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Chapter 03. Medieval India (History Notes)

MEDIEVAL INDIA

MUSLIM INVASION

THE GHAZNAVIS
➤ Alpatgin established an independent kingdom with its capital at Ghazni.
➤ Mahmud ascended the throne
(998-1030) at Ghazni.
➤ Firdausi was the poet laureate at the court of Mahmud.
➤ Firdausi wrote ‘Shah Namah’.
➤ Mahmud claimed descent from Iranian legendary king Afrasiyab.
➤ Mahmud is said to have made 17 raids into India.
➤ The initial raids were directed agaisnt the Hindustani rulers.
➤ In 1001 Jayapala, the Hindushahi, ruler was defeated.
➤ Jaypala’s son Anandpal succeeded him to the throne.
➤ The Battle of Waihind(1008- 1009) was fought between Mahmud and Ananda.
➤ After the battle, Punjab passed into the hands of Ghaznavis.
➤ The subsequent raids of Mahmud into India were aimed at plundering the rich temples and cities.
➤ Mahmud invaded Kannauj in 1018 and Somnath in 1025 A.D.
➤ Mahmud died at Ghazni in 1030 A.D.
MAHMUD GHAZNI’S 17 ATTACKS
1. 1000-1001 (against Jaipal of Peshawar) Sindh
2. 1001 (against Anandpal of Peshawar) Sindh
3. 1002-1004 Multan
4. 1010-1011 Daud of Multan
5. 1012-1013 Thaneswar (The Mecca of Hindus)
6. 10-15-1016 Kashmir valley (unsuccessful)
7. 1016-1018 Kannauj, Mathura
8. 1020-1021 Kalinjar
9. 1025-1026 Somnath
THE TURKISH CONQUEST
➤ The Ghurid empire rose into prominence in North-West Afghanistan.
➤ The Ghurids had started as vassals of Ghazni, but had soon thrown off its yoke.
➤ The power of the Ghurids increased under Sultan Alauddin who earned the title of ‘jahan-soz’ (World burner).
➤ In 1173, Shahabuddin Muhammad (Muhammad Ghori) ascended the throne at Ghazni.
➤ By 1190, Muhammad Ghori had conquered Peshawar, Lahore and Sialkot.
➤ In India Chauhans had captured Delhi from the Tomars.
➤ Conflict between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan started with rival claims for Tabarhinda (Bhatinda)
➤ The First Battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 A.D.
➤ In this battle the Ghori forces were completely routed.
Muhammad Ghori’s life was saved by a young Khalji horseman.
➤ The Second battle of Tarain was fought in 1192 A.D.
➤ This battle is regarded as one of the turning points in Indian History.
➤ Prithviraj Chauhan escaped but was captured near Saraswati.
➤ After Tarain Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghazni.
➤ Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti came with Muhammad Ghori from Afghanistan.
➤ He left the affairs in India in the hands of his trusted slave Qutubuddin Aibak.
➤ In 1194 A.D. Muhammad Ghori returned to India.
➤ The battle of Chandawar (1194 A.D.) was fought between Muhammad Ghori and Jaichandra.
➤ Jaichandra was defeated in the battle of Chandawar.
➤ The battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundations of Turkish in India.

