Concluding Treaty of Amritsar with Raja Ranjit Singh|
Charter of Act 1813 was passed
|Lord Hastings (1813-1823)||Adopting the Policies of intervention and wars|
Forceful implementation humiliating treaties or Peshwas and Scindias.
|• Anglo-Nepalese war (1813-23)|
|Lord Amherst (1823-33)||Acquisition of Malayan Peninsular territories|
|• First Burmese War (1824-26)|
|Lord William Bentinck (1833-35)||Abolition of Sati and other cruel rites in 1829|
Annexation of Mysore.
Concluding a treaty of perpetual friendship with Ranjit Singh (1831)
He was also known as Father of Modern Western Education in India.
He was last Governor General of Bengal who later continued his service as the first Governor General of India from 1833 to 1835
|• occupied Coorg and Central Cachar in 1834 on the plea of missgovernance|
|Sir Charles Metealfe (1834-36)||• Passed the famous Press Law which liberated the press in India|
|Lord Auckland (1836-42)||Extended irrigation|
Inaugurated famine relief
|• 1st Anglo Afgan war (1836-42)|
|Lord Ellen borough (1842-44)||Brought an end to Afgan war.|
Annexed Sindh in 1843
|• War with Gwalior (1843)|
|Lord Hardings (1844-48)||Gave preference to English education|
Treaty of Lahore in 1846
|• 1st Anglo Sikh war (1845-46)|
|Lord Dalhousie(1848-56)||• Abolished titles and pensions|
• Passed widow Re-marriage Act 1856.
• Introduced “Docterine of Lapse”
• Annexed Punjab, lower Burma or Pegu and Awadh.
• Started railway, post and telegraph service.
|• 2nd Anglo Sikh war (1848-49)|
• 2nd Anglo Burmese war, 1852.
GOVERNOR GENERAL AND VICEROYS OF INDIA (1858-1947)
Lord Canning (1856-62)
The last Governor General but first viceroy of India who resumed duty in 1858 and continued as viceroy till 1862; Major wars fought were First War of Independence and War with Bhutan. He was well known for imposing 5% income tax on earning of 500. The Indian Council act of 1861 was passed during his tenure. He withdrew the Doctrine of Lapse. The Indian Penal Code of Criminal Procedure was passed in 1859. He set up universities at Kolkata, Madras and Mumbai.
Lord Elgin I (1862-63)
He had served as Governor of Jamaica and Governor General of Canada before serving as Viceroy of India. He was sent to China as envoy for opening a trade for the British. Wahabi movement took place during his period.
Sir John Lawrence (1864-69)
Started telegraphic communication in India was opened with Europe. Setting up High courts in Kolkata, Mumbai, and Madras. Expanded Canal works and Railways. Advocated state managed railways. Created the Indian Forest Department and recognized native judicial services.
Lord Mayo (1869-72)
Introduced financial decentralization in India. Established Rajkot College at Kathiawar and Mayo college at Jaipur for princes. Organized statistical survey of India. Established Department of Agriculture and Commerce. Introduced state railway. During his time as census was held first time in India in 1871. He was the only viceroy to be murdered by a convict of Andaman in 1872.
Lord Northbook (1872-76)
Abolished income tax. Kuka movement took place in Punjab during his period.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88)
3rd Burma War took place in 1885; Establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885.
Lord Landsdowne (1888-94)
The Second Factory Act was passed in 1891; Indian Council Act was introduced in 1892; Categorized civil services into imperial, provincial and sub-ordinate; Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan (1893).
Lord Elgin II (1894-99)
Munda uprising by Birsa Munda took place in 1899. Convention delimiting the frontier between China and India was ratified; Great Famine occured during his time in 1896-97; Appointed Lyall Commission after famine in 1897; Assassinated of two British official Rand and Amherst by Chapekar Brothers in 1897.
Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
Pursued free trade and abolished duties on 29 British manufactured goods which accelerated drain of Wealth in India. Arranged Grand Darbar in Delhi (1877). Passed the Royal Title Act (1876). During his tenure Queen Victoria was declared as Kaisar-i-Hind. Passed infamous Vernacular Press Act (1876). Lowered the age limit of Civil Service Exam from 21 to 19.
Lord Rippon (1880-84)
Repeal of Vernacular Press Act in 1882. Passed First Factory Act in 1882 to improve labour condition. Resolution of Local self govt in 1882. Appointment of Hunter Commission for education reforms in 1882. The Ilbert Bill controversy erupted during his period. Enabled Indian district magistrates to try European Criminals.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
• Appointed a Police Commission in 1902 under Andrew Frazer;
• Set up Universities commission and passed Indian University Act in 1904;
• Set up department of Commerce and Industry;
• Set up Indian coinage and Paper currency Act in 1899;
• Partition of Bengal took place in 1905; created Northwest Frontier Province and Archaeological Survey of India;
• Extended railway to a great extent.
Lord Minto II (1905-1910)
• Swadeshi Movement took place in (1905-08);
• Foundation of Muslim League in 1906;
• Surat Session and Split in Congress in 1907;
• News paper in 1908. Morley Minto reforms in 1909.
Lord Hardinge (1910-1916)
• Annulment of the Partition of Bengal (1911);
• Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi;
• Delhi Darbar and Coronation of King George V and Queen Mary (1911);
• Establishment of Hindu Maha Sabha by Madan Mohan Malviya.
Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
• Home Rule Movement launched by Tilak and Anne Besant in 1916;
• Champaran Satyagraha took place in 1917;
• Montague’s August declaration in 1917, Kheda Satyagraha and Satyagraha at Ahmedabad in 1918,
• Government of India Act, Repressive Rowl-att Act in 1919,
• Jalianwala Bagh massacre in 1919,
• Khilafat Movement (1920-22),
• Non-Co-operation Movement (1920-22),
• Saddler Commission (1917).
Lord Reading (1921-26)
• Criminal law Ammendment Act and abolition of cotton excise.
• Repeal of Press Act of 1910 and Rowlatt Act of 1919.
• Violent Moplah rebellion in Kerala (1921).
• Foundation of CPI (1921).
• Chauri Chaura incident in 1922.
• Foundation of Swaraj Party in (1923).
• Kakori Train Dacoity in 1925.
• Foundation of RSS in 1925.
• Murder of Swami Shradhanand in 1926.
Lord Irwin (1926-31)
• Simon Commission announced in 1927;
• Butler Commission (1927),
• Nehru Report 1928.
• 14 Points of Jinnah in 1929,
• Lahore session of Congress and Poorna Swaraj declaration in 1929,
• Civil Disobedience Movement 1930,
• Dandi March in 1930,
• Ist Round table conference in (1930),
• Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931).
• Martyroodom of Jatin Das due to hunger strike.
• 2nd Round Table conference in 1931,
• Civil Disobedience movement 1932,
• Announcement of Mac Donalds Communal Award in 1932,
• 3rd Round Table Conference;
• Foundation of Congress Socialist Party in 1934
• Government of India Act 1935,
• Burma separated from India (1935),
• All India Kisan Sabha (1936),
• Poona Pact was signed.
Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
• General Election held in (1936-37),
• Resignation of Congress ministries in 1939,
• Deliverance Day of Muslim League in 1939,
• Cripps Mission in 1942 Foundation and Forward Block by S. C. Bose (1939),
• Lahore Resolution (1940),
• August offer (1940) Quit India Movement (1942).
Lord Wavell (1943-47)
• C. Rajgoplachari’s formula in 1944 to solve political deadlocks,
• Wavell Plan and Shimla conference in 1945,
• INA trial in 1945,
• Naval mutiny in 1946,
• Cabinet Mission, 1946 and acceptance of its proposal by Congress,
• Direct Action day announced by Muslim League on 16th August, 1946,
• First meeting of constituent assembly was held on 9th Dec, 1946.
Lord Mountbatten (March-August 1947)
• Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in house of commons and passed by the British Parliament on 4th July, 1947,
• Appointment of 2 boundary commissions under Sir Cyril Radcliyye,
• Announced 3rd June, 1947 Plan.
Governor Generals of Free India (1947-50)
• Lord Mountbatten (1947-48) : He was the first Governor General of free India, Kashmir to be a part of India (Oct. 1947). The Murder of Gandhiji (30th Jan, 1948).
