➤ The Pre-historic phase can be roughly divided into 3 parts i.e., paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic.
PALEOLITHIC AGE (250,000-10,000 B.C.)
➤ Paleolithic Culture developed in the Pleistocene period.
➤ Pleistocene was the period when ice covered the earth’s surface.
➤ The main tools used during this period are handaxes, cleavers, Choppers, flakes, burins, scrapers.
➤ Their tools were made up of hard rock called ‘quartzite’.
➤ The paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of the Indus and Ganga.
➤ The people of this age lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables.
➤ Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave rock shelters.
➤ They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire, or pottery of any metal.
➤ In the later Paleolithic phase domestication of animals was practiced.
➤ Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.
➤ It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race.
➤ The Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into three phases according to the nature of stone tools – Early or lower Paleolithic, middle Paleolithic and upper Paleolithic.
MESOLITHIC AGE (10,000-6,000 B.C.)
➤ The Mesolithic Age began around 8000 B.C.
➤ It was the transitional phase between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age
➤ Blade, Mesolithic tools are microliths.
➤ Blade, Core, Point, Triangle, Lunate and Trapeze are the main types of Mesolithic tools.
➤ Important sites of Mesolithic Age are Bagor, Langhraj, Sarai Nahar Rai, and Birbhanpur
➤ Sites like Bhimbetka, Adamgarh and Mirzapur are rich in Mesolithic Art.
NEOLITHIC AGE (6000-2500 B.C.)
➤ The term ‘Neolithic’ was coined by Sir John Lubbock in his book ‘Pre Histroic Times’.
➤ Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gram. They domesticated cattle, sheep and goat.
➤ Important sites are Gufkaral, Burzahom, Chirand, Mehargarh, Piklihal.
➤ Chopani Mando provides the earliest evidence of the use of pottery in the World.
STONE – COPPER PHASE
➤ This phase is also called as chalcolithic phase.
➤ It is charaterised by the use of stone and copper.
➤ Chalcolithic people were not acquainted with burnt brick.
➤ People used different types of Pottery of which Black and Red ware was most popular.
➤ They worshipped Mother Goddess and Bull.
➤ They generally lived in thatched houses.
|Ahar Culture||2800-1500 B.C||White desgined black and red ware.||rice, ragi, gram, jwar, bajra, kulthi, lentil.||Ahar, Balahal, Gilund. (Rajasthan)|
|Kayatha culture||2450-1700 B.C||Cholcolate coloured slipped ware, red painted buff ware, combed ware.||rice, ragi, gram, jwar, bajra, kulthi, lentil.||Chambal and its tributaries. (Madhya Pradesh)|
|Malwa Culture||1900-1400 B.C||The walwas ware is coarse in fabric with thick buff surface.||Wheat & barley.||Narmada and its tributaries, Navada toli, Eran, Nagada. (The largest chalcolithic settlement) in M.P.|
|Savalda Culture||2300-200 B.C||–||–||Dhuria (Maharashtra)|
|Jorwe Culture||1500-900 B.C||painted black on red with matt surface dishes on stand, sprouted vases, stemmed cups, jars, basins etc.||rice, ragi, gram, jwar, bajra, kulthi, lentil.||Maharashtra, Prakash, Daimabad and Inamgaon.|
|Prabhas Culture||2000-1400 B.C||Lustrous Red Ware (Harappan/(Indus civilstation) belonged to this culture)|
|Rangpur Culture||1700 – 1400 B.C||Lustrous Red Ware (Harappa Indus belong to this culture civilisation)||Gheol and Kallubhar rivers in Gujarat|
|Sites||Phase||Location & Excavator||Finds|
|Atranjikheda||Iron Age||Uttar Pradesh||Iron objects, burnt bricks, Textile printing.|
|Brahmagiri||Neolithic/Megalithic||Karnataka, S.M. Wheeler||South Indian Neolithic sites, Pit-dwelling.|
|Burzahom||Neolithic (3000-1700 B.C)||Kashmir, Yale||Two occupation levels|
|Chirand||Neolithic and Chalcolithic (2000-1000 B.C)||Allahabad (U.P) / Allahabad University||Crude hard made pottery, Serpant cult.|
|Diamabad||Chalcolithic (1400-1000 B.C)||Parvar valley (Maharashtra)||Jorwe culture site|
|Gumla||Neolithic/Bronze Age||Indus & Gomal rivers by Peshawar University||Aceramic, microliths, cattle bones|
|Hastinapur||OCP & PGW||Uttar Pradesh||Two glass bangles, cultivated crops, bone dice, glass beads|
|Bhimbetka||paleolithic and mesolithic||Madhya Pradesh||Caves of Homo Sapien, 500 painted rock shelter|
|Mehargarh||Neolithic||near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan||Earliest evidence of agriculture.|
|Koldihva||Uttar Pradesh||Earliest evidence of rice.|
➤ According to Radio Carbon dating Harappan civilization developed between 2500 B.C. to 1750 B.C.
➤ Indus Civilization is also called as Harappan Civilization because the first excavated site is Harappa.
➤ It belongs to the Bronze Age.
➤ It extended from Manda (Jammu) in North to Daimabad in South.
➤ Major Settlements are in the Ghaggar-Hakra belt.
➤ More than 1000 sites have been excavated.
➤ Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.
➤ Seals were made up of steatite
➤ Majority of the seals have an animal engraved on it with a short inscription. The most frequently found animal is unicorn bull.
➤ Camel bones have been discovered at Kalibangan.
➤ They worshipped, Proto-Shiva, Mother-Goddess, Bull, and Pipal tree.
➤ Important sites are Harappa, Mohenjodero, Lothal, Kalibangan, Banwali, Dholavira.
➤ At Kalibangan and Lothal fire altars have been discovered.
➤ Furrowed field has been discovered at Kalibangan.
➤ Harappan civilization was the first urban civilization.
➤ Most of the sites of Harappan civilisation is found in state of Gujarat.
➤ Great Bath is at Mohenjodaro
➤ Their Pottery was red or black Pottery
➤ The script was pictographic
➤ The writing was Boustrophedon.
➤ Mohenjodaro a Sindhi word meaning “Mound of the dead.”
➤ Bead making factory existed in Chanhudaro and Lothal
➤ Rakhigarhi is the latest site discovered in India.
➤ Ink-pot has been discovered at Chanhudaro
➤ Cemetry H and R-37 have been discovered at Harappa.
➤ Teracotta Plough has been discovered at Banawali
➤ Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world.
Note : Two big mounds of Harappan sites found at Rakhigarhi in Hisar district of Haryana in January 2014. It has led to archaeologists establishing it as the biggest Harappan civilization site.
