➤ India has been adorned, with hundreds of large and small rivers, by the nature.
➤ The threefold physiographic division has an important bearing on the drainage of Indian Subcontinent.
➤ On the basis of their origin the river system of India can be classified into two categories:-
(i) The Himalayan rivers
(ii) The Peninsular rivers.
The Himalayan River System
➤ It is constituted by the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
➤ These rivers originate from the lofty Himalayan ranges and are named as the Himalayan rivers.
➤ These rivers have large basins and catchment areas.
➤ The total basin area of the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra is 11.78, 8.61 and 5.8 lakh square kilometres respectively.
➤ The Himalayan rivers flow through deep I-shaped valleys called gorges. These gorges have been carved out by down cutting carried on side by side with the uplift of the Himalayas. These are examples of antecedent drainage.
➤ The Himalayan rivers are perennial in nature, i.e., the water flows throughout the year in these rivers.
➤ These rivers receive water both from the monsoons and snowmelt.
The perennial nature of these rivers makes them useful for irrigation.
➤ These rivers flow across the young fold mountains and are still in a youthful stage.
➤ The upper reaches of the Himalayan rivers are highly tortuous.
When they enter the plains, there is a sudden reduction in the speed of flow of water. Under these circumstances these rivers form meanders and often shift their beds.
➤ The Himalayan rivers form big deltas at their mouths. The Ganga- Brahmaputra delta is the largest in the world.
The Peninsular River System
➤ The Peninsular rivers have shorter and shallower courses as compared to their Himalayan Counterparts.
➤ A large number of the Peninsular rivers are seasonal, as their flow is dependent on rainfall.
➤ The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one.
➤ Most of the major rivers of the Peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery flow Eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
➤ The Narmada and the Tapi are the only long rivers, which flow west and make estuaries rather than making a delta because of their swift flow and steep slopes.
➤ The drainage basins of the Peninsular rivers are comparatively smaller in size.
➤ Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of water along coastlines where fresh water and salt water meet and mix.
River System of India
THE INDUS RIVER SYSTEM:
SOURCE: The Indus River rises in Tibet near Manas Sarovar Lake. Flowing westwards, it enters India in Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.
COURSE: It flows through the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh andPunjab in India then enters Pakistan and flowing further south reaches the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.
TRIBUTARIES: Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok, and Hunza are the tributaries in India. Ravi, Chenab, Sutlej, Jhelum, and Beas are the tributaries in Pakistan.
CHARACTERISTICS: The slope is very gentle and with 2900 km length, Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the world.
THE GANGES RIVER SYSTEM:
SOURCE:The Ganges River originates in Gangotri glacier as Bhagirathi and joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag, It turns into Ganga.
COURSE: The Ganga River enters plains in Haridwar and from there it flows eastwards enlarged by the tributaries joining from left and right. The river divides in West Bengal and the distributary Hooghly flows southward to reach the Bay of Bengal. The main river enters into Bangladesh and joins with Brahmaputra river.It covers the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
TRIBUTARIES: Yamuna River joins Ganga at Allahabad as a right bank tributary. Ghagra, Gandak and Kosi Rivers arising from Nepal Himalayas join as left bank tributaries. Chambal, Betwa and Son rivers from central Highlands join as right bank tributaries. It covers the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
CHARACTERISTICS: The length is 2500 km and the slope is almost steep in the Himalayas and gentle in the plains. With more number of tributaries, the basin of the river is very huge.
BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER SYSTEM:
SOURCE: The Brahmaputra River originates in Tibet to the east of Manas Sarovar Lake.
COURSE: The Brahmaputra River mostly flow outside India from the point of its origin and in the middle course, enters Arunachal Pradesh and later into Assam. Then, it flows eastwards into Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra River is called as River Padma.
TRIBUTARIES: In Arunachal Pradesh Dibang, Lohit and Kenula Rivers are its tributaries.
CHARACTERISTICS:The length of the river is 2900 km and is one of the longest rivers of the world.
These rivers are confined to the peninsular region and are dependent on rainfall for water. Unlike Himalayan Rivers, these rivers are shorter with small basins. NARMADA, TAPI, GODAVARI, KRISHNA, CAUVERY and MAHANADI are the main rivers.
It originates in Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh and flows towards the west to join the Arabian Sea. It covers the states of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
It rises in Madhya Pradesh and covering the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra join the Arabian Sea.