• C. Rajagopalchari (June 1948 – Jan 1950) : He was
the last Governor of free India. He was the only Indian Governor General
|Charles Wood Despatch||1854||Lord Dalhousie||Education|
|Hunter Commission||1882||Lord Ripon||Education|
|Raleigh Commission||1902||Lord Curzon||Education|
|Sadler Commission||1917||Lord Chelmsford||Education|
|Hartog Commission||1929||Lord Irwin||Education|
|Sargent Plan||1944||Lord Wavell||Education|
|Campbell Commission||1866||Sir John Lawrence||Famine|
|Stratchy Commission||1880||Lord Lytton||Famine|
|Lyall Commission||1896||Lord Elgin-II||Famine|
|MacDonnel Commission||1900||Lord Curzon||Famine|
|Mansfield Commission||1886||Lord Dufferin||Currecny|
|Fowler Commission||1898||Lord Elgin-II||Currency|
|Babington Smith Commission||1919||Lord Chelmsford||Currency|
|Hilton Young Commission||1939||Lord linlithgow||Currency|
|Skeen Commission||1925||Lord Reading||Army|
|Garren Commission||1932||Lord Willingdon||Army|
|Chatfield Commission||1939||Lord Linlithgow||Army|
|Hunter Commission||1919||Lord Chelmsford||Punjab|
|Fraser Commission||1902||Lord Curzon||Agriculture|
|Butler Commission||1927||Lord Irwin||Indian States|
|Whitley Commission||1929||Lord Irwin||Labour|
|Sapru Commission||1935||Lord Linlithgow||Unemployment|
|Floud Commission||1940||Lord Linlithgow||Tenancy in Bengal|
SOCIAL REFORM ACT PASSED BY BRITISH GOVERNMENT
|Prevention of child||(1798-||Wellesley||Prevention of Child|
|Sati Pratha Preven-||1829||Lord W. Bentinck||Prevention of Sati|
Slavery Prevention Act
Prevention of Slavery
|Hindu Widow||1856||Lord Canning||Widow Marriage|
|Remarriage Act Native Marriage Act||1872||North Brook||Intercaste Marriage|
|Age of Consent Act||1891||Lans Down||for the Girls age of|
|Sharda Act||1930||Lord Irwin||Marriage 12 years. For Marriage minimum age of girls 14 years and boys 18 years.|
IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES OF FREEDOM STRUGGLE
|Aruna Asaf Ali||1888||1953||Member of Congress working Committee, Member of Executive Council (1946-47), Ist Indian Ambassador to USA (194748).|
|Acharya Narendra Dev||1889||1956||Founder Member of the Congress Socialist Party, Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University.|
|Acharaya Vinoba Bhave||1895||1982||Participated in the Dandi March, Salt Satyagraha, Individual Satyagraha, Bhoodan Movement.|
|Abdul Gaffar Khan||1890||1988||Called as Frontier Gandhi, founded Khudai Khidmat- gar, Participated in NonCooperation, Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movements.|
|Ashfaqullah Khan||1900||1927||A revolutionary associated with the Hindustan Republican Association, Participated in Kakori hold up, sentenced to death.|
|A.O. Hume||1829||1922||British Civil Servant known as the founder of Congress.|
|Abul Kalam Azad||1888||1958||Congress President from 1940 to 1946, published papers like Al-Hilal, Al- Balagh, Al-Nadawah.|
|Annie Besant||1847||1933||Came to India in 1839 assocaited with Theosophi- cal Soceity, founded Central Hindu College (1898), founded Home Rule League (1915).|
|Ajit Singh||1947||Founded the Bharat Mata Society, worked with Ghadar Party, uncle of Bhagat Singh|
|Anand Mohan Bose||1847||1906||Founded National Conference (1883), President of Madras Session of INC (1898).|
|B.R. Ambedkar||1891||1956||Foudned the Depressed Class Institute (1924), launched various movements, Chairman of the Drafting Committee.|
|Bhai Balmukund||1891||1919||He was a revolutionary, arrested in the Hardinge Bomb case and hanged.|
|Bankim Chandra Chatterjee||1838||1894||Bengali poet and novelist wrote Durgeshnandini composed the song Bande Matram.|
|Barindra Kumar Ghosh||1880||1959||Started Bengali weekly, the ‘Yugantar’ organised Maniktala Party for revolutionary activities.|
|Bhai Parmanand||1874||1947||Leading figure of the Gha- dar Party, became the chancellor of National College Lahore, associated with Hindu Mahasabha.|
|Chittaranjan Das||1870||1925||Founder of the Swaraj Party, presided over the AITUC session at Lahore|
(1923) and Ahmedabad
|Achyut S. Patwardhan||1905||1971||Founder member of the Congress Socialist Party (1934), participated in Quit India Movement|
|Alluri Sitaram Raju||1897||1924||Leading figure of the Rampa tribal uprising (1923-24) in Andhra Pradesh|
|Badruddin Taiyyabji||1844||1906||Associated with Bombay Presidency Association and Indian National Congress, Presided over Madras Session, (1887).|
|Bal Gangadhar Tilak||1857||1920||Known as Lokamanaya started two newspapers ‘Maratha’ and ‘Kesari’ an extremists leader of the congress.|
|Bipin Chandra Pal||1858||1932||Known as the father of revolutionary thought in India, Member of Congress, one of the famous trio-Lal, Bal, Pal.|
|Bhulabhai Desai||1877||1946||Prominent lawyer, Congress leader, famous for INA trial.|
|Bhagat Singh||1907||1931||A revolutionary leader, founded ‘Naujawan Bharat Sabha’ killed Saunders, sentenced to death in Lahore conspiracy case.|
|C. Rajgopalachari||1878||1972||Chief Minister of Madras (1937-39), first and last Indian Governor-General.|
|Chandra Shekhar Azad||1906||1931||Associated with Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, shot himself dead at Alfred Park, Allahabad|
|C.F. Andrews||1871||1940||Actively participated in Trade Union Activities, joined Viakom Satyagraha (1925).|
|C.Y. Chintamani||1880||1941||One of the founder of the Liberal Party, edited papers like ‘The Leader’, ‘Hindustan Review’.|
|Dadabhai Nauroji||1825||1917||‘Grand Old Man of India’ founded ‘the London India Society,’ gave the ‘Drain theory.’|
|Kamala Nehru||1899||1936||Married to J.L. Nehru in 1916, participated in various movements, led the Civil Disobedience movement.|
|David Hare||1775||1842||Founder of the Hindu college in Calcutta, associated with ‘Young Bengal Movement.’|
|D.K. Karve||1858||1962||Was a social reformer supported widow remarriage, started Widow Homes.|
|Dinabandhu Mitra||1830||1873||Author of ‘Neel Darpan’ showing exploitation of Indigo cultivators|
|Dayanand Saraswati||1824||1899||Founded ‘Arya Samaj’ wrote ‘Satyarth Prakash’, was in favour of widow remarriage and opposed un- touchability.|
|E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker||1879||1973||Lower caste leader, launched Self Respect Movement (1925), President of the Justice Party.|
|Govind Ballabh Pant||1889||1961||Freedom fighter, demonstration against the Simon Commission (1927), Chief Minister of U.P. (1946)|
|G.G. Agarkar||1856||1895||Launched the weekly ‘Sudharak’, editor of papers like ‘Maratha’ and the ‘Kesari,’ great social reformer.|
|Gopal Krishna Gokhale||1866||1915||Founded ‘Servants of India Society’ (1905), Moderate leaders of Congress.|
|Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar||1820||1891||Well known social reformer, supported valiantly widow remarriage, founded various schools for girls.|
|Jamnalal Bajaj||1889||1942||Treasurer of Congress (1920-42), founder of ‘Gandhi Seva Sangh’|
|Yogesh Chandra Chatterji||1895||1969||One of the founders of the ‘Hindustan Socialist Republican Association,’ arrested in Kakori conspiracy case, associated with ‘Anushilan Samiti.’|
|Jatindra Nath Das||1904||1929||Great revolutionary, died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast.|
|Jadonang||1905||1931||Naga tribal freedom fighter from Manipur, was sentenced to death and hanged in 1931.|
|Jatindranath Mukherjee||1879||1915||Member of revolutionary societies like ‘Jugantar,’ ‘Anushilan Samiti’ and ‘Ghadar Party,’ popularly known as Bagha Jatin.|
|Jawaharlal Nehru||1889||1964||Freedom fighter, Prime Minister from 1 947 to 1964 author of the ‘Discovery of India,’ ‘Glimpses of World History.’|
|K.T. Telang||1850||1893||Co-founder of the ‘Bombay Presidency Association,’ President of ‘National Social Conference,’ One of the founders of congress.|
|Kasturba Gandhi||1869||1944||Wife of Mahatma Gandhi, died on Feb. 24, 1944 in prison.|
|Khudiram Bose||1889||1908||Young revolutionary arrested in Muzaffarpur conspiracy case and senten- cted to death.|
|Madan Mohan Malviya||1861||1946||INC President (1909), was a founder member of the Hindu Mahasabha, founded the Banaras Hindu University in 1916 and remained its V.C. from 1919 to 1938.|
|Motilal Nehru||1861||1931||Father of J.L. Nehru, eminent lawyer, founder leader of the ‘Swarajist Party.’|
|Maulana Muhammad Ali||1878||1931||Associated with the “Khilafat Movement,” INC President in Kakinada Session (1923), well- known journalist.|
|M.A. Ansari||1880||1936||Muslim League leader, founded Jamia Millia Islamia, organised the All India Medical mission to Turkey in 1912-13.|
|Mahadev Desai||1892||1942||Mahatma Gandhi’s Secretary for 25 years, edited “The Independent” and “Navjivan” died on 15 August 1942.|
|Khurshedji Rustamji Cama||1831||1909||Parsian businessman, supported social reforms on Parsis, father-in-law of Madam Bhikaji Cama|
|Kalpana Datta||1913||1978||Women revolutionary of Bengal, sentenced to transportation of life in the Chittagong Armory Raid Case.|
|K.M. Munshi||1887||1971||Freedom fighter, educationist founder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan.|
|Lala Lajpat Rai||1865||1928||Known as “Punjab Kesa- ri,” brutally lathi charged in anti Simon Commission procession in Lahore, died after 18 days.|
|Lala Hardayal||1884||1939||Founder of the Ghadar Party in USA, started a paper “The Vandematram” and a journal “Ghadar”, was a professor at the Berkeley University,|
|Madan Lal Dhingra||1887||1909||Associated with the Indian Home Rule society, Abhinav Bharat Society and the India House, shot dead curzon wyllie.|
|Madam Bhikaji Cama||1861||1936||Famous women revolutionary In 1907 attended the socialist congress at stuttgart and unfurled the Indian National Flag.|
|Mahatma Gandhi||1869||1948||‘Father of the Nation’, leading figure in the Indian National Movement.|
|Manindra Nath Bannerji||1934||A revolutionary, involved in the Kakori conspiracy case, died after 66 days of hunger strike.|
|Muhammad Iqbal||1873||1938||Famous Urdu poet, wrote the famous Nationalist Song “Sare Jahan Se Ac- cha Hindustan Hamara.”|
|M.R. Jaykar||1873||1959||Leader of the Swarajya Party, attended the Round Table conference, lawyer by profession.|
|Mohammad Ali Jinnah||1875||1948||Leader of Muslim League, formulated 14 points in 1929, formulated two nations theory, known as Qaid-e-Azam.|
|N.M. Joshi||1875||1955||Founded the All India Trade Union Congress in 1921, called as father of the Trade Union Movement in India.|
|Meera Behn||1892||1982||Real name was Madeleine Slade, disciple and associate of Mahatma Gandhi|
|M.G.Ranade||1842||1901||Founded the Deccan Educational Society, a founder of the Indian National Congress.|
|M.N. Roy||1887||1954||Communist leader, arrested in Kanpur Conspiracy Case, formed Indian Federation of Labour, founder of Communist Party of India.|
|Nabh Gopal Mitra||1842||1894||Popularly known as National Mitra was a Bengali poet and playwright.|
|Narayana Guru||1845||1928||A great socio-religious reformer from Kerala, fought against Brahmin domination, worked for the spread of education in Kerala.|
|Ferozshah Mehta||1845||1915||Founder of the Bombay Presidency Association and INC, was a moderate leader.|
|Pattabhi Sitaramiah||1880||1959||Congress leader in 1939, he lost the Congress presidential election to Subhash Bose.|
|P. Anand Charlu||1843||1908||One of the founders of Congress, President of INC (1891), associated with Madras Mahajan Sab- ha.|
|Preetilata Waddekar||1911||1932||Woman revolutionary, member of Yugantar samlti and the Chittagong Republican Army.|
|Ram Prasad Bismil||1897||1927||A revolutionary, member of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, participated in Kakori Train Dacoity.|
|Rajendra Prasad||1884||1963||Congress leader from Bihar, became the first President of India.|