DELHI SULTANATE

The Sultanate of Delhi had five ruling dynasties –
1. The Ilbari — 1206-1290 AD.
2. The Khalji — 1290-1320 AD.
3. The Tughluq— 1320-1413 AD.
4. The Saiyid — 1414 – 1451 AD.
5. The Lodhis — 1451 – 1526 AD.
1. The Ilbari (The Slave Dynasty)
Qutbuddin AIbak (1206-1210)
(First Turk ruler of Delhi Founder of Turk kingdom in India Capital – Lahore)
Aramshah (1210-1211)
Iltutmish (1210/11-1236)
(Real Founder of Delhi Sultanate Capital -Delhi)
Razia (1236-40)
Nasiruddin Mohmood(1246-65)
Balban(1265-87)
Ruknuddin Firoz 1236
Muizuddin Bahram(1240-42)
Kaiqubad (1286-90)
Allauddin Masood Shah (1242-46)
QUTUBUDDIN AIBAK (1206-1210)
➤ He was a Turk of the Aibak tribe.
➤ He was crowned at Lahore later the death of Muhammad Ghori.
➤ He did not make any fresh conquests and ruled from Lahore.
➤ He died in 1210 while playing chaugan (horse polo)
➤ He was famous for his generosity and earned sobriquet of Lak- Baksha (giver of Lakhs)
➤ He married Yaldauz’s daughter
➤ He got his sister married to Qubacha.
➤ He got his daughter married to Iltutmish.
➤ He laid the foundation of Qutab Minar in Delhi after the name of the famous sufi saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki which was completed by Iltutmish.
➤ He patronized ‘Hasan Nizami’ who wrote first official history of Delhi sultanate “Taj-ul-Masi”.
➤ He was succeeded by his inexperiened and incapable son Aram Shah who ruled at Lahore for about eight months before being defeated and deposed by his son-in-law-Iltutmish.
➤ The Turks only introduced polo in India.
➤ Aibak constructed the first mosque in India named Quwwatul- Islam in Delhi and Adhye Din ka Jhopara in Ajmer, Rajasthan.
VICTORY OF AIBAK
1194 – Ajmer
1197 – Anhilvad, Badaun, Varanasi, Chandravar
1202-03 – Bundelkhand, Kalinjar, Mahoba, Khajuraho.
ILTUTMISH
➤ At the time of Qutubuddin’s death, he was the governor of Badaun.
➤ He made Delhi the capital of his empire.
➤ He was the real founder of Delhi Sultanate.
➤ He was the slave of Qutubuddin Aibak.
➤ He first defeated rivals Particularly Tajuddin Yalduz and Nasiruddin Qubacha who were two surviving officers of Mohd. Ghori.
➤ He prevented changiz Khan’s attack by refusing to give refuge to an enemy of Khan, Jalaludiin Manga Barani.
➤ He was skilled in diplomacy.
➤ Due to his deplomatic skill, he prevented Mongol attack.
➤ He formed ‘Turkan-i-Chahalgani or chalisa.
➤ Chalisa was a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress rebels.
➤ He divided his empire into ‘Iqtas’. It is an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distributed to his officers.
➤ He introduced the silver ‘Tanka’ and two copper ‘Jital’-basi coins of the sultanate.
➤ He introduced ‘Arabian coin’ first time.
➤ He transfered his capital to Delhi from Lahore.
➤ In 1229, he received a deed of investiture from the Abassid caliph of Baghdad. It was a formal recognition of his independent position as a sultan of the sultanate of Delhi and as a member of the world fraternity of Islamic states.
➤ He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Aibak.
RUKNUDDIN FIROZ
➤ After the death of Iltutmish, the Turkish nobles raised his son Ruknuddin Firoz to the throne.
➤ But Razia took help of some powerful disgruntled nobles and won over the throne of Delhi and deposed Firoz.
RAZIA : (1236-40)
➤ She was the first and last muslim woman ruler of Delhi Sultanate.
➤ She appointed an Abysinian Slave, Jamaluddin Yakut as the ‘Amir-e-Akhur’ (Superintendent of horses)
➤ Altunia, the governor of Sirhind revolted. She won over Altunia and married him however both of them were killed by bandits when they were enroute to Delhi to defeat the revolt there.
MUIZUDDIN BAHRAMSHAH (1240- 42) & MASUD SHALI (1242-46)
➤ The successors of Razia were Muzuddin Bahramshah and Alauddin Masud Shah
➤ Both fell to prey to the power struggle between powerful nobles.
NASIRUDDIN MAHMUD (1246-65)
➤ In 1246, Nasiruddin Mahmud ascended the throne but the real power was in the hands of Balban.
➤ Nasiruddin handed over all the powers to Balban.
➤ He awarded tittle ‘Ulugh Khan’ (Great Khan) to Balban.
➤ He married with Balban’s daughter.
➤ Minhaj -us-Siraj dedicated his book, ‘Tabaqati-Nasiri’ to him.
➤ He was a calligraphist.
BALBAN (1265-1287)
➤ He himself was a member of Chalisa.
➤ His objective was to restore the prestige of crown.
➤ For this he started the Iranian Practise (method) of ‘Sajda’ and ‘Paibos’ to the Sultan.
➤ He destroyed the chahalganis power.
➤ He introduced the persian Festival ‘Nauroz’ to impress nobles and people.
➤ He held darbar on Iranian model.
➤ He called himself the ‘Nasiramir-ul-momim or caliph’s right hand man.
➤ He was the first sultanate to propound the theory of kingship. According to it king is the shadow of God.
➤ To Guard himself, he got every member of Iltutmish family killed and gave a death blow to the turkish nobility (Chalisa).
➤ He employed an efficient spy system.
➤ He followed a policy of ‘blood and Iron’.
➤ To control the onslaught of the Mongols, he founded the ‘Diwan- I-Ariz’ or the military department.
➤ He strengthened forts of Bhatinda, Sunam and Sumtra as parts of his Mongol policy.
➤ He defeated Tughril Khan’s rebellian in Bengal and appointed his son Buhgra Khan as new governor of Bengal.
➤ He was a liberal patron of persian literature and showed special favour to the Port, Amir Khusro.
KAIQUBAD (1287-1290)
➤ After Balban’s death, Kaiqubad and Kaymurs became sultans.
➤ After 3 months Kaymurs the last Ilbari was killed and Jalaluddin ascended the throne.
The Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320)
Jalaluddin Firoj Shah Khalji (1290-1296)
Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah (1316-1320)
Khusrau Khan (1320)
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316)
JALAUDDIN KHALJI (1290-1296)
➤ Khalji Dynasty was founded by Jalaluddin Khalji
➤ He began to rule from Kilkhori
➤ He crushed the rebellion of Malik Chajju but later pardoned him.
➤ He rebelled the attack of Mongols under Abdullah
➤ He was assassinated by his nephew Ali Gurshasp (Aladuddin Khalji) near Kara who crowned himself the sultan.
➤ one of the most important events of Jalaluddin’s reign was the invasion of Devagiri the capital of the Yadav kingdom in the Deccan by Alauddin Khalji.
ALAUDDIN KHALJI (1290-1296)
➤ Alauddin Khalji’s real name was Aligurshasp.
➤ He was the governor of Kara.
➤ Maximum number of Mongol attacks happend during his reign.
He fought and diminished the Mongol menace
➤ He adopted the title of Sikandari- Saini
➤ Amir Khusro was given the title of Tota-i-Hind.
➤ He created the first regular standing army of Delhi Sultanate.
They were paid in cash
➤ Targhil were defeated near Siri, near Delhi.
➤ He captured Gujrat in 1297 AD, which was ruled by Rai Karan.
He sacked Dhilwara and Somnath and married Kamla Devi, The queen of Rai Karan.
➤ He also captured Malik Kafur and took him to the royal court.
➤ In 1300 AD, he captured Ranthambhor which was under Hammirdev.
➤ In 1303 AD, under Ratan Singh, Chittor was captured.
➤ Khizra Khan was made Governor of Chittor which
was renamed Khizrabad.
➤ Alauddin sent Malik Kafur to capture South India.
➤ Malik Kafur attacked Devgiri.
➤ According to Amir Khusro, Malik Kafur reached as far as Rameshwaram.
➤ Malik Kafur was given the title of ‘Malik Naib’
➤ Malik Kafur was Eunuch.
➤ Alauddin Khalji centralized his administration and introduced many reforms
➤ Barid & Munhis were appointed to strengthned the spy system.
➤ Social gathering of nobles and matrimonial alliances among them were prohibited. Wine and gambling also prohibited.
➤ He was the first sultan to collect land revenue was based on measurement and Biswa was the unit of measurement.
➤ He was also the first sultan to fix ‘land revenue in cash’.
➤ Cultivators were brought under direct control of states and middleman were deprived of powers and privileges.
➤ He appointed Diwan-i- Mustakharaj to collect arrears.
➤ ‘Ghari’ (house tax) and ‘Chari’ (Grazing tax) levied.
➤ All patwari accounts were audited.
➤ Prices of goods were fixed on the principle of Bar Award (productions cost). Wheat 7.5 Jitals per maund barley 4, rice 5.
➤ Land revenue from Khalisa village was paid in cash.
➤ Malik Qabul looked after grain market.
➤ Sarai Adl was near Badaun gate under Rais Parwana.
➤ Nayaks were grain merchants
➤ Merchants had to register themselves.
➤ Multanis is traded mainly in cloth.
➤ Dagh or branding of horse was introduced.
➤ Khams collected 4/5 th.
➤ He built Alai minar (incomplete) height twice of Qutub Minar) Ali Darwaza, Siri Fort and the second capital Mahal Hazar Satoon
(palace of thousand Pillars) and Jamat Khana mosque.
➤ Ali Darwaza was first sultanate building on scientific method.
Arc and dome were used. It is now entrance of Qutub Minar complex.
MUBARAK KHALJI (1290-1296)
➤ After the death of Alauddin, Mubarak Khalji acquired the throne.
➤ He declared himself the Khalifa and took the title “Al Wasiq Billah”.
➤ He was killed and succeeded by Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah.
➤ He was the only Hindu convert to sit in the throne of Delhi
The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq :1320-1324 AD
Muhammad Tughlaq :1324-1351 AD
Firoz Shah Tughlaq :1351-1388 AD
Mohammad Khan :1388 AD
Ghiyasuddin :1388 AD
Tughlaq Shah II Abu Baqr :1389-1390 AD
Naseeruddin :1390-1394 AD
Muhammad Humayun :1394-1395 AD
Naseeruddin Mahmud :1345-1412 AD
GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ (1320-1325)
➤ He ascended the throne after murdering Khusrau Shah.
➤ He was ruled from 1320 to 1325 AD.
➤ He belonged to the qarauna trible.
➤ He was the first sultan to use term ‘Ghazi’ with his name.
➤ During Allauddin Khalji’s reign, he was crown as Kazi Malik, governor of Dipalpur
➤ He was the first sultan to start irrigation works.
➤ His son Jauna Khan conquered Warangal.
➤ He suppressed the revolt in Bengal. It was at the victorious welcome arranged by Jauna Khan.
➤ He died due to collapse of Pavillion.
➤ He built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it capital of the empire.
MUHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ (1324-1351)
➤ He is one of the most controversial figures in sultanate history.
➤ His real name was Jauna Khan.
➤ During his reign, Delhi Sultanate reached its maximum territorial extent.
➤ He was called the ‘wisest fool’ by historian Isami.
➤ He fixed the land revenue at half the produce and not on the basis of actual produce but on arbitrary basis, this led to wide spread rebellion which was accompanied by severe famine.
➤ He instituted agricultural reforms by setting up a separate department of agriculture called Diwan-I-Amir-Kohi.
➤ He gave ‘sondhar’ and ‘Taqqavi’ loans to farmers.
➤ He died in ‘thatta’ where he had gone to quell one of the many rebellians that took place during his reigns
➤ Bahamani and Vijayanagar kingodm were formed during his reign.
➤ He was succeeded by his nephew Firoz Tuglaq.
➤ Ibn Batuta a famous traveller came to Delhi in the reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq in 1334 AD.
➤ Ibn Batuta has recorded the contemporary Indian scene in his safarnamah called Rehla.
FIROZ TUGHLAQ (1320-1325)
Works and facts about Firoz shah Tughlaq
➤ Irrigation extended massively by digging canals and wells.
➤ Gardens and orchard’s planted.
Established 1200 gardens around Delhi for grapes.
➤ As well as 23 taxes were abolished.
Only 4 taxes sanctioned by shariat were levied.
(i) Kharaj (1/10th of produce)
(ii) Zakat (Alms for poor Muslims)
(iii) Jaziya (poll tax on nonmuslims)
(iv) Khams (1/5th of the spoils of war)
➤ Jaziya was separated from land tax, earlier it was part of land tax.
➤ Jaziya was also imposed on Brahmins (earlier exempted) only women, children, disabled exempted.
➤ Sharb (irrigation tax) 1/10th of produce was imposed.
➤ Free hospitals (Darul Shafa), marriage bureau and employment bureau were set up.
➤ Officials were paid by iqta grants, very few were paid in cash.
➤ Soldiers and higher officials post became hereditary.
➤ In 1353 led campaign against Haji Illyas of Bengal but failed in siege of Ikadalamud fort.
➤ In 1358 second Bengal campaign against Sikandar Shah Ilyas who accepted Firoz’s suzerainty.
➤ Raja Gajpati of Jajnagar (Orissa) was attacked and Jagannath temple of Puri was sacked.
➤ In 1365 Nagarkot campaign was successful, 1300 Sanskrit manuscripts from Jawalamukhi temple were collected and got translated into Persian as the Dalai-i-Firoz Shahi (by Azizudin Khan).
➤ He had 180,000 slave set up Diwan-i-Bandagan (for slaves)
➤ Founded towns of Jaunpur (old name Manaich) named after Jauna Khan, Hisar Firoza, Fatehabad and Firozabad (Firoz Shah Kotla, the 5th city of Delhi).
➤ Topara and Meerut pillars of Ashoka were brought to Delhi.
➤ Diwan-i-Khairat, the chairty bureau formed.
➤ Introduced new coins Adha (1/ 2 Jital) and Bikh (1/4th Jital).
Shashgani was 6 jitals and Hastgani 8 jitals.
➤ Firoz Shahi Madarsa was built at Firozabad.
➤ Banned unislamic practices e.g., prohibiting women to pray at graves of sufi saints.
➤ He erased palace paintings.
➤ He repaired the Qutubaminar which had been struck by lightening.
➤ The chief architect of Firoz was Ghazi Shahna.
➤ He wrote Fautuhat-i-Firoz Shahi.
➤ He entertained great regard for the Caliph of Egypt and styled himself as his deputy.
➤ He revived the jagir system which had been abolished by Alauddin.
Sayyids Dynasty (1414-1451)
Khizr Khan (1414-1421)
Muhammad Shah (1434-1445)
Mubarak Khan (1421-1434)
Alam Shah (1445-1451)
➤ After Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Muhammad Khan, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah-II, Abu Baqr, Nasiruddin Muhammad, Humayun and finally Nasiruddin Mahmud ascended the throne.
➤ Taimur invaded Delhi in 1398 A.D.
➤ Nasiruddin Mahmud fled to Gujarat.
➤ Nasiruddin Mahmud died in Kaithal.
KHIZR KHAN (1320-1325)
➤ He was the founder of sayyid Dynasty.
➤ He acquired throne at Delhi by replacing its defect ruler Daulat Khan.
➤ As a reward for his service Taimur gave him the governership of Multan, Lahore and Depal.
➤ After departure of Taimur, he declared himself the viceroy of Taimur in North-western India.
➤ Later he invaded Delhi and become its master.
➤ He ruled Delhi independently for 7 years.
➤ He was very popular among the people of Delhi due to his welfare activities and good administration.
MUBARAK KHAN (1421-1434)
➤ After the death of Khizr Khan his son Mubarak Shah become the ruler of Delhi.
➤ He ruled Delhi for 13 years.
➤ He fought constantly against the Rajputs, the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Jaunpur and also the Mughals from Kabul.
➤ He fell a victim to the conspiracies by the nobles.
➤ He was beheaded by them in February 1434 AD.
MUHAMMAD SHAH (1434-1445)
➤ Muhammad Shah came to throne as he was raised by Sarver-ul- Mulk
➤ He adopted the title of ‘Shah’ and issued the coin of his name.
ALAM SHAH (1434-1445)
➤ He ruled Delhi for 6 years.
➤ He was incapable ruler.
➤ He was the last ruler of Sayyid dynasty.
➤ Sayyid dynasty’s 37 years remained troubled with external invasions & internal chaos.
Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)
Bahlol Lodhi (1451-1489)
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526)
Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517)
BAHLOL LODHI (1451-1489)
➤ Lodhis were Afgans by race.
➤ Bahlol Lodhi was the first founder of Afghan state.
➤ He deposed Shah Alam and laid the foundation of the Lodhi dynasty.
➤ He annexed the Sharqui Kingdom of Jaunpur in 1484.
➤ He was succeeded by Sikandar Sha Shal Lodhi.
➤ He adopted the title of ‘Ghazi’.
SIKANDAR LODHI (1489-1517)
➤ His real name was Nizam Khan.
➤ He was the noblest of the three Lodhi rulers.
➤ He introduced ‘Gazz-i-Sikandri’, new yard for land measurment.
➤ He conqured south Bihar and concluded a treaty of friendship with Alauddin Hussain Shah, ruler of Bengal.
➤ In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
➤ He wrote verses in persian under pen name of ‘Gulrukhi.’
➤ In 1506, he repaired Qutub Minar.
IBRAHIM LODHI (1517-1526)
➤ He was repressive ruler.
➤ He was defeated and killed by Babar in the 1st battle of Panipat in 1526.
➤ He was the last rules of Lodhi dynasty.
IMPORTANT DEPARTMENTS
Officials Departments
Wakil-i-Dar : Royal palace.
Diwan-i-Istikak : Head of pension department.
Sahna-i-Mandi : Head of grain market.
Mufti : Interpreter of shariat.
Diwan-i-Mawalim : Head of administrative tribunal.
Sar-Jandar : Head of royal bodyguards.
Sar-i-Jamadar : looked after royal garments.
Hajib : An officer under Barbak.
Diwan-I-khas : Head of royal correspondence department.
Barbek/Amir-i-Hajib : royal ceremonies.
Amir-i-Koh : Head of agriculture department.
Amir-i-Shikar : looked after royal hunting.
Barid-i-Mamalik : Head of intelligence department.
Ariz : Military needs, recruitment, horses.
Dabiri-Mamalik : Chief secretary.
Shiqdar : Head of Shiq.
Qazi ul-Qazat : Chief justice.
Amir : Officer of Sipalsalar.
Amirdad/Dadbau : Head of Diwan-i-majlis in absence of sultan.
Amiran-i-Tuman : Head of 10,000 soldiers.
Amiran-i-Hazara : Officer of 1000 soldiers.
Amiran-i-Sada : Head of 100 soldiers.
Amir-i-Punjah : Head of 50 soldiers.
Amil : Land revenue collection in Paragana.
Qazi : Justice.
Karcun : Land record keeper.
Kotwal : Law & order.
Kharitdar : Dispatcher of orders.
Dabir : Officer of royal correspondence.
Naib Barbak : Head of royal court.
Barid : espionage, Intelligence.
Malik : Head of Sipalsalari & Amirs.
Mutsarif : Head of royal Karkhana.
Mushrif : Accountant general.
Mustaufi : Auditor general.
Muhatasib : Public morals.