It is known as DAKSHIN GANGA due to its area covered (over 1500 km). The Godavari River originates in Nasik in Maharashtra and covers the states of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh. Flowing eastwards, it joins in the Bay of Bengal.
It rises near MAHABALESHWAR in Maharashtra and covering an area of 1300 km, it flows through Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh and reaches the Bay of Bengal.
Cauvery River originates in the Western Ghats and covering an area of 760 km, it reaches the Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu. The states covered are Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Besides the above other rivers include Mahi, Sabarmati, Subarna Rekha and so on.
List of the Projects, State, Location and their Purpose
|S. No.||Name of the Project||Location||State||Purpose|
|1||Nagarjuna Sagar multi-purpose Project||River Krishna||Andhra Pradesh||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|2||Pochampad Project||River Godavari||Andhra Pradesh||Irrigation|
|3||Lower Sileru Project||River Sileru (Godavari)||Andhra Pradesh||Hydroelectricity|
|4||Kakrapar Project||River Tapi||Gujarat||Irrigation|
|5||Kothagudem Project||Singareni Coalfields||Andhra Pradesh||Thermal power|
|6||Kosi Project||River Kosi||Bihar||Flood Control, Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|7||Gandak Project||River Gandak||Uttar Pradesh. Bihar||Irrigation, Hydroetectricity|
|8||Dhuvaran Power Station||Kheda District||Gujarat||Thermal Power|
|9||Sabarigiri (Pamba Kakki) Project||River Pamba-Kakki||Kerala||Hydroelectricity|
|10||Idukki Project||Rivers Periyar, Cheruthoni, Idukki||Kerala||Hydroelectricity|
|11||Chambal Project||River Chambal||Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|12||Tawa Project||River Tawa (Narmada)||Madhya Pradesh||Irrigation|
|13||Korba Project||Near Korba Coalfields||Chhattisgarh||Thermal Power|
|14||Satpura Power Station||Patharkada Coalfields||Madhya Pradesh||Thermal Power|
|15||Koyna Project||River Koyna||Maharashtra||Hydroelectricity|
|16||Nagpur Power Station||Koradi, near Nagpur city||Maharashtra||Thermal Power|
|17||Tungabhadra Multi-purpose Project||River Tungabhadra||Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|18||Upper Krishna Project||River Krishna||Karnataka||Irrigation|
|19||Sharavathi Project||River Sharavathi, Near Jog Falls||Karnataka||Hydroelectricity|
|20||Hirakund multi-purpose Project||River Mahanadi||Odisha||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|21||Mahanadi Delta Project||River Mahanadi||Odisha||Irrigation|
|22||Bhakra Nangal Multi-purpose Project||River Sutlej||Himachal Pradesh, Punjab. Haryana||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|23||Rajasthan Canal Project||River Sutlej in Punjab||Rajasthan, Headworks in Punjab||Irrigation|
|24||Kundah Project||River Kundah||Tamil Nadu||Hydroelectricity|
|25||Ramganga Multipurpose Project||Chuisot Stream near Kalagarh||Uttarakhand||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|26||Matatila Multipurpose Project||River Betwa||Uttar Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|27||Rihand Scheme||River Rihand||Uttar Pradesh||Hydroelectricity|
|28||Damodar Valley Project||River Damodar||Jharkhand, Shared with West Bengal||Flood Control, Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|29||Ukai Project||River Tapi||Gujarat||Irrigation|
|30||Mahi Project||River Mahi||Gujarat||Irrigation|
|31||Ghataprabha Project||River Ghataprabha||Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka||Irrigation|
|32||Bhima Project||River Bhima||Maharashtra||Irrigation|
|33||Sardar Sarovar Project||River Narmada||Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh||Irrigation and Hydroelectricity|
|34||Bansagar Project||River Son||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh||Irrigation|
|35||Dul Hasti Project||River Chenab||Jammu and Kashmir||Hydroelectricity|
|36||Salal Project||River Chenab||Jammu and Kashmir||Hydroelectricity|