|Ram Manohar Lohiya||1910||1968||Foudner member of Congress Socialist Party, edited the Journal “The Congress Socialist” after independence founded the Socialist Party.|
|Rajkumari Amrit Kaur||1889||1964||Belonged to the ruling family of Kapurthala, a follower of Gandhi, served as in- depedent India’s first Health Minister.|
|Rani Lakshmi Bai||1835||1858||Second wife of the ruler of Jhansi, defended Jhan- si from Britishers, captured Gwalior, died fighting heroically.|
|Rasbihari Bose||1886||1945||Revolutionary leader, associated with Yugantar and Ghadar Party, founded ‘India Independence League’ and ‘Indain National Army.’|
|Ras Bihari Ghose||1845||1921||A leading moderate leader of Congress, Presided over Surat Session of Congress (1907).|
|Rajendra Nath Lahiri||1898||1927||A great revolutionary, member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), participated in Kakori Dacoity.|
|Rabindra Nath Tagore||1861||1941||Multifaced personality, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.|
|Surendranath Banerjee||1848||1925||One of the founders of INC, successfully completed for Indian Civil Service in 1896, eminent journalist and educationist.|
|Sohan Singh Bhakna||1870||1968||Founded (Hind Association) in 1913, published Ghadar Newspaper, associated with ‘Kamagatama- ru’ ship incident.|
|Subhash Chandra Bose||1897||1945||Successfully competed in civil services exam, presided over the Haripura session of the Congress (1938), founded Forward Block.|
|S. Subramaniam Iyer||1842||1924||President of the All-India Home Rule League, one of the founders of the Congress.|
|Saiyyad Ahmed Khan||1817||1899||Founder of Aligarh Movement, founded the Mo- hammadan Anglo Oriental College (Aligarh).|
|Sarojini Naidu||1879||1949||First Indian women President of Congress (1925), Governor of U.P. (194748), eminent poetess.|
|S. Rajguru||1908||1931||Trialed in the Lahore conspiracy case and sentenced to death along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev.|
|Tej Bahadur Sapru||1875||1949||Moderate leader of Congress, jurist from Allahabad, elected to the membership of privy Council.|
|Vallabhbhai Patel||1875||1950||Launched Bardoli Satyagra- ha, deputy Prime Minister after independence, called as ‘Iron Man of India.’|
|Vithalbhai Patel||1873||1933||Lawyer by profession, represented INC at the London conference (1919).|
|V.D. Savarkar||1883||1966||A great revolutionary founded Mitra Mela, he called the 1857 Revolt as the First war of Independence.|
|Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee||1844||1905||First congress president at Bombay in 1885, financed the British committee of the congress in London and its journal India.|
|Vasudeo Balwant Phadke||1845||1883||A great revolutionary, organised a secret society, organised militant tribes like Kolis and Ramoshis.|
|Sachidnra Nath Sanyal||1895||1945||A great revolutionary, associated with the activity of Ghadar Party, founder of Hindustan Republican Association, arrested in Kakori Conspiracy Case.|
|Swami Sahajanand||1889||1950||Farmer leader from Bihar, participated in Gandhian movements, founded Bihar Kisan Sabha in 1929.|
|S. Satyamurti||1887||1943||A great leader from South India, participated in Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movements.|
|Surya Sen||1894||1934||Revolutionary leader from Bengal, founded the Chittagong Republican Army, captured in 1933 and sentenced to death.|
|Swami Sraddhanand||1856||1926||A great Arya Samajist educationist started a weekly (Satya Dharma Prachar- ak) murdered in 1926.|
|T.K. Madhvan||1886||1930||Launched the Temple Entry Movement, Vaikom Satyagraha, editor of De- shabhimani.|
|T. Prakasam||1872||1957||Known as ‘Andhra Kesari’ took part in Salt Satyagra- ha.|
|Udham Singh||1899||1940||A great revolutionary leader from Punjab, murdered Michael O’Dwyer was sentenced to death.|
|Zakir Husain||1897||1969||Formulated Wardha scheme of education, served as vice-chancellor of Jamia Millia (1926-53), Governor of Bihar (195362), and Vice President of India (1962-67), elected as President of India in 1967, died in office.|
FAMOUS SLOGANS DURING FREEDOM STRUGGLE
|• “Delhi Chalo”||^ Subhash Chandra Bose|
|• “Jai Hind”||^ Subhash Chandra Bose|
|• “Tum Mujhe Khun Do||^ Subhash Chandra Bose|
|Mai Tumhe Azadi Dunga”|
|• “Bharat Chodo”||^ Mahatma Gandhi|
|• “Do ro Die”||^ Mahatma Gandhi|
|• “Aaram Haram Hai”||^ Jawaharlal Nehru|
|• “Inklab Zindabad”||^ Bhagat Singh|
|• “Back to the Vedas”||^ Dayanand Saraswati|
|• “Swaraj is my birth right and||^ Bal Gangadhar Tilak|
|I shall have it”|
NEWSPAPERS OF BRITISH INDIA
|Bengal Gazette (India’s first newspaper)||1780||James Augustus Hickey|
|Samachar Darshan (Bangla) (oldest in Indian language)||1818||Kaire, Marshman|
|Calcutta Journal||—||James Silk Buckingham|
|Sambad Kaumudi (Bangla)||1821||Raja Ram Mohan Roy|
|Bombay Samachar (Gujarati)||1822||Fardoorejee Majban|
|Mirat-ul-Akhbar (Farsi)||1822||Raja Ram Mohan Roy|
|Udant Martand||1826||Jugul Kishore (first news paper of Hindi)|
|Sambad Prabhakar||1830||Ishwar Chandra Gupta|
|Bombay Times (English)||1838||Bennet Colloman & Co.|
|Hindu Patriot||1853||Harishchandra Mukherjee|
|Som Prakash||1858||Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar|
|Rast Goftar||1861||Dada Bhai Nauroji|
|Pioneer (English)||1865||Allahabad, now from Lucknow and Delhi (Changed)|
|Amrit Bazar Patrika||1868||S.K. Ghosh, Motilal Ghosh,|
|Madras Mail||1868||First evening news paper|
|Statesman||1875||Robert Knight, Sunanda Dutta Roy|
|The Tribune (Chandigarh, Punjab)||1877||Sir Dayal Singh Mazithia|
|Hindu (English-Madras)||1878||Vir Raghvachari, G.S. Iyer. N Subba Rao Pantulu.|
|Paridashak||1880||Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosh|
|Kesari (Marathi)||1881||Bal Gangadhar Tilak|
|Maratha (English)||1881||Bal Gangadhar Tilak|
|Sudharak (Marathi)||1888||Gopal Ganesh Agarkar|
|Bande Matram||1906||Bipin Chandra Pal, Arvind Ghosh|
|Al-Hilal||1912||Maulana Abul Kalam Azad|
|Bombay Chronicle||1913||Feroz Shah Mehta|
|Madras Standard||1914||Annie Besant|
TITLES GIVEN TO THE NATIONAL FREEDOM FIGHTER
|Title||To the Leader||Given by|
|Mahatma||M.K. Gandhi||Rabindranath Tagore|
|Father of the Nation||M.K. Gandhi||Subhash Chandra Bose|
|Lokahitwadi||Gopal Hari Deshmukh||People|
|Sardar||Vallabhbhai Patel||Women of Bardoli|
|Netaji||Subhash Chandra Bose||—|
|Deshnayak||Subhash Chandra Bose||Ravindranath Tagore|
|Vivekanand||Swami Vivekanand||Maharaja Khetadi|
|Kayade Azam||Mohammed Ali Jinnah||Mahatma Gandhi|
|Lokmanya||Bal Gangadhar Tilak||People|
IMPORTANT BOOKS AND THEIR AUTHORS DURING FREEDOM STRUGGLE
Thought Forms : Annie Besant
The Ancient Wisdom : Annie Besant
Occult Chemistry : Annie Besant
Death and After : Annie Besant
Words of Freedom : Ideas of : Aruna Asaf Ali
a Nation The Resurgence of Indian : Aruna Asaf Ali
Women Why I am an Atheist : Bhagat Singh
On the Path of Liberation : Bhagat Singh
Canadian Society and Culture : Bhagat Singh
Anandamath : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Durgeshnandini : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Kapalkundala : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Devi Chaudhurani : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Krishna Charitra : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Hinduism Doctrine and Way : C. Rajagopalachari
of Life The Story of Ramayan : C. Rajagopalachari
Bhaja Govindam : C. Rajagopalachari
Poverty and unbritish rule : Dadabhai Naoroji
in India The Buddha and His Dhamma : B.R. Ambedkar
Annihilation of Caste : B.R. Ambedkar
Who were the shudras ? : B.R. Ambedkar
The Untouchables : B.R. Ambedkar
India Divided : Dr. Rajendra Prasad
At the feet of Mahatma Gandhi : Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Satyagraha in Champaran : Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Little Chicken in a hurry : Dr. Zakir Hussain
The Bravest Goat In the World : Dr. Zakir Hussain
Agrarian Structure in British India : Dr. Zakir Hussain
Neel Darpan : Dinabandhu Mitra
Discovery of India : Jawaharlal Nehru
Glimpses of World History : Jawaharlal Nehru
Wither India : Jawaharlal Nehru
Soviet Asia : Jawaharlal Nehru
A Bunch of old Letters : Jawaharlal Nehru
The Unity of India : Jawaharlal Nehru
India and the World : Jawaharlal Nehru
Why Socialism : Jayaprakash Narayan
Towards Total Revolution : Jayaprakash Narayan
Gulamgiri (Slavery) : Jyotiba Phule
Shetkaryacha Asud : Jyotiba Phule
Hints for self-culture : Lala Hardayal
Our Educational Problem : Lala Hardayal
India Wins Freedom : Abul Kalam Azad
Tarjuman Al-Quran : Abul Kalam Azad
Sallies of Mind : Abul Kalam Azad
The Dawn of Hope : Abul Kalam Azad
The immanence of God : Madan Mohan Malviya
India Unrest : Valentine Chirol
Indian Musalmans : William W. Hunter
My Indian years : Lord Harding-II
The Indian struggle : Subhas Chandra Bose
Problems of the East : Lord Curzon
Letters to Emilie Schenkl : Subhas Chandra Bose
Azad Hind : Subhas Chandra Bose
Beacon Across Asia : Subhas Chandra Bose
The Indian War of Independence : V.D. Savarkar
Hindutva : V.D. Savarkar
Maijhini Charitra : V.D. Savarkar
The Arctic Home in the Vedas : Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Srimadh Bhagvad Gita Rahasya : Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Orion (Antiquity of the Vedas) : Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Vedic Chronology and : Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Vedanta Jyotisha Unhappy India : Lala Lajpat Rai
Englands debt to India : Lala Lajpat Rai
Young India : An interpreta- : Lala Lajpat Rai
tion and a history of the nationalist movement from within Arya Samaj : Lala Lajpat Rai
The Political Future of India : Lala Lajpat Rai
Hind Swaraj : Mahatma Gandhi
The story of My Experiments : Mahatma Gandhi
with truth Gora : Rabindranath Tagore
Ghare Baiyre (Home and World) : Rabindranath Tagore
Gitanjali : Rabindranath Tagore
Letters from Russia : Rabindranath Tagore
Gana Devta : Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya
Philosophy of the Bomb : Bhagwaticharan Vohra
Gandhi Verses Lenin : S.A. Dange
India Today : R.P. Dutt
Thakurmar Jholi : D.M. Majumdar
Prachya Aur Pashchatya : Swami Vivekanand
Karma Yoga : Swami Vivekanand
Nibandhmala : Vishnu K. Chiplunkar
Gau Karunanidhi : Swami Dayanand
Satyarth Prakash : Swami Dayanand
Pather Dabi : Saratchandra Chattopadhyay
History of Hindu Chemistry : R.C. Ray
Peasantry of Bengal : R.C. Dutt
New Lamps for the Old : Aurobindo Ghosh
The Life Divine : Aurobindo Ghosh
Vande Matram : Aurobindo Ghosh
Bhawani Mandir : Aurobindo Ghosh
Rise of the Maratha Power : M.G. Ranade
Essays on Indian Economics : M.G. Ranade
Indian in Transition : M.N. Roy
The Economic History of : R.C. Dutt
British India The Causes of the Indian Revolt : Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Monuments of Delhi : Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Pather Panchali : Bibhutibhushan Benerji
A Gift to Monotheism : Raja Rammohan Roy
A Nation In Making : Surendranath Banerjee
IMPORTANT INDIAN RULER, DYNASTY AND TITLES
|Chandragupta Maurya||Maurya||Sandrocottus, Androcottus|
|Pulakesin II||Chalukyas (Vatapi)||Parmeshvar|
|Vikramaditya IV||Chalukyas (Kalyani)||Tribhuvan, Malla|
|Vikramaditya II||Chalukyas (Vengi)||Sikandar|
|Ibrahim Qutubshah||Qutubshahi||Malik Brahim|
|Qutubuddin Aibek||Slave dynasty||Lakh Baksh, Malik|
|Jauna Khan||Tughlaq||Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Ulug Khan|
|Hala Gautami Putra||Satvahana||Kavivatsal|
|Satkarni||Satvahana||Kshatriya Darp Mardan|
|RajaRaja||Chola||Mummadi Chola, Arumoli, Raj Kesari|
|Rajendra I||Chola||Gangaikonda Chola|
|Krishnadevaraya||Tuluva||Andhra Bhoj, Yavanraj|
|Ibrahim Lodi||Lodi||Ibrahim Shah|
|Bairam Khan||Mughal||Khan Baba|
|Balaji Bajirao||Marathas||Nana Saheb|
IMPORTANT BATTLES OF INDIAN HISTORY
327-326 B.C. – Alexander invades India. Defeats Porus in the Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) 326 B.C.