VIJAY NAGAR EMPIRE

Sangam Dynasty (1st) (1336-1485)
Saluva (1485-1505)
Tuluva (1505-1570)
Aravidu (Last) (1570-1650)
VIJAY NAGAR EMPIRE (1336-1650 AD)
➤ Vijay Nagar was founded by Harihar & Bukka in 1336.
➤ They had earlier served under the kaktiya ruler of warangal Pratprudra II.
➤ Harihar nad Bukka were the son of Sangama.
➤ They were brought to the center by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq converted to Islam and were sent to south again to control rebellion, but on the instance of Vidyaranya, they established Vijaynagar kingdom in 1336 AD.
➤ Vidyaranya was the carer of them.
➤ Vijaynagar was located on the bank of Tungbhadra.
➤ There were four dynasties in Vijaynagar empire.
➤ 1 – Sangam dynasty 2 – Saluva dynasty 3 – Tuluva dynasty 4 – Aravidu dynasty
SANGAMA DYNASTY
➤ Harihar was the first ruler.
➤ Vidyaranya was his Guru.
➤ Bukka-I fought with the Bahmani Sultan Muhammad Shah I and signed a treaty with him.
➤ Devraya I constructed a dam across the river Tungbhadra to solve the problem of shortage of water.
➤ Italian travelors Nicolo Conti visited during his region.
➤ His court was adorned by the giften Telgu Poet Srinatha.
➤ Srinatha was the author of Haravilasam.
➤ He had to face invasion by the Bahmani ruler Firoz Shah and he had to surrender the fort of Bankapur.
➤ Devraya II was the greatest Sangama ruler.
➤ He was called Immadidevaraya and Proudha Devaraya.
➤ The inscriptions call him as Gajabetekara (the elepant hunter)
➤ In order to strengthen his army, he employed muslism in his army and asked his soldiers and officers to learn the archery from them.
➤ In 1442 he sent a naval expeditor against Srilanka and defeated them.
➤ He wrote two Sanskrit works –
(i) Mahanatak Sudhanidhi (ii) Commentary on the Brahama sutras of Badanarayan.
➤ Persian ambassador Abdul Razzaq visited his court.
➤ Sangam dynasty was replaced by saluva dynasty.
SULUVA DYNASTY (1485-1505)
➤ Saluva dynasty was lasted for two decades.
➤ Saluva Narsingh was the founder of Saluva dynasty.
➤ The saluvas were closely pinked to the Sangamas Viamarreage
➤ Saluva Mangu served Kumara kampana in his campains against the sultan of madura and was awarded the title Saluva.
TULUVA DYNASTY (1505-1570)
➤ Vir Narasimha : was the founder of the Tuluva dynasty.
SADASHIVA RAYA :
➤ The real power lay in the hands of his minister Rana Raya.
➤ The Deccani Sultans except Berar joined hands to defeat Vijayanagar in the famous battle of Talikota or Rakshsa Tangadi in 1556.
➤ The Vijaynagar government now shifted to Penukonda and later to Chanregiri, which was made the capital by venkat II of Aravidu dynasty.
ARAVIDU DYNASTY (1570-1650)
➤ This dynasty was founded by Rama Raya’s brother, Thirumala.
➤ Thirumala deposed Sadashiva Raya from throne.
➤ Thirumala’s son Ranga II expanded the empire.
➤ Venkat II succeeded his father Thirumala in 1586.
➤ His head office was Chandragiri.
He died in 1614 AD.
➤ He was the last great ruler of Vijaynagar.
➤ Rang III become ruler after Venkat II and after that Vijaynagar empire ended.
MIX FACTS
➤ Patrons of Krishnadev Raya Lakshmi Narayan wrote a book ‘Sangeet Suryodaya’
➤ ‘Sangeet Sar’ was written by Sant Vidyaranya
➤ ‘Madura Vijyam’ was written by the wife of Kumar Kampan, the son of Buka II on his success.
➤ Tamil dictionary was written during Krishnadeva Raya.
➤ Hazara Temple and Vitthal Swami Temple was made by Krishnadeva Raya.
➤ Peddau was the patrons of Krishnadeva Raya.
➤ Chamras and Lakkatra were the patrons of Devraya II
➤ Devraya II & Mallikarjun were given the title of ‘Gajbetkar’.
➤ Tirumal made the ‘Lotus Temple’.
➤ ‘Amukta Maldaya’ was written by Krishnadev Raya.
➤ Telgu poet Srinatha come to the place of Devaraya I
TRAVELLERS DURING VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE
1. Nicoli Conti – Italy – Devraya I 1420 AD.
2. Abdur Razzak – Persian – Devraya II 1434 AD.
3. Fernoa Nuniz – Portugal – Mallikarjun 1450 AD.
4. Domingos Peas – Portugal – Krishnadev Raya 1515 AD.
5. Barbosa – Portugal – Krishnadev Raya 1516 AD.
6. Nikitin – Russian – Devraya I 1515 AD.
ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT OF VIJAYNAGAR EMPIRE.
3. Nadu — Tahsil
4. Melagram — 50 Villages
5. Kar — Village
1. Mandal — State
2. Kottam or Valnadu — District