Major Indus Valley Sites
|Name of sites||Year of excavation||Excavator||River/Region||Archaeological Findings|
|Harappa||1921 – 1926 – 1946 – 18561986-90||Daya Ram Sahni Madho|
SwaroopVatsa, . S.M Wheeler,
A. Cunningham R.H. Meadow
Montgomery of Punjab (Pakistan) (Sahiwal) between Lahaur and Multan
|(1) Six Granaries in row.|
(2) Grid planned city.
(3) Coffin burial
(4) Cemetery-H of alien people
(6) Stone symbols of Lingam and Yoni.
(7) Clay figures of mother Goddess; Wheat and Barley in wooden mortar; Copper scale; Dice, Vanity box; Copper made mirror; workmen’s quarter
|Mohenjodaro (Nakhlistan, i.e. Oasis of Sindh)||1922 – 1927 – 1930-31, 1947, 1964-66||R. D. Banerjee Mackay, E. J. H. Wheeler, S.M.|
S. J. Marshall G.F. Dales
district in Sindh. (Pakistan)
|➤City followed by grid planning.|
➤Great Granary; Great Bath (the largest building)
➤Assembly hall; shell strips; Pashupati Mahadev; Bronze image of a nude woman dancer, steatite image of bearded man, human skeletons showing invasion and massacre. Painted seal (Demi God) Clay figure of mother goddess.
|Chanhudaro||1925 – 1931 –|
|Macky N. Gopal Majumdar E.J.H. Mackay||Indus|
Nawabshah District in Sindh(Pakistan)
|City without a citadel, Inkpot, Lipstick, Metal works, Shell-ornament makers, bead makers, shops, dog’s paw imprint on a brick, Terracotta (bullock cart) Bronze toy cart with created drivers|
The Ghaggar is known as 1961
Saraswati in Rajasthan
B. B. Lal and B. K. Thapar G. Dales, S.M. Wheeler
|➤Shows both Pre-harappan & Harappan phase.|
➤Furrowed land (pre-harappan)
➤07 fire altars; camel bones; well; wheels of a toy cart; Mesopotamian cylindrical seal, gram; tiger marked coin.
|Lothal (It was surrounded by a wall)||1954-58||S. R. Rao||Between Bhogava & Sabarmati rivers|
Ahmedabad district (Gujarat)
|First manmade port in the world, dockyard made by burnt bricks, painted jar (bird-fox) Bead makers factory, rice husk, fire altars; a measuring scale, chess playing; terracotta figurines of a horse and a ship, etc. Double burial (Male & Female), Dying Vat, Persian/Iranian seal, Bharainean seal.|
|Banwali||1973||R.N. Bisht (Ravindra Nath) Bisht.||Ghaggar|
|Shows both pre Harappan & Harappan phase. Toy plough, Clay figures of mother Goddess, Good quantity of barley and rice. Lack systematic drainage system.|
|Surkotada||1964||J. P. Josi|
Kutchh Gujrat (India)
|Bones of horses, Bead making shops, oval grave, pot burials.|
|R.L. Stein George Dales||Dasht river|
|Port city. Trade point between Harappa and Babylon.|
Human bones copper axe, an ashfullpot.
|N.G. Majumdar J.M. Casal||Indus river Sindh (Pakistan)||Evidence of Antelope|
|J.P. Joshi R. N. Bisht||Luni|
|➤Unique water management|
➤Largest site of large well and a bath.
➤Three parts of city.
➤Seven cultural stages.
➤Largest Harrappan inscription used for civil purposes, A stadium
|Rangpur||1953||M. S. Vats B. B. Lal S. R. Rao||Mahar|
|Cultivation of rice|
|Kot Diji||1955-57||Faizal Ahmed Khan||Indus|
|➤- Wheel made painted pottery, 16 layers of culture.|
➤- defensive wall and aligned streets.
➤- Metallurgy and artistic toys.
➤- 05 figurines of Mother Goddess.
|Y.D. Sharma S.S. Talwar R.N. Bisht||Sutlej|
|Burying a dog with master rectangular mudbrick chamber. Scented soil five fold cultures. (Harappa, Kushan, Gupta and Medieval)|
|J.P. Joshi G.F. Dales||the Arabian sea Las Bela Valley||1026 Remain of Pre-Harappan & Harappan Civilization|
1027 The mounds (9.7 mts (H) 2.8 sq. hectare of area)
|Alamgirpur||1958||Y. D. Sharma (Yagya Dutta)||Hindon|
|Eastern side of Civilization. Impression of cloth on a trough.|
|Manda||1975-76||J.P.Joshi & Madhu Bala||Chenab river|
|Northern site of civilization Copper pin, Saddle querns|
|Rakhi Garhi||Rafeeq Mugal||Jind (Haryana)|
THE EARLY VEDIC PERIOD (1500-1000 B.C.)
➤ It is also known as Rig Vedic Age.
➤ Rig Vedic Age gives us knowledge about the Aryans they were come in India from central Asia (Steppe region)
➤ The earliest Aryans lived in the land of ‘Sapta Sindhava’ i.e., land of Seven rivers.
➤ The early vedic society was Pastoral.
➤ Cattle was the chief measure of wealth and wealthy man was called ‘Gomat’.
➤ The term Aghanya or not to be killed, has been used for cows.
➤ The Raja or chief is called ‘Gopati’.
➤ In the Rigveda Godhuli is used as a term for a measure of time.
➤ Apart from Yava or Barley, no other grain is mentioned
➤ Indra was the greatest God of Aryans Agni occupied the second position.
➤ Varuna occupied the third position and he personfied water.
➤ The Battle of Ten Kings ended with the victory of the Bharatas led by Sudas.
➤ Gayatri Mantra is attributed to Savitri. Aditi was goddess of eternity.
➤ Widow marriage and Niyoga prevailed in the society.
➤ Important functionaries were Purohita, Senani, and gramini
➤ Important tribal Assemblies were Sabha, Samiti, Vidath and Gana.
➤ Sabha performed judicial and administrative functions.
➤ King attended Sabha but was not elected by it.
➤ Samiti is mentioned nine–times in Rigveda.
➤ Samiti was presided over by king.
➤ King was elected in Samiti.
➤ ‘Gana’ is mentioned for 46 places in Rigveda.
➤ Leader of Gana was called as ‘Ganapati’.
➤ Dasyus were the most bitter enemies of the Rigvedic people.
➤ Rigvedic people were not aware of Iron.
➤ Indra was the most important God.
➤ Indra was known as Purandar, Vritrahan and Marutavant.
➤ Varuna Uphold the natural order and moral order (Rita).
➤ Varuna was punisher of sin.
➤ Agni was called as Bhuvanchakshu.
➤ IXth book is devoted to Soma.
➤ Gayatri Mantra is mentioned in IIIrd Mandal of Rigveda.
➤ Asvins and Nasatyas were divine physicians.
➤ Yama was the Lord of the dead.
➤ Aditi is the mother of Surya.
➤ Varuna bears the title ‘Asura’.
➤ River Indus was the most important river in Vedic period.