305 B.C. – Chandragupta Maurya defeats the Greek king Seleucus.
216 B.C. – The Kalinga War. Conquest of Kalinga by Ashoka.
155 B.C. – Menander’s invasion of India.
90 B.C. – The Sakas invade India. A.D. 454 – The first Huna invasion. A.D. 495 – The second Huna invasion. A.D. 711-712 – The Arab invasion of Sind under Mohammed-bin- Qasim.
1000-1027 – Mahmud Ghazni invades India 17 times.
1175-1206– Invasions of Muhammad Ghori. First Battle of Tarain, 1191, Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeats Muhammad Ghori; Second Battle of Tarain, 1192, Muhammad Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan; Battle of Chandawar, 1194, Muhammad Ghori defeats Jayachandra Gahadvala of Kannauj.
1294 – Alauddin Khalji invades the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri. The first Turkish invasion of the Deccan.
1398 – Taimur invades India. Defeats the Tughlaq Sultan Mahmud Shah; the Sack of Delhi.
1526 – Babur invades India and defeats the last Lodi Sultan Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat.
1539-1540 – Battle of Chausa or Ghaghra (1539) and Kanauj or Ganges (1540) in which Sher Shah defeats Humayun.
1545 – Battle (siege) of Kalinjar and death of Sher Shah Suri.
1556 – Second Battle of Panipat.
Akbar defeats Hemu.
1565 – Battle of Raktakshasi- Tangadi (Talikota) in which the forces of the empire of Vijayanagar under King Sadasiva Raya and his regent Rama Raya routed by the confederate forces of the Deccani states of Bijapur, Golkunda, Ahmadnagar, and Bidar.
1576 – Battle of Haldighati. Akbar defeats Rana Pratap of Mewar.
1632-1633–Conquest of Ahmadnagar by Shah Jahan.
1658 – Battles of Dharmat (April-May 1658) and Samugarh (June 8, 1658). Dara Shikoh, eldest son of Shah Jahan, defeated by Aurangzeb.
1665 – Shivaji defeated by Raja Jai Singh and Treaty of Purandhar.
1739 – Invasion of India by Nadir Shah.
1746 – First Carnatic War.
1748-1754 – Second Carnatic War.
1756-1763 – Third Carnatic War.
1757 – Battle of Plassey. Siraj-uddaulah, the Nawab of Bengal, defeated by Clive.
1760 – Battle of Wandiwash, in which the English under Sir Eyre Coote defeat the French under Lally.
1762 – Third Battle of Panipat.
Marathas defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali.
1764 – Battle of Buxar. The English
(under Munro) defeat Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal and Nawab Shuja-ud-daulah of Awadh.
1767-1769 – First Mysore War.
1774 – The Rohilla War between the Rohillas and the Nawab of Awadh supported by the East India Company.
1775-1782 – First Maratha War.
1780-1784 – Second Mysore War.
1792 – Third Mysore War.
1799 – Fourth Mysore War. Defeat and death of Tipu Sultan.
1802-1804 – Second Maratha War.
1817-1818 – Third Maratha War.
1845-1846 – First Sikh War.
1846 – Battle of Aliwal between the English and the Sikhs. The Sikhs defeated.
1848-1849 – Second Sikh War and annexation of the Punjab to British India.
1857 – The Revolt of 1857 (The First War of Indian Independence).
6000 – Earliest evidence of agriculture and animal domestication in India is from Mehargarh and Burzahom.
5000-4000 – Earliest evidence of sheep-goat domestication at Bagor and Adamgarh.
4000-3000 – Spread of Civilizations based on agriculture and animal domestication.
2500-1750 – Time period of Harappan Civilization on the basis of Radio Carbon dating.
1500 – Rigvedic Period, coming of Aryans in India.
1000 – Later Vedic Period, spread of Aryans in the Gangetic plain.
950 – Mahabharata (Kurukshetra War)
877 – Birth of Parshvanatha (23rd Tirthankara of Jainism)
600-550 – Emergence of Sixteen Mahajanapadas, composition of the Upanishads.
563 – Birth of Gautama Buddha Founder of Buddhism
540 – Birth of Mahavira Real Founder of Jainism
540-468– Life Period of Vardhamana Mahavira
544-412 – Haryanka Dynasty
(Bimbisara, Ajatashatru and Udayin)
516 – Irani ruler Darius–I invation of India.
483 – Buddha attained Nirvana, First Buddhist Council in Rajagriha.
563-483 – Life Period of Gautama Buddha.
468 – Mahavira attained Nirvana
412-344 – Foundation and expansion of Nag Dynasty
383 – Second Buddhist Council in Vaishali.
362 – Nanda Dynasty came to power in Magadha
327-325 – Alexander’s invasion of India.
323 – Death of Alexander in Babylon.
321 – Chandragupta Maurya’s accession to the throne of Magadha.
305 – Defeat of Seleucus at the hands of Chandragupta Maurya.
298 – Bindusara became king.
273-232 – Ashoka’s reign.
261 – Conquest of Kalinga.
257 – Ashoka became follower of Buddhism.
251 – Third Buddhist conference in Patliputra.
230 – Establishment of Satvahanas.
200 – Greece’s invasion of India.
185 – Establishment of Sunga dynasty.
75 – Foundation of Kanva Dynasty
58 – Beginning of Vikram era
30 – Satvahanas dynasty in Deccan, Pandyan dynasty in South.
22 – Trade relations of Cholas and Pandayas with the Romans.
14-15 – St. Thomas came to India.
40 AD – Sakas in power in Indus Valley and Western India
50 AD– The Kushans and Kanishkas
65 – Chinese King Sent representative in India for collecting information about Buddhism.
77 –Plini wrote book Natural History.
78 AD – Saka Era begins
78-100 – Regime of Kanishka.
86-128 – Resurgence of Satvahana dynasty by Satkarni and Pulumavi.
130-150 – Emergence of Rudradamana in West India.
225 – Foundation of Vakataka dynasty.
226 – Emergence of Sasaniyan dynasty in Parsia.
250 – Decline and disintegration of Satvahana dynasty.
240-280 – Foundation of Gupta dynasty.
280-319 – Regime of Ghatotkacha.
320 AD – Chandragupta I establishes the Gupta dynasty
360 AD – Samudragupta conquers the North and most of the Deccan
375 – Death of Samudra Gupta, Ram Gupta Became Successor.
380 AD – Chandragupta II comes to power; Golden Age of Gupta Literary Renaissance
405 AD – Fa-hein begins his travels through the Gupta Empire
415 AD–Accession of Kumara Gupta-I
415 – Establishment of Nalanda University.
467 AD – Skanda Gupta assumes power
476 AD – Birth of astronomer Aryabhatta
500-532 – Emergence of Hun dynasty by Tormana and Mihirkula.
532 – Yashovardhan defeated Mihirkula.
606 AD–Accession of Harshavardhan
609 – Pulakeshin-II became king.
622 AD – Era of the Hejira begins
629-645 – Hentsang came in India
636 – First invasion of Sindh by Arabians.
711 AD – Invasion of Sind by Muhammad Bin Qasim
725 – Nagbhatta founded Pratihara dynasty
753-973 – Regime of Rashtrakuta dynasty in deccan.
760-1142 – Regime of Pal dynasty in Eastern India.
770-810 – Regime of great Pal king Dharmpala, Establishment of Vikramshila University.
783-1036 – Regime of Gurjar- Pratihara dynasty in Northen India by votsraj of Rajasthan.
788-820 – Period of Shankaracharya, philosopher of Advaita.