THE BAHMANI KINGDOM

➤ The Bahmani kingdom was founded by Zafar Khan in 1347.
➤ Zafar Khan took in title of Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah.
➤ The capital of the Bahmani kingdom was at Gulbarga.
➤ Gulbarga was renamed as Ahsanabad.
➤ The greatest Bahmani ruler was Tajuddin Firoz Shah.
➤ Firoz Shah was a good calligraphist and poet and often composed extempore verses.
➤ According to Farishta, Firoz Shah was well versed not only in Persian, Arabic and Turkish but also in Telugu, Kannada and Marathi.
➤ The most remarkable step taken by Firoz Shah Bahmani was the induction of Hindus in the administration on a large scale, particularly, Deccani Brahmans in the revenue administration.
➤ Firoz Shah Bahmani encouraged the Pursuit of astronomy and built an observatory near Daulatabad.
➤ Chaul and Dabhol were main ports of Bahmani Kingdom.
➤ Firoz Shah Bahmani married a daughter of Deva Raya-I of Vijayanagar.
➤ In 1419 Firoz Shah Bahmani was defeated by Devaraya-I.
➤ Ahmad Shah-I is called a wali
(saint) on account of his association with the famous Sufi Gesu Deraz.
➤ Ahmad Shah-I shifted Bahmani capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
➤ Mahmud Gawan was a great personality of Bahmani kingdom. He was Vakil as well as the wazir of Muhammad Shah-III between 1463-1481. He was an Iranian by birth and was at first a trader.
➤ Gawan was granted the title of chief of the merchants (Malik-ul- Tajjar)
➤ Mahmud Gawan conquered Konkan, Goa and Krishna- Godavari delta. He waged a series of battles agaisnt Mahmud Khalji over Berar.
➤ Mahmud Gawan carried out many internal reforms. He divided the kingdom into eight provinces or tarafs headed by governors or tarafdars.
➤ In every province, a trade of land
(Khalisa) was set apart for the expenses of the Sultan.
➤ Mahmud Gawan was a great patron of arts. He built a magnificent madarsa or college in the capital, Bidar.
➤ Bahmani ruler Humayun Shah was known as Zalim.
➤ Kalimullah was the last ruler of Bahmani dynasty.
➤ The Bahmani kingdom was divided into five states.
BAHMANI SUCCESSOR STATES (DYNASTY)

State
(Dynasty)
FounderCapitalDuration
1. NizamshahisMalik Ahmad BahriAhmadnagar1490-1633
2. AdilshahisYusuf Adil ShahBijapur1490-1686
3. ImadshahisFateullah Khan Imad-ul-mulkBerar1490-1574
4. QutubshahisQuli QutubshahGolconda1518-1687
5. BaridshahisAmir Ali BaridBidar1528-1619