➤ River Sarswati was the most sacred river in Vedic period.
THE LATER VEDIC PERIOD (1000-600 B.C.)
➤ The period assigned to later Vedic phase is 1000 B.C. to 600 B.C.
➤ These communities used a particular kind of pottery called the Painted Grey Ware (PGW).
➤ More than 700 PGW sites have been found in the upper Ganga basin. Some important PGW sites are Atranji Khera, Ahichhatra, Noh, Hastinapur, Kurukshetra, Bhagwanpura and Jakhera.
➤ Iron objects are common to most PGW sites. This metal was introduced around 1000-800 B.C. It is mentioned as Ayas.
➤ Society was clearly divided into four Varnas namely–Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudras.
➤ The upper three classes were known as Dvij (twice born).
➤ Education begin with investiture ceremony (upanayana)
➤ Sometimes girls were also initiated.
Woman lost Importance.
➤ Gotra first appeared in Atharvaveda with the meaning of clan.
➤ There was practice of class exogamy.
➤ There was reference to sati but not in common fashion.
➤ There were instances of child marriage.
➤ Indra and Agni lost their importance.
Prajapati (the creator) became supreme.
➤ Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver and protector of the people.
➤ Pushan became God of Shudras.
➤ Sacrifices became more important and elaborate.
➤ There were 33 deities during later Vedic period.
➤ The king’s influence was strengthened by rituals.
➤ Rajasuya conferred supreme power on king.
➤ Chariot racing was the main sport and gambling was the main pastime.
➤ Vajapeya was a drink of strength.
➤ Aswamedha was the horse sacrifice.
➤ Kings were known with different names in different region.
➤ Eastern Kings were called Samrat.
➤ Western Kings were called Svarat.
➤ Northern Kings were called Virat.
➤ Southern Kings were called Bhoja.
➤ Kings of the middle country were called Raja.
➤ Earliest evidence of medicine comes from Atharvaveda.
➤ Parikshit has been called as the king of ‘Mrituloka in Atharvaveda’.
➤ King used to visit the house of each Ratnin in Ratnavimshi ceremony.
➤ A regular army was maintained for the protection of the kingdom.
➤ Atharvaveda mentions Sabha and Samiti as daughters of Prajapati.
➤ According to Kathak Samhita 24 oxen were employed for agriculture.
➤ During later vedic period Prajapati came to occupy the Supreme position.
➤ Pushan was the God of Shudras.
➤ Rudra was the God of animals.
➤ Institution of Gotra appeared during later vedic period.
➤ Duties of four varnas are given in Aatreya Brahamana.
➤ Three roomed mud house has been discovered at Bhagwanpura.
➤ Largest deposit of Iron weapon have been found at Atranjikhera.
➤ Two furnaces for iron smelting have been found at Suneri village in Jhunjhunu district.
➤ Legend of ‘Videha Madhav’ is mentioned in Satapatha Brahamana.
➤ Eight forms of marriages are given in Ashvalahayan Grihyasutra.
➤ Satapatha Brahamana says that ‘wife is half her husband’.
➤ Women enjoyed freedom and respect but their status deteriorated compared to the early vedic period.
➤ Earliest clear reference to the four ashrams is given in Jabala Upnishad.
➤ The word Veda is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Vidi’ meaning, to know or knowledge par excellence.
➤ Vedic texts are divided between Sruti (based on hearing), which is distinct from Smriti (based on memory).
➤ Four Vedas and their Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Upanishads form a class of literature known as Sruti.
➤ It is divided into 10 Books or Mandalas. Books II to VII are considered the oldest. Book I, VIII and X seem to be later additions.
➤ A collection of 1028 hymns of a number of priestly families.
➤ Written between 1700-1500 B.C. when Aryans were still in Punjab.
➤ Books II to VII are earliest and are also called as family books.
They are attributed to Gritsamada, Visvamitra, Vasudeva, Atri, Bhardwaj, Vashishtha, Kanva and Angiras.
➤ The IX mandala is dedicated exclusively to Soma.
➤ The singer of the Rig veda is called the Hotra.
➤ The X Mandala contains the famous Purushsukta hymn that explains the origin of four Varnas.
➤ Gayatri Mantra is the most sacred hymn of Rig Veda. Mentioned in 3rd mandal, written by Viswamitra.
➤ A ritualistic Veda.
➤ It is divided into Shukla Yajurveda and Krishna Yajurveda.
➤ Written in prose, it deals with procedure for performance of sacrifices and contains rituals as well as hymns.
➤ The singer of the Yajur Veda is called Ardhavayu.
➤ Sam Veda derives its roots from Saman, which means a melody.
➤ A collection of melodies.
➤ A collection of 1603 hymns. Except 99, all other were derived from Rig Veda.
➤ It contains the Dhrupada Raga.
➤ The singer of Sama Veda is called Udgata.
➤ A collection of 711 hymns, it is divided into 20 khandas.
➤ It is the latest Veda.
➤ Atharva Veda is a book of magical formula medicinal treatises etc.
➤ It contains charms and spell to ward off evil and disease.
➤ Its content throws light on the practices of non-Aryans.
➤ In Atharvaveda, Sabha and Samiti are described as uterine sisters–The two daughters of Prajapati.
➤ This veda is also known as Brahma Veda.
Vedic Literature (1500 BC-600 BC)
➤ It is presumed that the Rig Veda was composed while the Aryans were still in the Punjab.
➤ Vedic Literature comprises of four literary productions: 1. The Samhitas or Vedas 2. The Brahamans
3. The Aranyakas 4. The Upanishads.
➤ Vedic Literature had grown up in course of time and was really handed down from generation to generation. Hence these are called Shruti (to hear)
➤ The most important of Vedic Literature are Veda. Vedas are called Apaurasheva i.e. not created by man but God-gifted and Nitya i.e. existing in all eternity.
➤ There are four Vedas—Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. The first three Vedas are jointly called Vedatrayi i.e. trio of Vedas.
➤ Of the four Vedas, the Rig Veda
(Collection of lyrics) is the oldest text in the wold, and therefore, is also known as ‘the first testament of mankind’. The Rig Veda contains 1028 hymns, divided into 10 mandalas. Six mandalas
(from 2nd to 7th mandalas) are called Gotra/ Vamsha Mandalas
(Kula Granth). The 1st and 10th mandalas are said to have been added later. The 10th mandala contains the famous Purushasukta which explains the 4 Varnas – Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. The hymns of Rig Veda were recited by Hotri.
➤ The Sama Veda (book of chants) had 1549 hymns. All hymns (excluding 75) were taken from the Rig Veda. The hymns of the Sama Veda were recited by Udgatri.
This Veda is important for Indian music.
➤ The Yajur Veda (book of sacrificial prayers) is a ritual veda. Its hymns were recited by Adhvaryus.
It is divided into two parts- Krishna Yajur Veda and Shukla Yajur Veda. In contrast to the first two which are in verse entirely, this one is in both verse and prose.