|37||Their Dam Project||River Ravi||Punjab||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|38||Malaprabha Project||River Malaprabha||Karnataka||Irrigation|
|39||Jayakwadi Project||River Godavari||Maharashtra||Irrigation|
|40||Beas Project||River Beas||Punjab and Haryana||Hydroelectricity|
|41||Sharda Sahayak||River Ghaghra||Uttar Pradesh||Irrigation|
|42||Mayurakshi Project||River Mayurkhsi||West Bengal||Irrigation, Hydroelectricity|
|43||Rana Pratap Sagar project||River Chambal||Rajasthan||Hydroelectricity|
|44||Mettur Project||River Cauvery||Tamil Nadu||Hydroelectricity|
|45||Pallivasal Project||River Munnar Abuja||Kerala||Hydroelectricity|
|46||Papanasam Project||River Thamirabarani||Tamil Nadu||Hydroelectricity|
|47||Loktak Project||Lake Loktak||Manipur||Hydroelectricity|
|48||Tehri Project||River Bhagirathi (Ganga)||Uttarakhand||Hydroelectricity|
|49||Farakka Project||Ganga||West Bengal||Irrigation|
|50||Daman Ganga||River Daman Ganga||Gujarat||Irrigation and River Link|
|51||Gima Project||River Gima (Tributary of Tapi)||Maharashtra||Irrigation and River Link|
|52||Pamba Project||River Pamba||Kerala||River Conservation and Irrigation|
|54||Omkareshwar||River Narmada||Madhya Pradesh||Hydropower and Irrigation|
Rivers and Disputing States
|Krishna||Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka|
|Godavari||Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka|
|Cauvery||Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry|
|Narmada||Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra|
|Mahadayi/mandovi||Goa and Karnataka|
|Vansadhara||Andhra Pradesh and Odisha|
|Ravi and Beas||Punjab and Haryana|
|Mullaperiyar||Kerala and Tamil Nadu|
Important Falls in India
|Water Fall||Height in Meters||River||Location|
|Thalaiyar falls||297||Majjalar||Tamil Nadu|
Lakes of India
|Wular Lake Jammu & Kashmir||Bhim Tal Uttarakhand|
|Lonar Maharashtra||Sambhar Rajasthan|
|Kolleru Andhra Pradesh||Sukhna Chandigarh|
|Loktak Manipur||Parashuram Kund Arunachal Pradesh|
|Dal Lake Jammu & Kashmir||Pongong Tso Jammu & Kashmir|
|Naini Tal Uttarakhand||Tso Morari Jammu & Kashmir|
|Salt Lake Kolkata||Nakki Lake Rajasthan|
|Chilka Odisha||Pushkar Lake Rajasthan|
|Pulicut Andhra Pradesh||Udaipur Lake Rajasthan|
|Vembanad Kayal Kerala||Upper & Lower Lake Bhopal, MP|
|Ashtamudi Kerala||Nizam Sagar Hyderabad|
Main Rivers and their Tributaries
|Rivers||Left Bank Tributaries||Right Bank Tributaries|
|Indus||Zaskar, Panjnad, Nubra||Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul|
|Mahanadi||Ib, Mand, Hasdo, Sheonath||Ong, Jonk, Tel|
|Godavari||Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, indravati and Sabari||Manjira|
|Krishna||Bhima, Doni, Musi, Muneru||Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Tungabhadra|
|Cauvery||Herangi, Hemavati, Lokpavani, Srimsha and Arkavati||Laksmantirtha, Kabani, Suvarnavati, Bhavani and Amaravati|
|Narmada||Burhner, Banjar, Sher, Shakkar, Towa and Kundi||Hiran, Barna, Kolar|
|Tapi||Sipra, Kapra, Khursi, Mona, Girna, Bori, Amaravati||Purna, Betul, Patki, Suki, More, Arunavati, Gomai|
|Ganga||Gomati, Ghanghara, Gandak, Burhi Gandak and Kosi||Yamuna, Son, Punpun|
|Yamuna||Tons||Chambal, Sind, Betwa, ken|
Difference between the Himalayan & the Peninsular River
|S. No.||Aspects||Himalayan River||Peninsular River|
|1||Place of Origin||Himalayan Mountain covered with glaciers||Peninsular Plateau & Central highland|
|3||Type of Drainage||Antecedent & consequent leading to dendritic pattern in plains||Super imposed, rejuvenated resulting in trellis, radial & rectangular patterns|
|4||Basins||Very large basins||Relatively smaller basin|
|5||Depth & Valleys||Rivers form deep vallays & gorges in their source areas||River valleys are often shallow|
|6||Flow of water||Cause much erosion & have great flow of water||Create much less erosion & also have weaken flow of water.|
|7||Irrigation||Irrigate the northern plains||Irrigate the Deccan Plateau.|
|8||Stage||Young & active||Old rivers with graded profile.|
Longest Rivers Flowing in India
|River Length (km)||River Length (km)|
|Ganga 2510 Godavari 1465 Sutlej 1440||Krishna 1400 Yamuna 1376 Narmada 1289|