BABUR (1526-1530)
➤ Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur was the founder of the Mughal empire in India.
➤ Babur was the king of Farghana in Afghanistan.
➤ Taking advantage of the political conditions prevailing in India, Babur marched towards India.
➤ Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in first Battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D.
➤ Before the Battle of Panipat (1526 A.D.) Babur had made four expeditions to India.
➤ In has 1519 (first-Indian expedition) he used gun powder for the first time in India to storm fort of Bhira.
➤ His second expedition in 1519, captured Peshawar.
➤ Third expedition in 1520, occupied Bajaur, Bhira, Sialkot and Sayyadpur.
➤ 4th expedition in 1524-Daulat Khan Lodi (Governor of Lahore) sent son Dilawar Khan and Alam Khan Lodi to join Babur.
➤ Rana Sanga sent a message to Kabul, inviting him.
➤ 5th expedition in 1526 Battle of Panipat against Ibrahim Lodi, here used Rumi (ottoman) device and Tulugama tactics.
➤ In 1527 he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in battle of Khanwa on the bank of river Piliakhar.
➤ In 1529 he defeated Ibrahim Lodi’s younger brother, Mahmud Lodi in battle of Ghaghara.
➤ His Indian empire extended from Himalayas in north to Gwalior in South and from Khyber pass in west to border of Bengal in east.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Zahiruddin Babar
Nurudin Jahangir Khusaro Jalaludin Akbar Daniyal Shaharyar Mirza Hakim Murad Parvez Shahjahan Muhammad Humayun Dara Shikoh Kamran Shuja Hindal Aurangzeb Askari Murad
➤ Babur had the prestige of being a descendent of the two most famous warriors of Asia, Changez and Taimur.
➤ The ‘Charbaghs’ the symmetrically laid out gardens with flowing waters and fountains were introduced in India by Babar.
HUMAYUN (1530-1540,1555-1556 A.D.)
➤ Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun succeeded Babur.
➤ Humayun ruled from 1530 A.D.
to 1540 A.D. and again from 1555-1556 A.D.
➤ Humayun built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital.
➤ In 1532, defeated Afghans under Mahmud Lodhi at Daurah.
➤ In 1530, attacked Kalinjar.
➤ In 1539, Afghan leader Sher Shah defeated him at Chausa
(Bihar)
➤ In 1540 Sher Shah again defeated him in battle of Kannauj.
➤ After battle of Kannauj (1540) Humayun fled, took shelter for a few days at Amarkot (ruler Rana Virsala)
➤ In 1545, he went to Shah Tahmasp’s court in Persia (Iran) who aided him in conquering Kandhar.
➤ In 1551 Askari was exiled to Mecca.
➤ In 1553 Kabul was occupied and Kamran was blinded and sent to Mecca.
➤ Captured Lahore in 1555 from Sikandar Sur, Governor of Punjab, then Delhi and Agra.
➤ Humayun died in 1556 A.D. of fall from his library Sher Mandal.
➤ Humayun’s tomb is situated in Delhi.
➤ Humayun’s tomb was built by his widow Hamida Banu Begum.
➤ Mirza Inayatullah was the chief architect of Humayun’s tomb.
➤ Humayun brought two painters from Iran, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad.
SHER SHAH (1540-1545 A.D.)
➤ Sher Shah’s childhood name was Farid.
➤ Sher Shah was born to Hasan, the Jagirdar of Sasaram.
➤ He received the title of Sher Shah from Bahar Khan Lohani, the Afghan Governor of South Bihar.
➤ Sher Shah gained Chunar by marrying the widow, Malika.
➤ He defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa. He adopted the title of Sher Shah and proclaimed himself the emperor of Hindustan.
➤ He again defeated Humayun in the battle of Kannauj or Bilgram.
➤ Sher Shah’s last campaign was against Kalingar. He succeeded but died from an explosion in 1545.
➤ He was succeeded by his son Islam Shah.
➤ Humayun defeated Sikandar Suri and occupied Delhi in 1555.
➤ Sher Shah established a highly centralised Government.
➤ He divided his empire into 47 Sarkars (districts) which were divided into several pargana (subdistricts).
Village was the lowest unit of administ ration. He made the local village headmen
(muqaddams) and zamindars responsible for local crime.
➤ He built many sarais.
➤ He built the grand trunk road from Sonargaon to Attock.
➤ He improved the land revenue system by adopting Zabti-i-Har-Sal.
➤ Sher Shah abolished all internal customs and duties.
➤ Sher Shah built three important roads, Agra-Jodhpur-Chittor, Lahore-Multan, and Agra- Burhanpur.
➤ Sher Shah built 1700 sarais which also worked as dak chaukis.
➤ Sher Shah ascended the throne of Delhi at the ripe age of 67.
➤ Abbas Khan Sarwani was the historian of Sher Shah.
➤ Sher Shah’s roads and sarais have been called “The arteries of the Empire”.
➤ Sher Shah also built a new city on the bank of the Yamuna near Delhi.
➤ The sole survivor of this is the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi.
➤ Sher Shah was succeeded by his second son, Islam Shah.
AKBAR (1556-1605 A.D.)
➤ Akbar was born in Amarkot in the palace of Virasal in 1542 A.D.
➤ Akbar’s full name was Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar.
➤ He was crowned at Kalanaur at the age of 13 years.
➤ Akbar defeated Hemu in the second battle of Panipat in 1556 A.D.
➤ Bairam Khan was his regent from 1556 to 1560. Bairam Khan was a Shia.
➤ Bairam Khan was assassinated by Mubarak Khan at Patan
(Gujarat) on his way to Mecca.
➤ Bairam’s widow Salima Begum was married to Akbar and her son (from Bairam, Abdur Rahim joined the court of Akbar later became the Khan-i-Khana.
➤ His chief advisor was Mir Abdul Latif.
➤ In 1562, abolished the system of making war captives as slave.
➤ In 1563, abolished pilgrim tax.
➤ In 1564, abolished Jaziya.
➤ His tomb was at Sikandara, near Agra.
➤ Laid the foundation of Fatehpur Sikri as his capital.
➤ Learnt the principles of Sulah-i- Kul from his teacher Mir Abdul Latif.
➤ In 1564, Garh Katanga was attacked.
It was under the regency of Durgavati, the Chandella princess of Mahoba on behalf of her minor son Vir Narayan. Her capital Chauragarh was stormed by Asaf Khan.
➤ In 1668, Chittor under Rana Udai Singh of Mewar was invaded.
Here two Rajput warriors fought bravely against Akbar-Jaimal and Patta.
➤ Akbar had the statues of Jaimal and Patta installed at Agra fort.
➤ In 1569 campaign against Ranthambhor, Rao Surajan Hara submitted and joined the imperial service.
➤ In 1569-1570 campaign against Kalinjar, Ramchandra offered submission to Majnun Khan.
➤ In 1576 Akbar defeated Rana Pratap of Chittor in the famous Battle of Haldigati.
➤ In 1601 captured fortress of Asirgarh his last conquest Khandesh (1601)
➤ Got translated into Persians- Ramayana, Mahabharata, Lilavati, Rajatarangini, Panchatantra, and Nal Damyanti, Atharvaveda.
➤ Tried to ban sati system, and legalised widow marriage. Increased marriagable age (girls 14 years, boys 16 years)
➤ European paintings was introduced in Mughal court during Akbar’s reign.
➤ Akbar was fond of gardening.
➤ Akbar was himself architect of his tomb, completed by Jahangir.
➤ Set up Ibadat-khana at Sikri for religious discussion, held on every Thursday evening from 1575.
➤ Later Ibadat-khana was opened to Scholars of all faiths.
➤ In 1579 Akabr read the Khutba
(written by poet Faizi) in his own name like the Prophet and Caliphs.
➤ In 1579 proclamation of the Mahzar, all imams signed it where by he became Imam-i-Adil, the supreme interpreter of Islamic law in all controversial matters, it made him higher than a Mujtahid (interpreter of Islamic Law)
➤ In 1582 Tauhid-i-Ilahi (Divine monotheism) was initiated 80 years later it came to be called Din-i-Ilahi. It was sufistic.
➤ After returning from Gujarat campaign, Akbar appointed officials called Karoris.
➤ Akbar divided the empire into 12 Subas in 1580 AD.
➤ In 1585 Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for 12 years.
➤ Akbar nominated Salim as his successor who ascended the throne with the title of Jahangir.
➤ In 1605 Akbar died of dysentery.
➤ Hakim Ali was his personal physician while Raja Salivahan was his court physician.
➤ Buried at Sikandara.
➤ Sheikh Farid Bukhari was his last Mir Bakshi.
➤ Started giving loan from royal treasury, as Musadat.
➤ Loan to farmers was called takavi.
➤ Started worshipping light
(Prakash Pujas) in court.
➤ With the help of Raja Todarmal
(revenue minister) began land settlement and launched Ain-i- Dahsala system.
➤ Issued round and square size silver coins called Rupaya and Jalali.
➤ Adopted Persian as court language.
➤ Laid foundation of Fatehpur Sikri in 1572-1580. Main Buldings of Fatehpur Sikri. Buland Darwaza, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas, palace of Sultana, Panch Mahal etc.
➤ Expert exponent of music. He played Nakkara (drum).
➤ His court musicians-Tansen, Baba Ramdas, Baz Bahadur etc.
➤ Famous painters in his court Khwaja Abdus Samad, Daswant, Basawan etc.
➤ Akbar set up a department of painting headed by Khwaja Abdus Samad with title Shirin Kalam.
➤ Got Mahabharata translated into Persian as Razmnama.
➤ Contemporary Hindu scholars Ramdas, Suradas, Tulsidas, Raskhan, Abdur Rahim Khan- Khanan and Birbal (Raja Mahesh Das).
➤ Famous Persian scholars-Abul- Fazaal, Faizi, Budayuni, Abbas Khan Sarwani, Utbi, and Naziri.
➤ Akbar’s land revenue system was called Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti system. Todar Mal was his Revenue Minister.
➤ Organised army and started Mansabdari system in 1575-1576.
Akbar’s social & Religious work
1. 1562 AD. End of Slave system
2. 1562 AD. End of ‘Haramdal’
3. 1563 AD. End of Pilgrime tax
4. 1564 AD. End of Jazia tax
5. 1571 AD. Eastablish of Fateh Pur Sikri & made it his capital .
6. 1580 AD. ‘Dahsala System’
7. 1562 AD. Din-i-Ilahi
Nine Gems of Akbar
1. Mullah do Pyaja 2. Abul Fajal 3. Todar Mal 4. Faizi 5. Birbal 6. Tansen 7. Abdul Rahim-Khan-i- Khana 8. Man Singh 9. Bhagwan Das
JAHANGIR (1605-1627 A.D.)
➤ Jahangir was born at Lahore in 1569 A.D.
➤ Jahangir’s full name was Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir.
➤ Jahangir was popularly known as Salim.
➤ Jahangir banned slaughter of animals on Sunday and Thursday.
➤ He established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
➤ Jahangir also married Jodha Bai of Marwar, and a Kachchwaha princes.
➤ His son Khusrau, who received patronage of Guru Arjun Dev, revolted agaisnt Jahangir. The fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev was later sentenced to death for his blessings to the rebel prince.
➤ Khurram (Shahjahan) supported by his father-in-law, Asaf Khan, also revolted against Jahangir but the two soon reconciled.
➤ His military general, Mahabat Khan revolted and abducted him but Nurjahan saved him due to her diplomatic efforts.
➤ He was well read and wrote his memories Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian.
➤ Jahangir’s sons-Khusrau Parvez Khurram, Shahryar and Jahandar.
➤ Shahryar married to Ladli Begum.
➤ James-I sent captain Hawkins and Sir Thoams Roe to Jahangir’s court to get concession in trade for English.
➤ Laid many gardens, like Shalimar Bagh in Kashmir.
➤ Jahangir built a mosque in Lahore, Itmaduddaula’s tomb in Agra (first building to have Peutra Deura), completed Akbar’s tomb in Sikandara.
➤ During Jahangir, Mughal painting was on climax.
➤ Portrait painting and paintings of animals & birds started. Mansur was expert in this style.
➤ He was himself expert painter and claimed to recognise painting at a particualr painter at a glance.
➤ Introduced Du-Aspa and Sih-Aspa systems in Mansabdari system.
➤ Lover of music, painting and arts.
➤ Jahangir met Nur Jahan on Nauroz (new years day) in Mina Bazar of Agra, married her in 1611.
➤ In 1613 Nur Jahan was made Padshah Begum (the first lady).
➤ In 1616, Nur Jahan got title Nur Mahal.
➤ Farmans had signature and coins were struck in her name.
➤ Itmad-ud Daula (father of Nur Jahan) was given mansabdari of 7000 Zats.
➤ Nur Jahan’s brother, Abul Hasan was appointed Mir-i-Saman (in charge of the royal household) with title of Asaf Khan later wazir with 6000 mansab.
➤ Khusrau was blinded and in 1620 he was killed on the orders of Khurram at Burhanpur.
➤ John Hawkins resided at Agra for two years (1609-1611). He was given the mansab of 400.
➤ Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1618) was ambassador of James-I.
➤ Jahangir was buried at Shahadara near Lahore.
➤ The famous Italian traveller Pietro Valle came during his reign.
SHAHJAHAN (1628-1657 A.D.)
➤ Shahjahan was born at Lahore in 1592 A.D.
➤ Shahjahan’s childhood name was Khurram.
➤ Shahjahan’s full name was Shihabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan.
➤ Shahjahan was born to Jagat Gosain, daughter of Mota Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpur.
➤ In 1612 Shahjahan married Arzumand Banu Begum who became famous as Mumtaz Mahal.
➤ Mahabat Khan was given 7000 Zat and Sawar and title Khan-i- Khanan.
➤ In 1628 Pir Khan Khan-i-Jahan Lodi governor of the Deccan rebelled and joined the Nizam Shahis but was defeated at Tal Sahonda.
➤ In 1628-1629 Jujhar Singh Bundella of Orchha rebelled but later submitted. He again rebelled in 1635 by attacking Prem Narain of Chauragarh (Gondwana) and was defeated by Aurangzeb. Devi Singh was installed at Orchha.
➤ Champat Rai of Mahoba also rebelled. His son Chhatrasal rebeled during Aurangzeb’s reign.
➤ In 1630 Deccan famine, witnessed by Peter Mundi, led to large scale relief measures by the state.
➤ In 1631 Mumtaj Mahal died during child birth at Burhanpur. She was first buried at Burhanpur but later transferred to Agra (Taj Mahal).
➤ Shah Jahan’s six children from Mumtaj Begum-Jahanara Begum, Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Roshan Ara Begum, Aurangzeb (born at Daulatabad) and Murad Baksh.
➤ Shah Jahan introduced 1/3, 1/ 4, 1/5 method in Mansabadari system. According to this a mansabdar had to keep horsemen 1/3, 1/4, 1/5 of his sawar rank.
➤ Built Taj Mahal in the sweet memory of Mumtaj Mahal in 1632-1654 of marbles (white).
➤ Built Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in Agra Fort.
➤ Built Jama Masjid and Red Fort of Delhi and laid foundation of Shahjahanabad (the 7th city of Delhi). These were made of red sandstone.
➤ Jagannath Pandit was the poet of his court.
➤ Shah Jahan was an expert musician and his voice was very melodious.
➤ Appointed Amins whose main function was to assess revenue.
➤ Constructed Peacock throne (1628-1635).
➤ Attacked Hooghly against portuguese and captured it in 1632.
➤ Foreign travellers who visit his court were Bernier (France).
Travernier (France) and Manucci (Italy).
➤ His period was the climax of Mughal architecture.
AURANGZEB (1658-1707 A.D.)
➤ Aurangzeb’s full name was Muihiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb.
➤ Aurangzeb was the third son of Mumtaz Mahal.
➤ Aurangzeb had to fight war of succession to gain the throne.
➤ He took the title of ‘Alamgir’ in 1659.
➤ He was called as Zinda Pir, the living saint.
➤ In 1662, Mir Jumla, Aurangzeb’s ablest general led the expedition against Ahoms.
➤ He forbade inscription of Kalma on the coins.
➤ He ended the celebration of Navroz festival.
➤ Mutasib (regulator of moral conduct) were appointed.
➤ He ended Jharokha darshan, use of almanacs and weighing of the emperor.
➤ Aurangzeb compiled Fatwa-i- Alamgiri.
➤ Jaziya was re-introduced.
➤ Built Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in Red Fort of Delhi.
➤ No new temples were to be constructed.
But old ones were not to be destroyed and they were allowed to be repaired.
➤ In 1669, the Vishwanath temple of Banaras and the Keshav Raj temple of Bir Singh Bundela at Mathura were destroyed.
➤ The proportion of Hindus mansabdars was highest in Aurangzeb’s reign.
➤ Aurangzeb ordered the arrest and execution of the ninth Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur in AD 1675.
➤ Guru Govind Singh wrote letters to Aurangzeb, their collection is called Zafarnama.
➤ Guru Govind Singh died at Nanded, on the way to meet Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb had died earlier.
➤ Shambhaji (son of Shivaji) was captured at Sanghameshwar (1689) and executed.
➤ Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed.
➤ His tomb is located in Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
➤ Expert Vina player.
➤ Banned singing in court, but allowed Royal Band (Naubat).
➤ Restarted Pilgrim tax.
➤ Disallowed cultivation of Hemp (Bhang).
➤ In 1669, Jats under Gokla revolted.
➤ In 1672, Satnamis, nick-named Mundiya Sadhus, founded by Birbhan near Narnaul revolted.
➤ In 1685, second Jat rebellion under Raja Ram and his successor Churaman.
➤ In 1667, Yusufzai tribe of Afghans, under the Raushanai movement led by Bhagu rebelled.
➤ In 1672, second Afghan rebellion by the Afridi tribe led by Akmal Khan.
MUGHAL GARDENS
1. Hast Bahist Rambagh Agra Babur
2. Shalimar Bagh Srinagar Jahangir
3. Nishat Bagh Srinagar Asaf Khan
4. Shailimar Bagh Lahore Shah Jahan
5. Hayat Bagh Delhi Shah Jahan
6. Shalimar Bagh Delhi Shah Jahan
7. Wazir Bagh Kashmir Dara Shikoh
8. Char Burji Bagh Near Lahore Zebunnisa
MUGHAL RULERS : AT A GLANCE