➤ The Atharva Veda (book of magical formulae), the fourth and the last one, contains charms and spells to ward off evils and diseases.
For a very long time it was not included in the category of the Vedas.
➤ The Brahmans explain the hymns of the Vedas. They are written in prose and ritualistic in nature.
Brahma means ‘sacrifice’. The various sacrifices and rituals have been elaborately discussed in the Brahamanas. Every Veda has several Brahamanas attached to it : Rig Veda—Aitareya and Kaushitikij Sankhyan.
Sam Veda—Panchvisha (Tandya Maha Brahamana), Shadvinsh, Chliandogya and Jaiminaya.
Yajur Veda—Shatapatha (the oldest and the largest Brahamana) and Taittariya.
➤ The word Aranya means ‘the forest’.
The ‘forest texts’ were called Vedanta, because they were written mainly for the hermits and the students living in jungles. The Aranyaka are the concluding portions of the Brahamanas.
➤ The Upanishadas are philosphical texts. They are generally called Vedanta, as they came towards the end of the Veda. There are 108 Upanishadas. Vrihadaranyaka is the oldest Upanishada.
Literature of Vedic Tradition (600
➤ Literature of Vedic Tradition (Smriti
i.e. rememberance literature) comprises of 6 literary works :
1. Vedangas/Sutras 2. Smritis Dharmashastras 3. Mahakavyas (Epics) 4. Puranas 5. Upvedas 6.
➤ There are six Vedangas :
(i) Shiksha (Phonetics): Tratishakhya’- the oldest text on phonetics.
(ii) Kalpa Sutras (Rituals) : (a) Shravta Sutras/Shulva Sutra – deal with the sacrifices, (b) Grihya Sutras—deal with family ceremonies, (c) Dharma Sutras—deal with Varnas, Ashramas etc.
(iii) Vyakarana (Grammar) : ‘Ashtadyayi’
(Panini) — oldest grammar of the word.
(iv) Nirukta (Etymology) : ‘Nirukta’ (Yask) based on ‘Nighantu’ (Kashyap)— a collection of difficult vedic words—(‘Nighantu’—the oldest wordcollection of the-world; ‘Nirukta’—the oldest dictionary of the world).
(v) Chhanda (Metrics) : ‘Chhandasutras’ (Pingal)–famous text.
(vi) Jyotisha (Astronomy) ‘’Vedanga Jyotisha’ (Lagadh Muni – the oldest Jyotisha text.
➤ There are six famous smritis :
(i) Manu Smriti (Pre-Gupta Period)— the oldest Smriti text; Commentators : Vishwarupa, Meghatithi, Gobindraj, Kulluk Bhatt.
(ii) Yajnavalkya Smriti (Pre-Gupta Period)— Commentators : Vishwarupa, Vijayaneshwar, Apararka (a king of Shilahar Dynasty)
(iii) Narad Smriti (Gupta period),
(iv) Parashara Smriti (Gupta period)
(v) Brihaspati Smriti (Gupta period),
(vi) Katyayana Smriti (Gupta period).
➤ There are mainly two Mahakavyas (Epics) :
(i) The Ramayana (Valmiki) : It is known as ‘Adi Kavya’ (the oldest epic of the world). At present, it consists of 24,000 shlokas i.e. verses
(Originally 6,000, Later – 12,000, Finally – 24,000) in 7 Kandas i.e.
sections. 1st and 7th Kandas were the latest additions to the Ramayana.
(ii) The Mahabharata (Ved Vyasa) : The longest epic of the world. At present, it consists of 1,00,000 shlokas i.e. verses (Originally–8,800- Jay Samhita, Later-24,000–Chaturvinshati Sahastri Samhita/Bharata, Finally-l,00,000-Shatasahastri Samhita/Maha Bharata) in 18 Parvans
i.e. chapters, plus the Harivamsa supplement. Bhagavad Gita is extracted from Bihshma Parvan of Mahabharata. Shanti Parvan is the largest parvan (chapter) of the Mahabarata.
➤ The Purana means ‘the old’. There are 18 famous ‘Puranas’. The Matsya Purana is the oldest Puranic text. The other important Puranas are the Bhagavata, the Vishnu, the Vayu and the Brahmanda. They describe genealogies of various royal dynasties.
➤ The Upavedas (the auxiliary vedas) were traditionally associated with vedas :
Upavedas Associated with Vedas
|1. Ayurveda i.e. Medicine||Rig Veda|
|2. Gandharvaveda i.e. Music||Sama Veda|
|3. Dhanurveda i.e. Archery||Yajur Veda|
|4. Shilpveda/Arthaveda i.e. the science of craft/wealth (Vishwakarma)||Atharva Veda|
There are 6 schools of Indian philosophy known as Shad-Darshanas.
|1.||Sankhya Darshana||Kapila||Sankhya Sutra|
|2.||Yoga Darshana||Patanjali||Yoga Sutra|
|3.||Nyaya Darshana||Akshapada Gautama||Nayaya Sutra|
|4.||Vaishesika Darshana||Uluka Kanada||Vaishesika Sutra|
|5.||Miraansa/Purva Mimansa||Jaimini||Purva Mimansa Sutra|
|6.||Vedant/Uttara-Mimansa||Badarayana||Brahma Sutra/ Vedant Sutra|
Major Rivers in rigvedic Period
|Rigvedic Name||Modern name||Region|
|Sindhu||Indus||Punjab (Pakistan) & J&K|
|Asikani||Chenab||Punjab (Pakistan) & J&K|
Types of Hindu Marriage (Vivaha)
Brahma Vivaha : Giving the girl to a man with dowry.
Daiva Vivaha : Giving the girl to the priest himself in lieu of his fees.
Arsha Vivaha : Giving the girl to a man after accepting a brideprice.
Prajapatya Vivaha : Giving the girl to a man without demanding a brideprice.
Gandharva Vivaha : Love marriage.
Asura Vivaha : Marriage with a purchased girl.
Rakshasa Vivaha : Marriage with the daughter of a defeated king or with a kidnapped girl.
Paishacha Vivaha : Marriage to a girl after seducing or raping her.
➤ Anuloma Vivah : marriage between a bridegroom from an upper caste and a bride from a lower caste; Pratiloma Vivaha-the reverse of Anuloma Vivaha.
➤ 16 Samskaras
1. Garbhadhana 2. Pumsavana 3. Simantonnayan 4. Jatakarma 5. Namakaran
6. Nishkramana 7. Annaprashana 8. Chudakarma 9. Karnachhedana
10. Vidvarmbha 11. Upanavana 12. Vedarambha 13. Samavaratana
14. Vivaha 15. Vanprastha 16. Antyesti.
Six Systems of Philosophy
|Sankhya||Kapila||Ishwar Krishna, Vachaspati|
|Nyaya||Akshapada Gautma||Vatsayayan, Udyanacharya, Jayantbhatt|
|Vaisheshika||Uluka Kanada||Keshav raishra, Vishvanath|
|Mimansa||Jamini||Sabrasvamin, Kumaril Bhatt|
|Vedanta||Badrayana||Shankaracharya, Vachaspati, Ramanuj, Madhvacharya etc.|
OTHER HETERODOX IDEAS
1. Makhali Putta Gosal : Popularised Ajivika Sect.
➤ Ajivikas believed in niyativad.