835-885 – Arab trader Suleman came in India, during the regime of Gurjar – Pratihara dynasty.
836 – Mihirbhoj became king.
850 – Vijayalaya defeated Pandya, became the king of Tanjore
851 – Arab Traveler wrote book over India.
860 – Sumatra’s king Balputra established Buddha Vihar in Nalanda.
871-1173 – Regime of Chola dynasty in Tanjore.
883-1026 – Hindushahi in Punjab and Kabul.
892 AD – Rise of the Eastern Chalukyas
907 – Coronation of Chola king Parantak–I.
915-925 – Arab traveler Al-Masudi came in India, during the regime of great Rashtrakuta’s king Indra–
916-1205 – Regime of Chandel dynasty in Jejakbhukti, establishment of temples in Khajuraho by chandel dynasty.
950-1195 – Regime of Tripuri’s kalachuri in central India.
973-1238 – Regime of Solanki in Anhilwada (Kathiyavad).
977 – Invasion of Subuktageen in India.
985 AD – The Chola Dynasty : Accession of Rajaraja, the Great
1001 AD – Defeat of Jaipal by Sultan Mahmud
1026 – Mahmud Ghazni sacks Somnath Temple
1027 – Last invasion by Mahmud Ghazni.
1030 – Death of Mahmud Ghazni, Albruni came in India.
1191 – Prithviraj Chauhan routs Muhammad Ghori : the first battle of Tarain
1192 – Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan : the second battle of Tarain
1194 – Jayachanda defeated in battle of Chandavar.
1206-1210 – Qutubuddin Aibak establish Slave dynasty.
1210-1211 – Aram Shah came to the throne.
1211-1236 – Iltutmish
1221 – Invasion of Changej Khan in India.
1236-1240 – Raziya Sultan
1240-1242 – Bahram Shah
1242-1246 – Masud Shah
1246-1266 – Nasiruddin
1266-1287 – Ghiyasuddin Balban
1279 – Revolt by Tugaril Khan in Bengal.
1287-1290 – Kaikubad
1290-1296 – Jalaluddin Khalji establishes Khalji dynasty.
1296-1316 – Alauddin Khalji
1309-1313 – Deccan mission by Malik Kafur.
1315 – Returning of Malik Kafur from Deccan.
1316-1320 – Qutubuddin Mubarak Khalji
1320-1325 – Ghiyasuddin Tughluq founded Tughlaq dynasty
1325-1351 – Muhammad bin Tughlaq
1333-1342 – Ibn Battuta traveled in India.
1336 – Foundation of Vijayanagar Empire by Harihar and Bukka
1347 – Bahmani dynasty founded by Bahamanshah.
1351-1388 – Firoz Tughlaq
1390-1394 – Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah
1393 – Foundation of Jaunpur kingdom.
1394-1412 – Mahmud Shah Tughlaq
1398 – Taimur invades India
1414-1421 – Khizr Khan, power in the hands of Sayyids, emergence of Sayyid dynasty.
1421-1434 – Mubarak Shah
1434-1443 – Muhammad Shah
1443-1451 – Alauddin Alam Shah
1451-1489 – Bahlol Lodhi, establishment of Lodi dynasty
1455 – Birth of Sant Kabir
1469 – Birth of Guru Nanak founder of Sikh religion.
1472 – Birth of Sher Shah Suri
1483 – Birth of Jahiruddin Babur in Fargana.
1489-1517 – Sikandar Lodhi
1490 – Nizam Shahi dynasty at Ahmednagar
1498 – First voyage of Vasco da Gama
1509 – Krishnadev Raya became king.
1510 – Portuguese capture Goa
1517 – Coronation of Ibrahim Lodi
1518 – Kutub Shahi dynasty at Golkunda
1519 – Entry of Babur in India
1526 – Establishment of the Mughal Dynasty; First Battle of Panipat : Babur defeats Lodhis
1526-1530 – Reign of Babur
1527 – Battle of Khanwa, Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
1529 – Ghagara battle Babur defeated Afgani invaders.
1530 – Humayun succeeds Babur
1532 – Birth of Tulsidas.
1538 – Death of Guru Nanak
1539 – Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun and becomes Emperor of Delhi
1555 – Humayun recovers the throne of Delhi
1556 – Death of Humayun; Accession of Akbar;
1562 – End of slavery system by Akbar
1563 – Abolishment of tax on pilgrims.
1564 – Akbar abolishes poll tax on Hindus
1565 – Battle of Talikota : Muslim rulers in Deccan defeats and destroys Vijayanagar Empire
1568 – Fall of Chittor
1569 – Birth of Jahangir
1571 – Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar
1572 – Akbar annexes Gujarat
1573 – Surat surrenders to Akbar
1575 – Battle of Tukaroi
1576 – Battle of Haldighati : Akbar defeats Rana Pratap; Subjugation of Bengal
1577 – Akbar troops invade Khandesh
1579 – Akbar introduces Mahjarnama
1580 – Accession of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in Bengal; Rebellion in Bihar and Bengal
1581 – Akbar’s march against Muhammad Hakim and reconciliation with him
1582 – Divine Faith promulagated
1586 – Annexation of Kashmir
1591 – Mughal conquest of Sind
1592 – Annexation of Odisha
1595 – Siege of Ahmednagar; Annexation of Baluchistan
1597 – Akbar completes his conquests
1600 – Charter to the English East India Company
1602 – Formation of the United East India Company of Netherlands
1605 – Death of Akbar and Accession of Jahangir
1606 – Rebellion of Khusrav; Execution of the Fifth Sikh Guru, Arjun dev by Jahangir
1607 – Sher Afghan first, husband of Nur Jahan, killed
1608 – Malik Ambar takes Ahmednagar
1609 – The Dutch open a factory at Pulicat
1611 – The English establish a factory at Masulipatnam
1611 – Marriage of Jahangir and Nurjahan
1612 – The Mughal Governor of Bengal defeats the rebellious Afghans; Mughals annex Kuch Hajo
1615 – Submission of Mewar to the Mughals; Arrival of Sir Thomas Roe in India
1616 – The Dutch establish a factory at Surat
1620 – Capture of Kangra Fort; Malik Ambar revolts in the Deccan
1622 – Shah Abbas of persia besieges and takes Qandahar
1623 – Shah Jahan revolts against Jahangir
1624 – Suppression of Shah Jahan’s revolt
1626 – Rebellion of Mahabat Khan
1627 – Death of Jahangir; Accession of Shah Jahan
1628 – Shah Jahan proclaimed Emperor
1631 – Death of Shah Jahan’s wife Mumtaz Mahal; The construction of Taj Mahal
1632 – Mughal invasion of Bijapur; Grant of the “Golden Firman” to the English Company by the Sultan of Golkunda
1633 – End of Ahmednagar Dynasty
1636 – Aurangzeb appointed Viceroy of Deccan
1639 – Foundation of Fort St. George at Madras by the English
1646 – Shivaji captures Torna
1648 – Construction of Shahajanabad started by Shahjahan.
1656 – The Mughals attack Hyderabad and Golkunda; Annexation of Javli by Shivaji
1657 – Invasion of Bijapur by Aurangzeb; Aurangzeb captures Bidar and Kalyani
1658 – Coronation of Aurangzeb
1659 – Battles of Khajwah and Deorai
1659 – Shivaji kills Afjal Khan
1661 – Cession of Bombay to the English; Mughal capture of Cooch Bihar
1664 – Shivaji sacks Surat and assumes royal title
1664 – Francis East India Company established.
1665 – Treaty of Purandar between Shivaji and Mughals
1666 – Death of Shah Jahan; Shivaji’s visit to Agra and his escape
1670 – Shivaji again sacks Surat
1674 – Shivaji assumed the title of Chhatrapati
1675– Execution of Guru Tegbahadur by Aurangzeb
1678– Marwar occupied by the Mughals
1679 – Aurangzeb imposes Jazia tax on non-Muslims
1680 – Death of Shivaji; Rebellion of Prince Akbar
1685 – British Shift’s company headquarters to Mumbai from Surat.
1686 – English war with the Mughals; Fall of Bijapur
1689 – Execution of Sambhaji
1690 – Peace between the Mughals and the English
1691 – Aurangzeb at the zenith of his power
1698 – The new English company trading to the East Indies
1699 – First Maratha raid on Malwa
1700 – Death of Rajaram and regency of his widow Tara Bai
1702 – Amalgamation of English and the London East India Companies
1707 – Death of Aurangzeb; Battle of Jajau
1708 – Death of Guru Govind Singh in Nanded (Maharashtra)
1712 – Death of Bahadurshah-I, Jahand became king
1713 – Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.
1714 – Husain Ali appointed Viceroy of the Deccan; The treaty of the Marathas with Husain Ali
1715 – Execution of Shikh Leader Bandabahadur.
1717 – Farukh Siyyar Permits East India Company for free trade.
1720 – Accession of Baji Rao Peshwa at Poona
1739 – Nadir Shah conquers Delhi; The Marathas capture Salsette and Bassein
1740 – Accession of Balaji Baji Rao Peshwa; The Marathas invade Arcot
1740 – Aliwardi Khan becomes king of Bengal.
1742 – Marathas invade Bengal
1747 – Ahmad Shah Abdali invades India
1748 – First Anglo-French war
1750 – War of the Deccan and Carnatic Succession; Death of Nasir Jung
1751 – British wins Arcot
1751 – Treaty of Alivardi with the Marathas
1756 – Siraj-ud-daulah captures of Calcutta
1757-63 – Third Anglo-French war
1757 – Battle of Plassey : The British defeat Siraj-ud-daulah
1758 – Francis wins Fort Saint David.
1760 – Battle of Wandiwash : The British defeat the French
1760 – Mir Kasim becomes Nawab of Bengal.
1761 – Third battle of Panipat : Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats the Marathas; Accession of Madhava Rao Peshwa; Rise of Hyder Ali
1762 – Madhava Rao takes power in his own hands. Raghunath Rao approaches Nizam for help.
1763 – Expulsion of Mir Qasim. Reinstatement of Mir Jafar.
Raghunath Rao recaptures power and keeps Madhava Rao in confinement.
1764 – Battle of Buxar. The English defeat Shah Alam, Shuja-ud-daula and Mir Qasim.
1765 – Grant of the ‘Diwani’ of Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha to the East India Company by Shah Alam II under Treaty of Allahabad. Clive, Company’s Governor in Bengal.
Death of Mir Jafar.
1765-1767 – Clive’s second Governorship.
1766 – Nizam cedes Northern Sarkars to the English.
1767 – Departure of Clive. Verelst, Company’s Govenor in Bengal.
1767-1769 – The First Mysore War.