1. Babur : 1526 -15302. Humayun: 1530 -1540
3. Humayun: 1555 -15564. Akbar : 1556 -1605
5. Nuruddin : 1605 -16276. Shajahan: 1628 -1657
7. Aurangzeb: 1658 -17078. Bahadur Shah I : 1707-1712
9. Jahandar Sah : 1712 -171310. Farukhsiar : 1713 -1719
11. Rafiudar Jat : 171912. Mohammad Shah : 1719 -1748
13. Ahmad Shah : 1748 -175414. Alamgir II : 1754 -1759
15. Shah Alam II : 1759 -180616. Akbar II : 1806 -1837
17. Bahadur Shah II : 1837 -1857

BOOKS DURING MUGHAL PERIOD

BOOKSAUTHORSLANGUAGES
Tuzuk-e-Babri or BabarnamaBabarTurkish
Humayun NamahGulbdan Begam (Sister of Humayu)Persian
IqbalnamaMotahad KhanPersian
AlamgirnamaMohammad KajimPersian
Akbarnama or Ain-e-AkbariAbul FajalPersian
Tarikh-e-RashidiMirza Haidar DaugulatPersian
Tarikh-e-ShershahiAbas KhanPersian
Muntakhals -ul-LubabKhafi KhanPersian
Nuska-e-DilkhushBhimsenPersian
Tarikh-e-AlfiMaulana AhmadPersian
Dabistan-e-MazahilsMohsin FaniPersian
Tarkikh-e-Salatin-e-AfganaAhmadyadgarPersian
Shah JahanamaInayat KhanPersian
Nuksha-dilkhushaMohammad SakiPersian
Maz-ul-BahrinDara ShikohPersian

HINDI BOOKS
Ramcharitmanas – Tulshi Das
Vinaya Patrika – Tulshi Das
Sur Sagar – Surdas
Prem Vatika – Raskhan
Sunder Sringar – Sunder Kaviray
Kavindra Kalptara – Kavindra Acharya
Priya – Keshav Das
Alankar Manjari – Keshav Das
Ramchandrika – Keshav Das
MUGHAL ADMINISTRATION
Dewan – Finance
Mirbakshi – Civil Services on Military line
Khansama – Management of Royal farry
Kaji – Judiciary department
Sadra – Religious interest
Daroga-a-dak Mir Bahar – Admiral
Mir Barr – Forest
Mir Tajak – Festival
Mir Munshi – Head clerk
State Administration
1. Subedar 2. Dewan 3. Bakshi 4. Kotwal 5. Vakia-e-Navis 6. Sadar and Kaji
District (Sarkar) Administration
1. Foujdar 2. Amalgujar 3. Bitiqchi 4. Khajandar
Tahsil Administration
1. Shikdar 2. Amil 3. Fotdar 4. Kanungo 5. Karkun
MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

Mosque at Kabulibagh – BabarMosque at Sanbhal – Babar
(Rohelkhand) Mosque of Fatehabad – Humaun(Hisar, Haryana) Dinpanah (Delhi) – Humaun
Old Fort (Delhi) – ShershahQuila-e-kuhna (Delhi) – Shershah
Shergarh (Delhi) – ShershahQila at Rohtasgarh – North- West State
Tomb at Sasaram (Bihar)– ShershahAgrafort (Agra) – Akbar
Jahangiri – AkbarAkbari Palace – Akbar
Diwan-i-Aam – Akbar(Fatehpur Sikri) Panch Mahal – Akbar
(Fatehpur Sikri) Buland Darwaja – Akbar(Fatehpur Sikri) Salim Chisti’s Tomb – Akbar
(Fatehpur Sikri) Birbal Palace – Akbar(Fatehpur Sikri) Mariyam Mahal – Akbar
(Fatehpur Sikri) Haroon Minar – AkbarLahore Fort (Lahore) – Akbar
Allahabad Fort – Akbar(Allahabad) Itimade-ul-Daula Tomb – Jahangir
(Agra) Moti Masjid (Lahore – JahangirTaj Mahal (Agra) – Shahjahan
Moti Mahal (Agra) – ShahjahanKhaas Mahal (Agra) – Shahjahan
Sheesh Mahal (Agra) – ShahjahanShalimar Garden – Shahjahan
(Lahore) Musamman Burj — – ShahjahanNahar-e- Faiz — – Shahjahan
Moti Masjid (Delhi) – AurangzebBibi ka -Makbara – Aurangzeb
(Aurangabad) Badshahi Mosque – Aurangzeb(Lahore)