➤ Goshala’s follower centred around Sravasti.
2. Charvak : Believed in complete materialism.
3. Purana Kassapa : Preached the doctrine of Akriya or non-action.
4. Ajit Kesakamblin (Ucchedvad) : Preached that everything ended with death and there is no further life after death.
5. Pakudha Kachchayna (Asasvatavad) : There are seven elements and the body is ultimately dissolved in these seven elements.
Other Religious-ideas and their founders
Kallata and Samnanda
➤ The origin of Saivism can be traced back to the pre-vedic times.
➤ By the early centuries of the Christian era it was a popular sect all over India.
➤ Siva was the principle deity of this sect.
➤ Siva was worshipped in the form of Linga.
➤ Kushan king Weem Wema Kadphises was an ardent devotee of Siva.
➤ Prakrit text Gathasaptasati has references to Siva worship.
➤ Tamil Sangam work refers to Siva as the greatest of all gods (mamudu mudalvan).
➤ Siva’s consort Parvati was adored as Sakti.
➤ In Satavahana kindom Parvati was worshipped as Gauri.
➤ Skanda was regarded as the son of Siva.
➤ In Tamil country Skanda was worshipped in the Murugan form.
➤ Ganesa was the younger brother of Skanda.
➤ Ganesa was also known as Vinayak.
➤ The most popular Saiva sect was Pasupata sect.
➤ The Kapalika and Kalamukha sect developed much later.
VARIOUS SECTS OF SAIVISM
➤ It was founded by Lakulisa/ Nakulisa/Lakulin/Lakutin
➤ They besmear the body with ashes.
➤ They creates sound of Ha Ha and Hundukkara.
➤ It was dualistic in character.
➤ Pasu, the individual soul-exists with Pati, the supreme soul.
➤ Dakhanata (end of misery) is attained through yoga and Vidhi.
➤ They observe atimargika religious practices.
➤ The basic works are Pasupata sutras and Sarvadarsansmgraha.
➤ It was extreme form of Saivism.
➤ They eat food in skull, eat ashes, carry pots of wine.
➤ They worship Bhairava as the great God with his wife Chandika.
➤ The perform human sacrifices.
➤ They practice yoga in order to acquire miraculous powers.
➤ They observe unconventional and horrifying practices including sexual rites.
➤ It was an off shoots of Pasupata sect.
➤ It flourished during the Gupta and post Gupta period.
➤ It was moderate form of Saivism.
➤ It developed in central India.
➤ It was founded by Basava, the Prime Minister, of Bijjala, the Kalachuri King.
➤ It was anti-Brahmin in nature.
➤ They believe in love and self Surrender.
➤ They worship Linga and Nandi bull.
➤ They encouraged widow remarriage.
➤ Their philoshophy is known as Shakti Visistadvaita soul as separable union with Para-Siva through Shakti.
➤ The Para Siva is the supreme reality and Shakti is the power which resides in him.
➤ The ultimate goal of the soul is to unit with Para-Siva, this state is known as Ling Samarasya which means identity between Linga (Siva) and Anga (soul).
➤ They observed Diksha ceremony in the place of Upanayana in which even girls wear Linga.
➤ They do not worship Siva in temples.
➤ It was popular in Karnataka region.
E. Kashmir Saivism
➤ Its origin is traced to Siva-Sutras revealed to Vasugupta.
➤ It’s founder is vasugupta (800- 900 AD).
➤ It is also known as Trika/Triad because it had three chief religious books.
➤ It regards the individual soul and the world identical with Siva.
➤ Pratyabhijna means realisation of the soul’s identity with Siva.
➤ The ultimate reality is Siva.
➤ Siva is known as anultara which means the reality beyond which there is nothing.
➤ Salvation lies in recognition that the soul is one with Siva.
➤ It was a moderate form of Saivism.
➤ It believed in spiritual development.
➤ Some of greatest exponents were Utpalachara,
➤ Abhinavgupta and his disciple Kshemraja.
➤ It’s founders are Kallata and Samnanda, the two disciples of Vasugupta.
➤ The term spanda means a change from the state of absolute unity to the plurality of the world.
➤ Kallata wrote Spanda-Sarvasa.
➤ Somananda wrote Siva-dristi.
➤ It was a moderate form of Saivism.
➤ The principal deity of this sect was Vishnu.
➤ The cult of Vishnu in the early period was known by the name Bhagavatism.
➤ Bhagavatism owed its origin to the Upanishadas.
➤ Bhagavatism arose around the Mathura region.
➤ Vasudeva was the central figure in the Bhagavata cult.
➤ Around second century B.C.
Vishnu and Narayan were united and identified as one deity.
➤ Heliodorus erected a pillar with Garuda, at Besnagar (Vidisa) near Bhopal in honour of Vasudeva.
➤ Lakshmi is Vishnu’s consort.
➤ Vasudeva-Krishna was the disciple of Ghora-Agnirasa.
➤ Megasthenese refers to Krishna as Herakles of Souraseni tribe.
➤ Ten awataras of Vishnu – (i) Matsya (fish), (ii) Kurma (tortoise), (iii) Varaha (boar), (iv) Narasimha (man-lion), (v) Vamana (dwarf), (vi) Parasurama (Rama with axe), (vii) Rama, (viii) Krishna, (ix) Budha, (x) Kalkin (yet to born).
➤ It was patronised by Guptas, Chalukyas, Hoyasalas, Satvahanas.
➤ Acharyas are the great leader philosophers of Vaishnavism who defended and popularised the religion. Some of the prominent acharyas are : Ramanuja, Chaitanya, Madhava, Nimbarka, Nathmuni, Yamunacharya.
➤ The earliest reference to Krishan is found in Chhandogya Upanishad.
➤ The reference to Vasudeva is found in Panini’s Ashtyadhyayi and Patanjali’s Mahabhashya.
➤ Narayana, the cosmic God finds mention in the Satpatha Brahamana.
➤ Pancharatra, a Vaishnavite school, gave the doctrine of Vyuha (emancipation) according to which Sankarasana (Balram), Pradumana (Krishna’s), Anirudha (Krishna’s grand son) emerged out of Vasudeva.
➤ It was developed and popularised in south by twelve saints known as Alvars.
➤ Nammalvar and Tirumalsalvar were the greatest of twelve Alvars.
➤ The core of Tantrism means essentially orgiasticrites.