Hyder Ali advances on Madras and forces the English to enter into a defensive alliance.
1770 – The Great Bengal Famine
1771 – Marathas attack Hyder Ali.
Marathas occupy Delhi and restore Shah Alam who was till then under English protection at Allahabad.
1772-1785 – Warren Hastings, Governor of Fort William.
1772 – Marathas invade Rohilkhand.
1772-1833 – Raja Rammohan Roy.
1773 – The Regulating Act passed, bringing the Comapny partially under Parliament’s control and the Presidencies under Calcutta’s control.
1774 – The Marathas again invade Rohilkhand. Nawab of Awadh assists Rohillas. Marathas withdraw but Rohillas refuse to pay Rs. 40 lakhs to Awadh as agreed upon.
Establishment of Supreme Court, at Calcutta. Rohilla War between Rohillas and Nawab of Awadh assisted by the English. Rohilla Chief Hafiz Rahmat Khan killed.
Rohilkhand annexed by Awadh.
1775 – Trial and execution of Nanda Kumar who alleged that Warren Hastings had taken bribe from the Begums of Awadh.
1775-1782 – The First Anglo- Maratha War.
1776 – The Treaty of Purandhar between the English and Poona’s Ministers, who were opposed to Raghunath Rao.
1777 – Birth of Kunwar Singh
1779 – Convention of Wadgaon stipulating that all acquisitions of Maratha territory, made since 1773 by the Company, be restored and the advance of English force from Bengal be stopped.
1780 – Capt. Popham’s capture of Gwalior.
1780-1784 – Second Mysore War, Both parties agree to give up their conquests under the Treaty of Mangalore.
1781 – Deposition of Chait Singh of Banaras. Calcutta Madras founded by Warren Hastings to conciliate the Mohammedans of Calcutta.
1782 – Asaf-ud-daula exports money from the Begums of Awadh with the English help. The Treaty of Salbai between the English, the Marathas and Hyder Ali, Death of Hyder Ali.
1782-1798 – Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore.
1783 – Fox’s India Bills give more powers to Parliament and to the Governor-General.
1784 – Treaty of Mangalore between Tipu and the English who promise not to assist enemies of Tipu, in return for Tipu giving up English territory. Pitt’s Act passed, setting up Board of Control for East India Company. Asiatic Society of Bengal founded.
1786-1793 – Lord Cornwalis, Governor- General.
1786 – Marathas and Nizam raid Mysore.
1787 – Treaty between Tipu, Marathas and Nizam, Marathas the gainers.
1788 – Ghulam Kadir Rohilla seizes Delhi and blinds Shah Alam II.
Bedar Bakht put on Delhi’s throne.
1788-1795 – Impeachment of Warren Hastings.
1789-1803 – Marathas control Delhi.
1789 – Tipu attacks Travancore.
1790-1792 – Third Mysore War following ‘Triple Alliance’ between English, Marathas and Nizam against Tipu.
1792 – Tipu surrenders half his kingdom.
Ranjit Singh succeeds his father as leader of a Sikh Misl. Sanskrit College founded at Varanasi by English resident, Jonathan Duncan “for endearing our Government to the native Hindus”.
1793-1798 – Sir John Shore, Governor- General.
1793 – The Permanent Settlement of Bengal.
1794 – Death of Mahadavji Sindhia at Poona.
1795 – Battle of Kharda between the Nizam and the Marathas.
1796 – Baji Rao II Peshwa.
1797 – Jacobin club sets up by Francis in Shrirangpattanam.
1797 – Zaman Shah, grandson of Ahmad Shah Abdali, takes Lahore.
Death of Asaf-ud-daula of Awadh and succession of Wazir Ali.
1798 – Wazir Ali deposed and succeeded by Sa’dat Ali at Awadh.
1798-1805 – Wellesley, Governor- General.
1799 – English attack Tipu without provocation. Fourth Mysore War.
Fall of Shrirangpattnam. Death of Tipu. English restore previous Hindu dynasty in Mysore. Partition of Mysore. Shah Zaman appoints Ranjit Singh as the Governor of Lahore. William Carey opens Baptist Mission at Serampore.
1800 – Death of Nana Phadnavis.
Establishment of the College of Fort William.
1801 – Annexation of the Carnatic and part of Awadh by the English.
1802 – Holkar defeats combined forces of Sindhia and the Peshwa at Poona, Peshwa Baji Rao flees to Bassein and signs the Treaty of Bassein with the English.
1803 – Treaty of Surji Arjun Village
1803 – Occupation of Delhi by Lord Lake, War with scindia.
1803-1805 – Second Anglo-Maratha
1804 – Emperor Shah Alam places himself under British protection.
Lake’s war with Holkar.
1805 – Siege of Bharatpur fails and Lake makes peace with the Raja.
1805-1807 – George Barlow, Governor- General.
1806 – Mohd, Akbar II succeeds his father Shah Alam II.
1807-1813 – Lord Minto I, Governor- General,
1809 – Treaty of Amritsar-Ranjit Singh and British sign treaty of perpetual amity.
1809-1811 – Ranjit Singh takes Kangra from the Gurkh
1813-1823 – Lord Hastings, Governor- General.
1814-1816 – Anglo-Gurkha War resulting in the cession of Garhwal and Kumaon by the Gurkhas to the English.
1817-1818 – Pindari War-Peshwar defeat at Kirkee.
1817-1905 – Debendranath Tagore who reorganised the Brahmo Samaj.
1817-1898 – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, founder of Aligarh Muslim University.
1817-1819 – Last Anglo-Maratha
War. Hostile princes like Sindhia and Holkar become allies of the English.
1818 – First Bengali newspaper, the weekly Samachar Darpan published by the Baptist Mission, Serampore.
1819-1827 – Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay.
1820 – Munro, Governor of Madras.
1821 – Sanskrit college founded at Poona.
1823-1828 – Lord Amherst, Governor- General.
1823 – Raja Rammohan Roy’s memorial to Government protesting against the Press Ordinance of 1823.
1824 – Mutiny at Barrackpore. Large numebr of Indian soldiers killed on parade for demanding more pay for fighting in Burma.
1824-1826 – First Burmese War.
Arakan and Tenasserim annexed.
1824-1883 – Swami Dayanand Saraswati, founder of Arya Samaj.
1826 – English caputre Bharatpur.
Conquest of Assam by East India Company. Treaty of Yandbu.
1828-1835 – Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General.
1829 – Brahmo Samaj founded by Raja Rammohan Roy, Prohibition of Sati.
1829-1837–Suppression of Thuggee.
1830-1833 – Raja Rammohan Roy visits England.
1831 – Raja of Mysore deposed and its administration taken over by the Company. Meeting of Ranjit Singh and William Bentinck at Rupar.
1832 – Annexation of Jaintia.
1833 – Abolition of the Company’s trading rights. Legislative power centralised. Indian Law Commission appointed.
1834 – Annexation of Coorg.
Maculay, Law member. Government establishes tea garden. Formation of Agra Province.
1835-1836 – Sir Charles Metcalf, Governor-General.
1835 – Macaulay’s Education Resolution.
English made official language instead of Persian. Abolition of Press restrictions and inland transit duties.Company strikes its own coins omitting Mughal emperor’s name.
1836-1842 – Lord Auckland, Governor- General.
1837 – Bahadur Shah II succeeded by Akbar II.
1838 – Tripartite Treaty among Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the English.
1838-1884 – Kesav Chandra Sen, another pillar of Brahmo Samaj.
1839 – Death of Ranjit Singh.New treaty forced on the Amirs of Sind.
Work begun on G.T. Road, between Calcutta and Delhi. English declare Shah Shuja, Amir of Kabul.
1839-1842 – The First Anglo-Afghan
1840 – Amir Dost Mohammad surrenders.
1841 – Foundation of “Desh Hiteshi Sabha” in Calcutta.
1842 – Simla Proclamation of Ellenborough. Govenror-General agrees to recognise the Amir of Afghans’ choice.
1842-1844 – Lord Ellenborough, Governor-General.
1843 – Return of Dost Muhammad to Afghanistan as its Amir. Conquest of Sind by the British. Slavery prohibited in British India.
1844-1848 – Lord Hardinge, Governor- General.
1844 – Lord Hardinge decides to employ, in Government service, Indians educated in English schools.
1845 – First Anglo-Sikh War.
1846 – Defeat of the Sikh Army, Treaty of Lahore.
1847 – Engineering College founded in Roorkee.
1848-1856 – Lord Dalhousie, Governor- General.
1848 – Annexation of Satara. Rising at Multan.
1848-1849 – Second Anglo-Sikh War.
1849 – Defeat of Sikhs and annexation of the Punjab. Opening of a Hindu Girls’ Schools in Calcutta by Drinkwater Bethune.
Dalhousie’s proposal to end Mughal dynasty in Delhi.
1851 – Foundation of “British Indian Association” in Calcutta.
1852 – Second Anglo-Burmese War.
Annexation of Rangoon and Pegu.
1853 – Railway opened from Bombay to Thane. Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra. Annexation of Nagpur and Jhansi. Cession of Berar by Nizam. Competitive examiantion for Civil Service.
1855 – Santhal insurrection in Bihar.
Beginning of the jute industry in India. Foundation of Anjuman-i- Islami in Calcutta.
1856 – Annexation of Awadh. University Act. Hindu Widow’s Remarriage Act.
1856-1862 – Lord Canning, Governor- General and viceroy.
1857 – Universities set up at Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.
1857-1858 – Revolt of 1857. Revolt at Meerut begins on May 10, 1857.
1858 – British India placed under the direct Government of the Crown. Queen Victoria’s Proclamation.
1859 – Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
1859-1861 – Indigo Riots in Bengal.
1860 – Introduction of Budget.
1861 – Indian Councils Act. Indian High Courts Act. Archaeological Survey of India set up.
1862 – Penal Code introduced. Amalgamation of the Supreme and Sadar courts into High Courts.
1862-1863 – Lord Elgin, Viceroy.
1863 – Death of Amir Dost Muhammad. Afghan War of Succession.
Sher Ali, Amir of Afghanistan receives an annual grant of six lakh of rupees.
1863 – Formation of “Mohmmaden Association” in Calcutta, Establishment of Patna College.
1863-1902 – Swami Vivekananda.
1864-1869 – Sir John Lawrence, Viceroy.
1865 – Telegraphic communication with Europe opened.
1866 – Establishment of Allahabad High Court.
1869 – Ambala Conference with Amir Sher Ali. Amir Yakub’s rebellion in Afghanistan. Opening of Suez Canal.
Birth of M.K. Gandhi (2 October).
1869-1872 – Lord Mayo, Viceroy.