MUGHAL PAINTING

Sayyid Ali – HumayunAbusamand – Humayun
Farukbeg – HumayunJamshed – Humayun
Basavan Lal – HumayunDasavan – Akbar
Aagha Raza – AkbarUstad Mansur – Akbar
Mohammad Murad – AkbarMadhan – Akbar
Tulsi – AkbarSanarkandi – Jahangir
Faqrullah – JahangirMirhasim – Jahangir
Aroop – JahangirBichhittlar – Jahangir
Ustadmansur – JahangirAbul Hasan – Jahangir

DECLINE OF MUGHAL EMPIRE (Later Mughals)
1. Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)
➤ He was known as Shah -i- Bekhabar
➤ He pursued Pacifist Policy that is why he called so.
➤ He made place with Guru Gobid Singh and Chatrasal
➤ He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas.
➤ He released Shahu
2. Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)
➤ Ascended the throne with the aid of Zulfikar Khan
➤ First pupet Mughal emperor.
➤ He abolished Jazia.
3. Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719)
➤ He had succeeded to the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers, Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali.
➤ In 1719 Sayyid brothers killed him with the help of Maratha Peshwa, Balaji Vishwanath.
4. Mohammad Shah (1719-48)
➤ He was the most pleasure loving ruler of loose morals and therefore, called Mohammad Shah ‘Rangila’.
➤ Nadir Shah defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away peacock throne and the kohinoor diomand.
5. Ahmad Shah (1748-54)
➤ During Ahmad Shah’s reign, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India twice in 1749 and 1752 when he marched up to Delhi.
6. Alamgir II (1754-59)
➤ After the dethronement of Ahmad Shah, Azizuddin a grandson of Jahandar Shah was placed on the throne as Alamgir II.
7. Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
➤ Battle of Buxar (1764) held during his reign.
8. Akbar II (1806-37)
➤ Gave the title of Raja to Ram Mohan Roy.
9. Bahadur Shah II (1837 – 57)
➤ During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the emperor by the rebels.

RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS OF MEDIEVAL INDIA

➤ The Bhakti Movement began in South India in the 7th Century.
➤ The Alvars (Vaishnavites) and Naynars (Shaivites) popularised the Bhakti cult in South India.
➤ There were 12 Alvar Vaishnavite and 63 Naynar Saivite Saints.
➤ The Saivite Saint Appar, is said to have converted the pallava king, Mahendravarman, to Saivism.
➤ Sambandar and Manikkavasagar were other great Bhakti Saints.
➤ The writings of these saints were collected in the Tirumurai.
➤ The Tirumurai has been called as the Tamil Veda.
➤ Periya Puranam was composed by Shekkilar in the reign of the Chola king Kulottunga I.
➤ Ramananda was the first great Bhakti saint of North India.
➤ Raidas, Kabir, Dhanna, Pipa were his disciples.
➤ Kabir (1440-1518) belonged to a family of weavers.
➤ Kabir spent greater part of his life in Banaras.
➤ Kabir’s verses were included in Adi Granth.
➤ Raidas was a tanner.
➤ Dhanna was a Jat peasant from Rajasthan.
➤ Guru Nanak (1469-1539) was born at Nankana Sahib.
➤ Kabir and Nanak were Nirguna Bhakti saints.
➤ Vallabhacharya was a Telugu Brahmana.
➤ Vallabhacharya was the founder of Pushti marga (way of grace)
➤ Chaitanya (1486-1533) was the most prominent Vaishnav saint of Bengal.
➤ Chaitanya popularized Krishna Bhakti.
➤ Chaitanya was looked upon as living Krishna.
➤ Jnaneswar (1275-1296) was the pioneer Bhakti Saint of Maharashtra.
➤ Jnaneswar wrote Jnaneswari.
➤ Jnaneswari is a commentary on Bhagavad Gita.
➤ Jnaneswar was the author of many hymns called Abhangas.
➤ Namdeva (1270-1350) was a tailor by caste.
➤ Namdeva travelled to North India and Punjab.
➤ Namdev’s Bhakti Songs have been included in the Adi Granth.
➤ Namdeva is considered to be a part of the Varkari tradition.
➤ In Assam, Sankaradeva (1449- 1568) introduced bhakti.
➤ Sankaradeva’s sect is called Mahapurushiya dharma.
➤ Dadu (1544-1603) was inspired by Kabir’s doctrine.
➤ Tukaram’s teachings are in the form of Abhangas or dohas.
➤ Tukaram founded the Varkari Sect.
➤ Ramdasa wrote Dasabodha.
➤ Ramdasa was the Guru of Shivaji.
➤ The Lingayat Sect was founded by Basava.
➤ The biography of Chaitanya is ‘Chaitanya charitamrita’.
➤ The biography of Chaitanya was written by Krishnadas Kaviraj.
➤ The disciples of Kabir later formed the Kabirpanthi sect.
➤ Jagjivan Das founded the Satnami sect.
➤ Tulsidas wrote Ramcharitmanas, Vinaypatrika, Kavitavali.
➤ Surdas wrote Sur Surawali, Sahitya Ratna, Sursagar.
➤ Mirabai was a Rajput Princes of Merta.
➤ Mirabai married to Bhojraja, son of Rana Sanga.
➤ Mirabai was famous for her devotion to Krishna.
➤ Mirabai advocated image-worship and observance of special fasts.
➤ Mirabai wrote Several poems like Padavali;
➤ Ramanuja advocated the philsophy of Vishistadvaitavada.
➤ Madhvacharya founded the Dvaita philosophy.
➤ Nimbarka propounded the Dvaitadvaita philosophy.
➤ Nimbarka founded the Sanak Sampradaya.
SOME SECTS DURING BHAKTI MOVEMENT

SectsFoundersPhilosophiesPeriods
SmritiShankarancharyaAdvaitavadAD 9th Century
ShrisectRamanujaVishishtadvaitaAd 12th Century
SanakNimbarkDvaitavadvaitaAD 12 th Century
BrahmaMadhva AcharyaDaitavadAD 13th Century
RudraVishnu Swami/ VallabhacharyaShuddhadvaitaAD 15 th Century