➤ The rites involve the use of five makaras : (i) matsya (fish) (ii) mansa (meat) (iii) madya (liquor) (iv) maithuna (sex) (v) mudra (physical gestures).
➤ In Tantrism high status was given to female deity.
➤ Tantrism emerged as a religious factor in the sixth century A.D.
and became a strong force by the ninth century.
➤ The Tantric priest act as a priest, physician, astrologer and shraman.
➤ Tantrism penetrated Buddhism, Jainism and Brahmana theology.
➤ The Yapaniya sect of the Jainas was the foremost in propagating Tantric mode of worship in Karnataka.
➤ It refers to the worship of female deity. It is first mentioned in the Mahabharata.
➤ The Tantric Devi hymn in the 10th mandala of Rig Veda is devoted to the worship of Goddesses.
➤ This religion was founded by Jesus Christ. He was born to Mother Marry and Joseph in Bethlehem near Jerusalem. His birth day (25th December) is celebrated as the holy festival, Christmas.
➤ His first two disciple, Andrews and Peter, were hanged in AD 33 by the Roman Governor Portius.
➤ Bible is the holy book of Christians and the sign of ‘cross’ is their holy symbol.
➤ Hazrat Muhammad Saheb
founded the islamic religion. He was born to Amina (mother) and Abdullah (father) at Mecca in AD 570.
➤ He was married to Khajida (a widow) at the age of 25 yrs. His daugher, Fatima, was married to Ali Hussain.
➤ Hazrat Muhammad attained supreme knowledge or enlightment in AD 610 in the Hira Cave near Mecca. His teachings are compiled in the Holy Quran.
➤ 24th September AD 622, the day Hazrat Muhammad started his journey from Mecca to Medina mark the beginning of Hijri Era.
➤ He died on 8th June, AD 632 and was buried at Medina.
➤ After his death Islam divided into Shia and Sunni cult. His successors were known as Khalifa. The Turkish ruler, Mushtafa Kamal Pasha, Kalifah ended the designation of Caliphate 1924 A.D.
➤ The birthday of Muhammad Saheb is celebrated as Eid-mild-un-Nabi.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUNNI AND SHIA SECTS
A Schism emerged after the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632. A.D. He died without appointing a succesor to lead the Muslim community, and disputes arose over who should shepherd the new and rapidly growing faith.
Some belived that a new leader should be chosen by consensus; others thought that only the prophets descendants should become caliph.
The title passed to a trusted aide, Abu Bakr, though some thought it should have gone to Ali, the prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. Ali eventually did become caliph after Abu Bakr’s two successors were assassinated.
After Ali also was assassinated, with a poisonlaced sword at the mosque in kufa, in what is now Iraq his son Hasan and then Hussein and many of his relatives were massacred in karbala, Iraq in 680 A.D.
His martyrdom became a central tenet to those who believed that Ali should have suceeded the prophet. The followers became known as shias, a contraction of the phrase Shiat Ali, or followers of Ali. The Sunnis, however, regard the first three caliphs before Ali as rightly guided and themselves as the true adherents to the Sunnah or the Prophet’s tradition.
Sunni rulers embarked on sweeping conquests that extended the caliphate into North Africa and Europe.
Beliefs of Sunni and Shia Sects :
The Sunni and Shia sects encompass a wide spectrum of doctrine, opinion and schools of thought. The branches are in agreement on many aspects of Islam, but there are considerable disagreements within each both branches include worshippers who run the gamut from secular to fundamentalist.
Shias consider Ali and the leaders who came after him as Imams. The most believe in a line of 12 Imams, the last of whom, a boy is believed to have vanished in the ninth century in Iraq after his father was murdered.
Shias known as Twelvers anticipate his return as the Mahdi or Messiah.
Sunnis emphasise God’s power in the material world, sometimes including the public and political realm, while the Shias value martyrdom and sacrifice.
➤ Parsi religion was founded by Prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra). His teachings compiled in the holybook, Zend Avesta. His followers believed in one God, Ahur.
➤ Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha.
➤ Buddha was born on the Vaisakh Purnima day in 563 B.C.
➤ He belonged to the Sakya clan of Kshatriyas.
➤ His father was Suddhodana, the ruler of Kapilvastu.
➤ He was born in Lumbini in Kapilvastu.
➤ His mother was Mahamaya of the Kosala dynasty.
➤ Buddha got Nirvana at the age of 35 years.
➤ Buddha got Nirvana at Uruvela on the bank of river Niranjana.
➤ Buddha gave his first Sermon at Sarnath.
➤ Buddha’s first sermon is called as “Dharma Chakraparivartana”
➤ Buddha died in 483 B.C. at Kushinagar.
➤ Kushinagar has been identified with village Kasia in Deoria district of U.P.
➤ Buddha’s last words were “All composite things, strive diligently”.
➤ Buddha was brought up by his stepmother Gautami.
➤ After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, Buddha decided to become a wanderer.
➤ Asvajit, Upali, Mogallana, Sariputra and Ananda were five disciples of Buddha
Five Great Events of Buddha’s Life and their symbols
➤ Birth : Lotus and Bull
➤ Great Renunciation : Horse
➤ Nirvana : Bodhi tree
➤ First Sermon : Dharmachakra or wheel
➤ Parinirvana or Death : Stupa
Four Noble Truths
➤ The world is full of sorrows.
➤ Desire is root cause of sorrow.
➤ If desire is conquered, all sorrows can be removed.
➤ Desire can be removed by following the eight-fold path.
Eight Fold Path
(1) Right understanding
(2) Right speech
(3) Right livelihood
(4) Right mindfulness
(5) Right thought
(6) Right action
(7) Right effort and
(8) Right concentration
IMPORTANT FACTS RELATED WITH BUDDHA
|IMPORTANT FACTS RELATED WITH BUDDHA|
|Tathagata, Sakyamuni||Titles of Buddha|
|Sakya||Clan to which Buddha belong|
|Gautama||Gotra of Buddha|
|Prajapati Gautami||Foster Mother|
|Alara Kalam||Buddha’s Teacher|
|Sujata||Girl who offered rice and milk|
|Niranjana||River on the bank of which Buddha attained Nirvana|
|Mara||King of spirit who troubled Buddha during meditation|
|Chunda||The person who offered pork to Buddha|
|Sravasti||Buddha preached most of his sermons here|
Code of Conduct :
(1) Do not covet the property of others
(2) Do not commit violence
(3) Do not speak a lie
(4) Do not indulge in corrupt practices
➤ The First Council was held in 483 BC at Saptaparni cave near Rajagriha to compile the Dhamma Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka.
Chairman : Mahakassapa, Patron : Ajatshatru
➤ The Second Council was held at Vaisali in 383 BC. The monks of Vaisali wanted some change in the rites. Schism into Sthaviravadins and Mahasanghikas.