1870 – Mayo’s Provincial Settlement.
Erection of Red Sea telegraph.
1872 – First census in India
1872 – Kuka Revolt.
1872 – Assassination of Lord Mayo
1872-1876 – Lord Northbrook, Viceroy.
1874 – Bihar Famine.
1875 – M.A.O. College, Aligarh founded by Syed Ahmad Khan.
Mayo College, Ajmer, opened. Visit of the Prince of Wales. Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayananda.
1876 – Occupation of Quetta. Indian Association of Calcutta. The Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India.
1876-1880 – Lord Lytton, Viceroy.
1877 – Lytton’s Delhi Durbar.
1878 – Vernacular Press Act.
1878-1880 – Second Afghan War.
Flight of Sher Ali.
1878 – Appointment of Famine Commission under the presidency of Richard Strachey.
1879 – Madam Blavatsky (Russian) and Col. Olcott (American) come to India from USA and set up Theosophical Society at Adyar, Madras.
1880 – Abdur Rahman recognised as Amir of Afghanistan. Famine Commission.
1880-1884 – Lord Ripon, Viceroy.
1881 – Factory Act. Rendition of Mysore.
1882 – Repeal of Vernacular Press Act.
1882 – Hunter Commission. Indian Education Commission. University of Punjab set up.
1883 – Indian National Conference held in Calcutta.
1883-1884 – Illbert Bill controversy.
1884-1888 – Lord Dufferin, Viceroy.
1885 – First Meeting of the Indian National Congress. Bengal Tenancy Act. Bengal Local Self-Government Act. Third Anglo-Burmese War.
1886 – Annexation of Upper Burma.
Ramakrishna Mission founded.
Delimitation of Afghan northern boundary.
1888–University set up at Allahabad.
1888 – Establishment of “United Indian Patriotic Association” by colonel Beck.
1888-1894 – Lord Landsdowne, Viceroy.
1889 – Second visit of the Prince of Wales.
1891 – Factory Act, Age of Consent Act. Manipur Rebellion.
1892 – Indian Councils Act introduces the principle of election.
1893 – Durand’s mission to Kabul.
Mrs. Besant arrives in India.
1894-1899 – Lord Elgin II, Viceroy.
1895 – Shivaji Festival started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
1897 – Frontier Risings. Plague at Bombay. Indian Education Service set up.
1897 – Tilak Sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.
1898 – Ramakrishna Math and Mission founded at Belur by Swami Vivekananda.
1899-1905 – Lord Curzon, Viceroy.
1900 – Famine Commission, Land Alienation Act, North-West Frontier Province created.
1902 – Gurukul Kangri started at Haridwar.
1904 – Act passed empowering the Universities to appoint professors and lecturers. Cooperative Societies Act. Archaeological Department established by Curzon. The Youghsband Expedition to Tibet.
1905 – First Partition of Bengal.
Morley, Secretary of State for India.
1905-1910 – Lord Minto II, Viceroy.
1906 – Muslim League formed at Dhacca (Dhaka). Congress declaration regarding ‘Swaraj’.
1907 – Surat Congress, Moderateextremist clash. The Anglo-Russian Convention. Mrs. Annie Besant succeeds Col. Olcott as President of Theosophical Society.
1908 – Newspapers Act. Tilak convicted of sedition (July 22).
1908 – khudiram Bose sentenced to death.
1908 – Imprisonment to Gandhi
(First time) 1909 – Morley-Minto Reforms. Appointment of S.P. Sinha to the Governor-General’s Council. Indian Councils Act passed (May 21). Madan Lal Dhingra shoots dead Curzon Whyllie in London
1909 – Gandhi writes book “Hind Swaraj”
1910-1916–Lord Hardinge II, Viceroy.
1910 – Death of Edward III and accession of George V.
1911 – Delhi Durbar. Partition of Begal modified. Census of India.
Transfer of Capital to Delhi announced.
1912 – Removal of the Imperial Capital of Delhi. Province of Delhi created by a proclamation, Attempt of Lord Hardinge’s life.
1913 – Education Resolution of the Government of India. Nobel Prize for Rabindranath Tagore.
1913 – Formation of “Gadar Party” in San Francisco.
1914-1918 – First World War.
1914 – Tilak released from Mandale Prison.
1915 – Gandhi arrives in India (January). Defence of India Act. Death of Gokhale (February 19). Mrs. Besant announces the formation of the Home Rule League (September 25).
1916– Sadler Commission. Lucknow Pact of Indian National Congress and All-India Muslim League.
Foundation of Women’s University at Poona. Banaras Hindu University established at Varanasi.
1916 – Formation of Home Rule League by Tilak and Mrs. Besant.
1916-1921–Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy.
1917 – British declaration on Indian self-government. Montague becomes Secretary of State, visits India. Announcement of granting of responsible government.
Gandhi tried for Champaran Satyagraha (April 18). Mrs.
Besant interned by Madras Government
1918 – Indians made eligible for King’s Commission, Rowlatt (Sedition) Committee submits its report.
1919 – Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.
Rowlatt Act passed. Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar (April 13). Third Afghan
War. Royal Proclamation. Government of India Act, 1919 passed.
1920 – Khilafat Movement and Non- Cooperation Movement. Lord Sinha, Governor of Bihar and Orissa. Mahatma Gandhi Leads the Congress. All India Trade Union Congress founded. Aligarh Muslim University established.
1921 – Chamber of Princes inaugurated.
Moplah Rebellion. Prince of Wales visits India. Census of India.
1921-1926 – Lord Reading, Viceroy.
1921 – Harappa excavations begin.
1922 – Resignation of Montague.
Mohenjodaro excavations begin.
Chauri Chaura incident.
Visvabharati University started by Rabindranath Tagore.
1923 – Swarajists in India Councils.
Certification of Salt Tax. Tariff Board set up. Question of Indianising the command of certain regiments.
1923 – Foundation of Indian Party by madan Mohan Malviya.
1924 – Kanpur Conspiracy Case.
1924 – Gandhi became president of Congress session at Belgao
(Belgaum) 1925 – All-India Depressed Class Association.
Cotton excise abolished.
Reforms. Enquiry Report. Death of Chittaranjan Das (C.R.) Sikh Gurdwaras Act passed to enable Sikhs to take over control of Gurdwaras from Mahants.
Vithalbhai J. Patel elected at the first Indian President of the Legislative Assembly.
1926 – Trade Union Act passed.
Swami Shraddhanand Assassinated
1926-1931 – Lord Irwin, Viceroy.
1927 – Indian Navy Act. Appointment of Simon Commission.
1927 – Foundation of All India Woman Conference.
1928 – Simon Commission comes to India. All Parties’ Conference set
up. Nehru Report. Royal Commission on Agriculture appointed.
1928 – Foundation of Hindustan Socialist Republic Association (HSRA) 1929– Bhagat Singh and Batukeswar Dutt drop bombs in the Legislative Assembly (April 8). Establishment of the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research. Meerut Conspiracy case trial begins.
1929 – Lahore session of Congress presided by Pt. JL Nehru, Passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence) to be the congress objective.
1930-1932 – Boycott of the Simon Commission. Civil Disobedience Movement.
1930 – Sharda Act Passed.
1930 – Gandhijis Dandi March, Rebellion in Burma. Round Table Conference (First Session). January 26, Independence Pledge.
1931 – Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed.
Census of India. Round Table Conference (Second Session). Publication of the Royal Labour Commission’s Report.
1931 – Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged till death on March 23 at Lahore Jail.
1931-1936 – Lord Willingdon, Viceroy.
1932 – Second Civil Disobedience Movement. Round Table Conference
(Third Session), Communal Award announced. Poona Pact signed. Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun set up.
1934 – Civil Disobedience Movement called off. Bihar Earthquake
1934 – Foundation of congress socialist party in Patna, Foundation of Royal Indian Navy.
1935 – Indo-British Agreement signed. Government of India Act, 1935 passed by British Parliament
1936 – Death of King George V
(January 21). Accession and abdication of Edward VIII. Accession of George VI.
1936-1944 – Lord Linlithgow, Viceroy.
1937 – Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy
(April 1). Congress Ministries formed in seven out of eleven Provinces. In NWFP the pro-Congress Red Shirt Party of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan wins majority.
1938 – V.D. Savarkar elected President of the Hindu Mahasabha.
Death of Sarat Chandra Chatterjee
(born 1876) and of Sir Muhammad Iqbal (born 1877). Subhash Chandra Bose elected President of the Indian National Congress.
1939 – Second world war begins.
Subhash Chandra Bose elected president of Congress again but resigned latter.
1940 – Proposal of separate Pakistan first passed in Lahore session by the Muslim League.
1940 – Individual Satyagraha started. Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi.
1941 – Subhash Chandra Bose escaped to Berlin from Calcutta.
1942 – Quit India Movement started
(8 August, 1942).
1943 – Subhash Chandra Bose took the charge of Azad Hind Fauj in Singapore and set up Indian Provisional Government.
1944-1947 – Lord Wavell, Viceroy.
1944 – Gandhi-Jinnah talks opened in Bombay on Rajagopalachari’s proposals for solution of constitution deadlock (September 9). Talks break down on Pakistan issue
(September 27). INA reaches Indian soil.
1945 – Labour Government in Britain.
Lord Wavell’s broadcast announcing British Government’s determination to go ahead with the task of fitting India for self-government
(September 19). End of Second World War. Germany surrenders
(May). Japan surrenders
(June) INA Surrenders to the British
(May), Congress leaders released
(June). First trial of INA men (November 5).
1945 – Elections to the Central Legislative Assembly held (December).
1946 – Mutiny of the Indian Naval ratings in Bombay (February 18).
Violence in Bengal. Announcement of special Mission of Cabinet Ministers of India (February 19). Cabinet Mission’s plans announced
(June 16). Muslim League decides to participate in Interim Government.
Congress announces acceptance of the longterm part of May 16 plan, but refuses invitation to participate in Interim. Government
(June 25). Jawaharlal Nehru takes over Presidentship of the Congress
(July 6). Muslim League withdraws its acceptance and decides on a policy of direct action
(July 29). This leads to outbreak of mob violence in Calcutta (August 16). Interim Government formed (September 2). Muslim League members sworn in (October 26). Constituent Assembly’s first meeting (December 9).
1947-1948 – Lord Mountbatten, Viceroy.
1947 – British Government’s historic announcement of transfer of power to “responsible hands”, not later than 1948 (February 20). Announcement of Lord Mountbatten’s plan for Partition of India (June 3). Indian Independence Act passed (July). Creation of free India and Pakistan
(August 14-15, 1947).
INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
➤ 14-15 August 1947 : Appointment of Lord Mountbatten as Governor of Dominion of India.
➤ August 15 : Formation of the first Cabinet of Independent India. It had following members :
1. J.L. Nehru : P.M. and Minister for External and Commonwealth Relations and Scientific Research
2. Sardar Vallabhabhai Patel : Home, Information and Broadcasting and States
3. Dr. Rajendra Prasad : Food and Agriculture
4. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad : Education
5. Dr. John Mathai : Railway and Transport
6. Sardar Baldev Singh : Defence
7. Rafi Ahmed Kidwai : Communications
8. Raj Kumari Amrita Kaur : Health
9. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar : Law
10. R. K. Shanmukham Chetty : Finance
11. Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee :
Industries and Supplies
12. N.V. Gadgil : Works, Mines and Power
➤ August 15 : India wins freedom.
Jawaharlal Nehru is sworn–in as first Prime Minister.
➤ August 23 : Vallabhbhai Patel is appointed Deputy Prime Minister.
➤ August 29 : Pakistan tribesmen invade India under the banner of Azad Kashmir Forces.
➤ October 25 : Maharaj Hari Singh of Kashmir appeals for help to India.
➤ October 27 : Kashmir Maharaja signs the Instrument of Accession to India.
➤ November 17 : G.V. Mavalankar elected Speaker of Indian Sovereign Dominion Parliament (On November 17).
➤ December 12 : Financial agreement between India and Pakistan was announced in Indian Parliament by Sardar Patel.
➤ January 1 : India communicated to the United Nations the possibility of sending troops against Pakistan.
➤ January 13 : Mahatma Gandhi went on fast in New Delhi. It was his last fast.
➤ January 20 : Security–Council divided to set up a three–member UN Commission for investigation and mediation in the Kashmir dispute (January 20).
➤ January 30 : Mahatma Gandhi was shot dead by Nathuram Vinayak Godse at 5.10 P.M.
while he has going for his daily evening prayer meeting in the Birla House, New Delhi.
➤ June 21 : C. Rajagapalachari becomes the first and only Indian Governor–General of India.
➤ July 7 : Damodar Valley Corporation, India’s first public corporation, formed.
➤ September 13 : Indian troops annex Hyderabad to Indian territory.
➤ November 9 : Junagarh State annexed to India.
➤ January 15 : Lt. Gen. K.M.
Cariappa becomes the first Indian C-in-C.
➤ February 1 : Press Trust of India set up.
➤ March 2 : Death of Sarojini Naidu.
➤ March 30 : Rajasthan State comes into being.
➤ May 19 : India decides to remain within the Commonwealth of Nations.
➤ August 19 : Bhubaneswar is declared capital of Orissa.
➤ September 9 : Hindi is declared National Language of India.
➤ September 17 : Dravida Munnetra Kazhakam formed by
C.N. Annadurai in Tamil Nadu.
➤ November 26 : Constitution of India adopted by the Constituent Assembly.
➤ October 6 : Nehru laid the foundation stone of the National Defence Academy at Khadakavasla.
The NDA was opened on January 16, 1955.
➤ The Banking Regulation Act, 1949 was passed. It governs the regulation of all banks in India.
➤ November 30 : Government of India issued a communique, on India’s decision to establish diplomatic relations with the new Government of China.
➤ January 1 : India was elected a member of the UN Security– Council for a period of 2 years.
➤ January 24 : Rajendra Prasad was elected the first President of India.
➤ January 26 : Constitution of India came into force and India proclaimed as Sovereign Democratic Republic.
➤ January 26 : Dr. Rajendra Prasad took the oath as the first President of Indian Republic.
➤ January 28 : Supreme Court of India inaugurated.
➤ October 7 : Missionaries of Charity founded by Mother Teresa.
➤ December 5 : Death of Sri Aurobindo.
➤ December 15 : Death of Vallabhbhai Patel, the Deputy PM; Planning Commission set up.
➤ February 1 : Enumeration work of the first Census of Independent India begins.
➤ March 4 : The first Asian Games in New Delhi.
➤ July 9 : The first Five–Year Plan published by Planning Commission.
➤ August 18 : The first Indian Institute of Technology opened in Kharagpur.
➤ December 5 : Abanindranth Tagore, famous Indian painter and sculptor passed away in Calcutta.
➤ December 16 : Salar Jung Museum opened at Hyderabad by Nehru.
➤ Sindri fertilizer factory in Bihar
(now in Jharkhand) was inaugurated by Nehru. It is the largest of its kind in Asia and one of the largest in the world.
➤ Indian National Congress party secures absolute majority in the first Lok Sabha in General Elections.
➤ Dr. Rajendra Prasad was reelected President of India after the first Presidential election held under the Indian Constitution.
➤ May 12 : The first Session of India’s new Parliament opened in New Delhi.
➤ May 15 : G.V. Mavalankar was elected first Speaker of Lok Sabha.
➤ Lt. Gen. Rajendra Sinha nominated to succeed General K.M.
Cariappa as Commander-in-Chief of Indian Army.
➤ The first Indo-Soviet trade agreement signed.
➤ Potti Sriramula, who fasted for 58 days for the creation of Andhra Pradesh, died.
➤ January 29 : Sangeet Natak Akademi formed.
➤ February 2 : Constitution of All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.
➤ May 29 : Conquest of Mount Everest by Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary.
➤ August 1 : Indian Airlines and Air India Corporation formed.
➤ October 1 : Andhra Pradesh becomes a separate State.
➤ October 14 : Death Duty is effective.
➤ January 1 : The Prime Minister laid the foundation stone of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
➤ April 29 : Sino-India agreement on Tibet was signed. The Colombo Conference of Asian Prime Ministers held.
➤ Government of India constituted a National Film Board and decided to establish a Film Production Bureau and a Film Institute.
➤ Mr. Chou En-lai, the Chinese Prime Minister arrived in New Delhi, for talks with Nehru.
➤ India and China outlined Five Principles (Panchsheel) for the regulation of relations between the nations.
➤ Inauguration of Bhakhara Nangal Canals by Nehru. India accepted the Chairmanship of the three supervisory commissions for Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
➤ Separate department of Atomic Energy under the direct charge of the P.M. was created.
➤ The P.M. announced a National Health Scheme for the entire country.
➤ October 19 : J.L. Nehru went to China.
➤ January 16 : official opening of the National Defence Academy at Khadakvasla.
➤ June 1 : Untouchability (offence) Act comes into force.
➤ July 1 : Imperial Bank of India is nationalised and renamed State Bank of India.
➤ July 15 : Bharat Ratna was conferred upon J.L. Nehru.
➤ August 31 : the States Reorganisation Bill got Presidential assent.
➤ October 2 : Inauguration of Integral Coach Factory at Perambur.
➤ November 18 : Soviet leaders Bulgarin and Khrushchev visited India.
➤ February 19 : Acharya Narendra Dev died.
➤ April 29 : Government approved the draft of Second Five–Year Plan.
➤ June 18 : Hindu Succession Act passed.
➤ August 4 : Apsara, India’s first nuclear research reactor, is commissioned.
➤ September 1 : Life Insurance Corporation inaugurated.
➤ September 1 : Oil and Natural Gas Commission established.
➤ November 1 : Reorganisation of Indian States on linguistic basis; Madhya Pradesh created. Delhi is made a Union Territory. So are Andaman and Nicobar Islands; and Lakshadweep. Kerala State is formed merging Travancore, Cochin and Malabar.
➤ November 28 : Chinese PM Chou En-lai comes to India.
➤ December 6 : Death of Dr. B.R.
➤ January 20 : ‘Apsara’ inaugurated.
➤ February 24 : Second General Election began.
➤ March 22 : National Calendar adopted.
➤ April 1 : Naya Paisa, introduced.
➤ April 5 : The first Communist Ministry installed in Kerala-the first in Asia.
➤ August 10 : National Book Trust set up.
➤ November 14 : Nehru’s birthday is made Childrens Day (Bal Divas).
➤ February 22 : Death of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
➤ September 17 : Mihir Sen becomes the first Indian to cross the English Channel.
➤ October 1 : India signed the Brussels Convention of the International Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic works, known as the Berne Convention.
➤ October 1 : Metric system (decimal) of weights introduced.
➤ March 17 : Dalai Lama, fleeing Tibet, reaches India.
➤ June 4 : Formation of Swatantra Party by C. Rajagopalachari.
➤ September 15 : New Delhi has a Television Centre as a UNESCOaided programme.
➤ September 29 : Arati Saha swims the English Channel.
➤ December 12 : US President Dwight D. Eisenhower visits India.
➤ May 1 : The States of Maharashtra and Gujarat are formed from former Bombay State.
➤ September 8 : Death of Feroz Gandhi, M.P. and husband of Indira Gandhi.
➤ November 26 : Kanpur-Lucknow STD introduced, the first in India.
➤ December 19 : Indus Water Treaty with Pakistan signed in Karachi.
➤ January 21 : British Queen Elizabeth II arrived.
➤ March 7 : G. B. Pant died.
➤ March 4 : INS Vikrant Commissioned.
➤ April 26 : Maharaja Hari Singh died.
➤ December 18 : Goa, Daman, Diu and Nagar Haveli liberated from Portuguese.
➤ May 13 : Dr. S. Radhakrishnan became the President.
➤ September 8 : Chinese incursion into Indian Territory.
➤ 26 October : a State of Emergency declared.
➤ November 21 : China declared unilateral cease-fire.
➤ February 28 : Dr. Rajendra Prasad passed away.
➤ March 11 : Chittaranjan locomotive works commissioned at Varanasi.
➤ December 1 : Nagaland came into existence.
➤ 27 May : Jawaharlal Nehru passed away in Delhi.
➤ 27 May 27 : Gulzarilal Nanda sworn–in as interim Prime Minister.
➤ June 9 : Lal Bahadur Shastri sworn–in as Prime Minister.
➤ April 20 : Indo-Pak conflict : Fighting in the Rann of Kutch between troops.
➤ May 20 : Conquest of Everest by the first Indian team headed by Commander M.S. Kohli; Nawang Gombu at the summit second time.
➤ September 1 : Pak army invades Chhamb and Dewa region.
➤ September 23 : Cease-fire signed between India and Pakistan.
➤ December 2 : Border Security Force formed.
➤ January 10 : India and Pakistan signed Tashkent Agreement.
➤ January 11 : Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri dies at Tashkent.
➤ January 23 : Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Minister.
➤ June 6 : Nuclear Scientist Homi Bhabha died in an air crash.
➤ November 17 : Rita Faria became Miss World.
➤ November 1 : Punjab divided into Punjab and Haryana.