.
➤ Al Hujuiri was the earliest Sufi saint to have settled in India.
➤ Al Hujuiri wrote ‘Kashful Mahjub’.
➤ The Chishti and Suhrawardi orders were the most prominent.
➤ The Chishti order was founded by Muinuddin Chishti.
➤ He arrived around 1192 A.D. and established his centre at Ajmer.
➤ Muinuddin Chisti’s disciple was Hamiduddin Nagauri.
➤ Qutubminar is named after the Chishti saint Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
➤ His disciple was Farid Ganj-i- Shakar.
➤ He built his Jamaat Khana in Ajodhan (Punjab).
➤ The Sufis adopted the local language of the region in which they lived.
SUFI MOVEMENT
➤ The Suhrawardi order in India was founded by Bahauddin Zakaria of Multan.
➤ The Suharwardi sufis established themselves mainly in North-West India.
➤ Iltutmish appointed Shaikh Bahauddin Zakaria the Shaikh-ul Islam.
➤ Shaikh Ruknuddin of Suhrawardi order was also venerated by Sultans of Delhi.
➤ The Chishti mystics believed in the spiritual value of Music.
➤ Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki died in a state of ecstasy under the spell of Music.
➤ Khwaja Fariduddin Masud was known as Baba Farid.
➤ Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya was the Chief disciple of Baba Farid.
➤ Nizamuddin Auliya had problem with Mubarak Khalji and Ghayasuddin Tughlaq.
➤ He was succeeded by Nasiruddin Chiraag-i-Delhi, who had trouble with Mohammad Bin Tughlaq.
➤ After the death of Baba Farid, the Chishti order was divided into Nezamia and Sabiria orders.
➤ Shaikh Burhanuddin settled at Daulatabad.
➤ Shaikh Husamuddin and Shah Barkatullah were prominent Sufis in Gujarat.
➤ Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi was a mystic of the Sabiria order.
➤ Shaikh Musa had joined Akbar’s Service.
➤ Akbar was greatly devoted to Salim Chishti of Fatehpur.
➤ Shattari order was founded by Abdul Shattar.
➤ Tansen was the disciple of Mohammad Ghaus.
➤ Qadariya order was started by Niatamullah Qadari.
➤ Dara belonged to the Qadariya order.
Sufi Sect & Founders
Chisti Khwaza Moin-ud-din
Shurawardi Shiabuddin Shurawardi
Kadari Sheikh Abdul Kadir Jalani
Satari Shah Abdul Satari
Firdoshi Badruddin
Naqshabandi Khwaza Baqi Billah.
➤ Naqshabandi order was introduced in India by Baqi Billah.
➤ Shah Waliullah (1702-1762) was a saint of Naqshabandi order.
➤ Shah Waliullah tried to reconcile the two doctrines of Wahadat-ul Wujud and Wahadat-ul-Shuhud.
➤ Khwaja Mir Dard was the famous Urdu Poet.
➤ Mullah daud Wrote Chhanda in Hindavi.
➤ Shaikh Nasiruddin was known as Chiragh-i-Delhi.
LITERARY DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
Books Authors
Navasahasankacharitam : Padamgupta
Kathasaritsagar : Somadeva
Brihat Kathamanjari : Kshemendra
Prabodha Chandrodaya : Krishna Mishra
Adipurana : Jinasena
Ganitasara Samgraha : Mahaviracharya
Amaghvritti : Saktayana
Harvilasam : Srinath
Bhaktimala : Nabhadasa
Tahiqiq-I-Hind : Al-Beruni
Taj-ul-masir : Hasan Nizami
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri : Minhajud-din Siraj
Khazain-ul-Futuh : Amir Khusaru
Tughlaqnama : Amir Khusrau
Laila-Majnu : Amir Khusrau
Ghurrat-al-kamal (on music) : Amir Khusrau
Ashiqa : Amir Khusrau
Nuh Sipihar : Amir Khusrau
Tarikh-i-Firozshahi : Barni
Tarikh-i-Firozshahi : Sams-i-siraz Afif
Fatuhat-i-Firozshahi : Firoz shah Tughlaq
Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahai : Sarhindi
Kitab-ul-Rehla : Ibn Battutah
Sur Sarawali : Surdas
Sahitya Ratn : Surdas
Amuktamalyada : Krishna devaraya
Manucharitam : Allasani Peddana
Maduravijayam : Gangadevi
Ain-i-Akbari : Abul Fazal
Humaun Namah : Gulbadan Begum
Panduranga Mahatmya : Tanali Ramalinga
Jambavati Kalyanam : Krishna devaraya
Jnaneswari : Jnandeva
Hir-Ranjha : Warish Shah
Shanti Purana : Ponna
Akbar Namah : Abul Fazl
Hasnat-ul-Arifin : Dara Shikoh
Sakinat-ul-Auliya : Dara Shikoh
Tabuqat-i-Akbari : Nizamuddin Ahmed
Tarikh-i-Shershahi : Abbas khan Sherwani
Tarikh-i-Alfi : Mulla Daud
Chandayan : Mulla Daud
Mintakhab-ul-Tawarikh : Abdul Qadir Badyuni
Tabaqat-i-Akbari : Nizammuddin Ahmad
Maasir-i-Jahangiri : Kamgar Khan
Iqbalnama-i-Jahangiri : Mutamid Khan
Shahjahanama : Inayat Khan
Majm-ul-Bahrain : Darasikoh
Muntakhab-ul-Lubab : Khafi Khan
Alamgirnama : Mirza Muhammad Qazim
Masir-i-Alamgiri : Iswar Das Nagar
Nuskha-i-Dil Khusha : Bhimsen
Khulsat-ut-Tawarikh : Sujan Rai
Akbarshahi Sringardarpan : Padma Shankar Bhanuchandracharita : Siddhichandra Upadhayaya
Ras-Gangadhar : Jagganath Pandit
Ganga Lahri : Jagganath Pandit
FOREIGN TRAVELLERS DURING THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD

Period A.D.TravellerDuring the reign of
1288 -1292Marco Polo (Italy)Pandayas
1333 -1342Ibn Batuta (Morocco)Muhammad bin Tughlaq
1420 -1422Nicolo Conti (Italy)Devaraya I (Vijaynagar)
1421 -1431Cheng-HiJalauddin (Bengal)
1442 -1443Abdur Razak (Persia)Devaraya II (Vijayanagar)
1470 -1474Nikitin (Russia)Muhammad III
1503 -1508Varthalema DiasDeccan
1516 -1518Edwardo BarbosaKrishnadevaraya
1520 -1522Domingo PaesKrishnadevaraya
1535 -1537Fernao NunizAchyut Devaraya
1578 -1582Anthony MonserrateAkbar
1585 -1591Ralph FitchAkbar
16th CenturyCaesar FredrickVijaynagar
16th CenturyJohn LiscontenVijaynagar
16th CenturyLama TaranathEast India
1608-1613Captain HawkinsJahangir
1608-1612William FitchJahangir
1608-1617John-JourdianJahangir
1608-1615Nicholas DowntonJahangir
1612-1616Nicholas WithingtonJahangir
1612-1617Thomas CoryetJahangir
1615-1619Sir Thomas RoeJahangir
1616-1619Edward TerryJahangir
1615-1625Paul Cannin (British)Jahangir
1620-1627Fransisco PelasertJahangir
1622-1633Pietra dellavaleJahangir
1626-1633John LaitShah Jahan
1627-1681John FryerShah Jahan
1630-1634Peter MundyShah Jahan
1641-1687TavernierShah Jahan and Aurangzeb
1656-1687ManucciAurangzeb
1658-1668BernierAurangzeb
1666 to 1668Jean de ThevenotAurangzeb
1695 to 1699Gemelli CareriBijapur

THE MARATHAS

➤ Shivaji was born in the fort of Shivneri in Poona in 1627.
➤ Shivaji belonged to Bhonsle clan.
➤ Shivaji’s father Shahji Bhonsle was in the service of Ahmadnagar.
➤ Dadaji Kondadeo and Guru Ramdas had great influence on the life of Shivaji.
➤ Guru Ramdas wrote ‘Dasabodh’.
➤ Shahji gave Shivaji the jagir of Poona.
➤ Shivaji first captured Torna in 1646 A.D.
➤ Shivaji began his real career of conquest in 1656 when he conquered Javli from the Maratha Chief Chandra Rao More.
➤ The conquest of Javli made him the master of the Mavala area.
Mavali foot soldiers became a strong part of his army.
➤ He murdered Afzal Khan of Adil Shahi kingdom of Bijapur with baghnakh (tiger claw) in 1659.
➤ In 1663, Shivaji injured Shaista Khan, the Mughal Governor.
➤ In 1664 Shivaji sacked Surat for the first time.
➤ The treaty of Purandhar was signed on June 24, 1665 A.D.
➤ Shivaji surrendered 23 out of the 35 forts to Mughals.
➤ Shivaji’s son Sambhaji was awarded a Mansab of 5000.
➤ Shivaji visited Agra in 1666,
➤ On August 29, 1666, Shivaji escaped from Agra.
➤ In October 1670 Shivaji sacked Surat a second time.
➤ Shivaji was coronated at Raigarh in 1674.
➤ Shivaji assumed the title of Chhatrapati Haindava Dharmodharak.
➤ Shivaji died in 1680 at the age of 53.
➤ Shivaji was succeeded by Sambhaji (1680-89)
➤ Shivaji introduced various administrative and revenue reforms.
➤ Shivaji’s council of Ministers was called Ashtapradhan
➤ Provinces which were divided into prants which were further subdivided into parganas or tarafs.
➤ Shivaji maintained a regular standing army.
➤ The cavalry was divided into two classes : the Bargis and Silahdars.
➤ Bargis were supplied with horses and arms by the state.
➤ Silahdars had to keep their own equipment.
➤ Chauth was 1/4 of the land revenue paid to the Marathas to that land would not be sullied to the Maratha raids.
➤ Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10%, which Shivaji demanded on the basis of being the hereditary Sardeshmukh.
➤ Shivaji discouraged revenue farming system.
➤ Kathi was measuring in rods.
➤ Annaji Datto introduced various reforms in revenue in 1679.
➤ Chauth and Sardeshmukhi both were land tax collected from Mughal territory.
ASHTAPRADHANA
1. Peshwa General Administration; like Prime Minister.
2. Sar-i-Naubat Senapati
3. Mazumdar Accountant
4. Waqia-i-navis Intelligence, posts and household affairs.
5. Surnavis or Chitnis Correspondence
6. Dabir/Sumant Foreign affairs and master of ceremonies.
7. Nyayadhis Justice
8. Panditrao religious affairs.
MARATHA PESHWAS (1714-1818 A.D.)
1714-1720 : Balaji Vishwanath
1720-1740 : Baji Rao I
1740-1761 : Balaji Baji Rao
1761-1772 : Madhava Rao Ballal
1772-1773 : Narayan Rao
1773-1774 : Raghunath Rao
1774-1796 : Madhava Rao Narayan
1796-1818 : Baji Rao II

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