Chairman : Sabakami, Patron : Kalashoka
➤ The Third Council was held at Pataliputra during the reign of Ashoka 236 years after the death of Buddha. It was held under the Presidentship of Moggliputta Tissa to revise the scriptures.
➤ The Fourth Council was held during the reign of Kanishka in Kashmir under the Presidentship of Vasumitra, who was helped by Aswvaghosha and resulted in the division of Buddhists into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.
SECTS OF BUDDHISM
➤ Hinayana :
(a) Its followers believed in the original teachings of Buddha
(b) They sought individual salvation through self-discipline and meditation.
(c) They did not believe in idolworship
(d) Hinayana, like Jainism, is a religion without God, Karma taking the place of God
(e) Nirvana is regarded as the extinction of all
(f) the oldest school of Hinayana Buddhism is the Sthaviravada (Thervada in Pali) or the ‘Doctrine of the Elders’
(g) Its Sanskrit counterpart, which is more philosophical is known as Sarvastivada or the doctrine which maintains the existence of all things, physical as well as mental and
(h) Gradually, from Sarvastivada or Vaibhasika branched off another school called Sautantrika, which was more critical in outlook.
➤ Mahayana :
(a) Its followers believed in the heavenliness of Buddha and sought the salvation of all through the grace and help of Buddha and Bodhisatvas.
(b) Believes in idolworship.
(c) Believes that Nirvana is not a negative cessation of misery but a positive state of bliss.
(d) Mahayana had two chief philosophical schools : the Madhyamika and the Yogachara.
(e) The former took a line midway between the uncompromising realism of Hinayanism and the idealism of Hinayanism and the idealism of Yogachara.
(f) The Yogachara school founded by Maitreyanatha completely rejected the realism of Hinayana and maintained absolute idealism.
(a) Its followers believed that salvation could be the best attained by acquiring the magical power, which they called Vajra.
Buddhist Location – Founder (Imoversotoes)
1. Nalanda Badagoan, Bihar Kumargupta-I
2. Vikramshila Bhagalpur, Bihar Dharmapala (Pala ruler)
3. Somapuri North Bengal Dharmapala (Pala ruler)
4. Jagadal Bengal Ramapala (Pala ruler)
5. Odantpuri Bihar Sharit, Bihar Gopala (Pala ruler)
6. Vallabhi Gujarat Bhattarka (Maitrak Rule)
(b) The chief divinties of this new sect were the Taras.
(c) It became popular in Eastern India, particularly Bengal and Bihar.
➤ The Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitaka i.e. Three fold Basket.
➤ Tripitaka includes Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
➤ The Vinayapitaka comprires of suttavibhanga, Khandakas and Parivarpatha.
➤ The Vinay Pitaka :
(a) Mainly deals with rules and regulations, which the Buddha promulgated.
(b) It describes in detail the gradual development of the Sangha.
(c) An account of the life and teaching of the Buddha is also given.
➤ The Sutta Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas.
➤ The five Nikayas are Digh Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya and Khuddaka Nikaya.
➤ The Khuddaka Nikaya consists of large number of miscellanceous works.
➤ The Jatakas are a part of Khuddaka Nikaya of Sutta Pitaka.
➤ The Sutta Pitaka consists chiefly of :
(a) discourses delivered by Buddha himself on different occasions.
(b) Few discourses delivered by Sariputta, Ananda, Moggalana and other are also included in it.
(c) It lays down the principles of Buddhism.
➤ The Abhidhamma Pitaka is written in the form of questions and Answers.
➤ It consists of seven books of which Kathavattu is most important.
➤ Kathavattu is attributed to Tissa Moggaliputta
➤ The Abhidhamma Pitaka :
(a) Contains the profound philosophy of the Buddha’s tecahings.
(b) It investigates mind and matter, to help the understanding of things as they truly are.
➤ Buddhist architecture developed essentially in three forms, viz.
(a) Stupa (relics of the Buddha or some prominent Buddhist monks are preserved)
(b) Chaitya (prayer hall)
(c) Vihara (residence) Bodhisattvas
➤ Vajrapani (holds thunderbolt),
➤ Avlokitesvara/Padmapani (lotus beacer)
➤ Manjushri (holds books describing 10 paramitas)
➤ Kshitigrha (guardian of purgatories)
➤ Maitreya (the future Buddha)
➤ Amitabha/Amitayusha (Buddha of heaven)
|2.||Vikramshila||Bhagalpur, Bihar||Dharmapala (Pala ruler)|
|3.||Somapuri||North Bengal||Dharmapala (Pala ruler)|
|4.||Jagadal||Bengal||Ramapala (Pala ruler)|
|5.||Odantpuri||Bihar Sharit, Bihar||Gopala (Pala ruler)|
|6.||Vallabhi||Gujarat||Bhattarka (Maitrak Rule)|
EIGHT HOLY PLACE (ASHTAMAHASTHANAS)
(1) Lumbini, (2) Bodh Gaya, (3) Kusinagar, (4) Sravasti, (5) Sankasya, (6) Rajgriha, (7) Vaishali, (8) Sarnath.
SECTS OF BUDDHISM : AREA
Hinayana : India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore Mahayana : India, China, Nepal, Singapore, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam Vajrayana : India, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, Bhutan.
➤ Jainism was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira.
➤ Mahavira was born in 540 B.C.
➤ Mahavira’s Birth place was Kundagram in Vaishali
➤ He belonged to the Jantriak Kshatriya clan.
➤ His father’s name was Siddhartha and mother’s name was Trishala, who was a sister of the Lichchavi prince Chetak of Vaishali.
➤ Mahavira was married to Yashoda.
➤ He left home at the age of 30 and wandered for 12 years.
➤ He is regarded as the 24th Tirthankara.
➤ Rishabha was the 1st Tirthankara.
➤ Parsavanath was the 23rd Tirthankara.
➤ Mahavira’s first disciple was Jamali.
➤ He attained Kaivalya on the bank of river Rijupalika near Jrimbhikgrama.
Important Facts about Jainism
|Important Facts about Jainism|
|Mahavira, Arhat||Titles of Vardhamana,|
|Vardhamana||Original name of Mahavira|
|Kundagram||Mahavira’s birth place|
|Jamali||Mahavira’s Son in Law.|
|Jnatrika||Clan to which Mahavira belonged.|
|Rijupalika||River on the bank of which Mahavira got Kaivalya.|
|Sal tree||The tree under which Mahavira got Kaivalya.|
|Pava||Place where Mahavira died.|
➤ The names of two Jaina Tirthankaras, Rishabha and Aristanemi, are found in the Rigveda.
➤ The Vishnu Purana and the Bhagvata Purana describe Rishabha as an incarnation of Narayana.
➤ In the course of wandering Mahavira met Mokhliputta (the founder of Ajivika sect).
➤ Ashoka’s grandson Samparati accept Jainism.
➤ In First century A.D. Mathura became the Centre of Jaina art and culture.
➤ The spread of Jainism in Karnataka is attributed to Chandragupta Maurya.
➤ Many Jaina followers went to south under the leadership of Bhadrabahu.
➤ These southern followers later formed the Digambra sect (lives nude)
➤ Those who remained at Magadha, under the leadership of Sthalabahu, formed Shvetambar sect (wears white garments)
FIVE MAIN TEACHINGS
➤ Non-injury (ahimsa)
➤ Non-Stealing (asateya)
➤ Non-Possession (aparigraha)
➤ Observe continence (Brahamcharya). It was added by Mahavira.
➤ Most of the literature is written in Prakrit.
➤ The jaina Literature includes,
(1) The 12 Angas
(2) The 12 Upangas
(3) The 10 Prakirna
(4) The 6 Chhedsutras
(5) The 4 Mulasutras
➤ First Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the beginning of the third century BC and resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas.
➤ Second Council was held at Valabhi in the 6th (513 AD) century AD under the leadership of Devaradhi Kshamasramana and resulted in final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.
Explanation of formation of Digambaras and Shvetambaras : After the death of Mahavira during the reign of king Chandragupta Maurya a severe famine led to the migration of some jains under Bhadrabahu to the Deccan. Sthulabhadra remained in North and allowed wearing white garments Bhadrabahu maintained nudity leading to division as Digambaras
(sky clad or naked) and shwetambars (white clad).
Similarities between Buddhism and Jainism
➤ Both opposed Brahmanical domination and caste system but uphold the essence of Vedas, Preached Truth, non violence, celibacy and detachment from material comforts, believed in karma and rebirth and were liberal towards women.
➤ Aacharangsutra about rules and regulation for Jain Bhikshus.
Differences between Buddhism and Jainism
|Differences between Buddhism and Jainism|
|Salvation||Moderate one||Extreme one|
|Spread||Died in India but spread||Confined to India and survived|
|to foreign lands|
|Soul||Did not believe in soul||Belived in soul|
RISE OF MAHAJANAPADAS
➤ The Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya gives the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas at the time of Buddha.
➤ These Mahajanapadas extended from the North western Pakistan to east Bihar and from Himalayas to the river Godavari.
Mahajanapada Capital Area
|Anga||Champa||Bhagalpur, Munger (Bihar)|
|Magadha||Rajgriha||Patna, Gaya (Bihar)|
|Kosal||Saketa, Sravasti||Eastern Uttar Pradesh|
|Vajji (Ganasangha)||Vaishali||Muzaffarpur (Bihar)|
|Kuru||Indraprastha||Meerut Delhi region|
|Panchal||Ahicchatra, Kampilya||Western U.P.|
|Asmak||Paithan||Godhavari area (M.H.)|
|Avanti||Ujjain, Mahishmati||Malwa region|
➤ Kashi was famous for its cotton textiles and market for horses.
➤ Champa was noted for its trade and Commerce.
➤ Vajji represented a confederacy of eight clans.
➤ The Buddha died in the vicinity of Kusinara.
➤ The Northern Panchalas had their capital at Ahicchatra.
➤ The Southern Panchalas had their Capital at Kampilya.
➤ Viratnagar was used as the hiding place by Pandavas.
➤ Mathura was located at the junction of two famous trade routes i.e.
Uttrapatha and Dakshinapatha.
➤ The Kambojas were regarded as uncultured by the Brahamanical texts.
➤ The Buddha calls himself Kosalan in the Majjhima Nikaya.
➤ Kashi had emerged as a cloth manufaturing centre by the time of Buddha.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF MAGADHA
➤ Magadha enjoyed an advantageous geographical position
➤ Iron deposits were situated close to Rajgir, the earliest capital of Magadha.
➤ Rajgir and Pataliputra were situated at very strategic points.
➤ Pataliputra was surrounded by rivers from all sides it was called as jaladurga (water-fort).
➤ Magadha lay at the centre of the middle Gangetic plain.
➤ Magadha for the first time used elephants on a large scale in wars.
➤ Greek sources have mentioned that the Nandas maintained 6000 elephants.
➤ Magadha society was unorthodox and was recently Aryanized.
➤ Ambitious rulers like Bimbisara, Ajatshatru and Mahapadma nanda established Magadha as a powerful kingdom.
Magadha Empire Dynasties
Haryank Dynasty Shisunaga Dynasty Nanda Dynasty
➤ The epic Mahabharata has provided information about the early period of Magadha.
➤ Jarasandh and Brihdrath were the rulers during the period of Mahabharata.
➤ Girivraja was the magadhan capital during the early period.
BIMBISARA (544-492 B.C.)
➤ Bimbisara established Haryank dynasty.
➤ Rajgir was the capital of the state.
➤ Bimbisara ascended the throne in 544 B.C.
➤ In Jain literature he has been called as ‘Shraunik’.
➤ Bimbisara had three wives, mahakosala, Chellana and Khema.
➤ Mahakosala was the sister of Kosal ruler Prasenjit and Chellana was Lichchhavi Princess.
➤ Bimbisara defeated Anga and annexed it.
➤ Bimbisara was contemporary of Buddha.
➤ Bimbisara send his physician Jivak to treat Chand Pradyot of Avanti
➤ Bimbisara was prisoned by his son Ajatshatru and died in 493 B.C.
AJATSHATRU (492-460 B.C.)
➤ Ajatshatru sat on Magadha throne in 492 B.C.
➤ Ajatshatru followed an expansionist policy.
➤ After a long struggle he defeated Kasi and Vajji confederacy.
➤ Ajatshatru took the services of his minister Vassakar to divide the Vajji confederacy.
➤ Ajatshatru got a large stupa constructed in Rajgriha.
➤ Gautama Buddha died during his reign; arranged the first Buddhist council.
➤ Ajatshatru constructed a fort around Rajgriha to protect it from Lichcchavi attack.
➤ Ajatshatru was killed by his son Udayin in 461 B.C.
➤ Udayin transferred the Capital to Patliputra.
➤ Udayin was a follower of Jainism.
➤ The last Haryank ruler was Nagdasak.
SHISUNAGA DYNASTY (412-344B.C.)
➤ Nagdasak was killed by his minister Shisunaga.
➤ Shisunaga established Shisunaga dynasty in 412 B.C.
➤ Shisunaga annexed Avanti to Magadha.
➤ Shisunaga established his capital at Vaishali.
➤ Kalashoka came to the throne in 344 B.C.
➤ Kalashoka again transferred the capital to Pataliputra.
➤ During the reign of Kalashoka second Buddhist council was organized at Vaishali.
➤ Nandivardhan was the last Shisunaga ruler.
NANDA DYNASTY (344-323 B.C.)
➤ Nanda Dynasty was established by Mahapadmananda.
➤ According to Puranas he was not a Kshatriya.
➤ Mahapadmananda was known as Ekarat and Sarvakshatrantaka.
➤ Mahapadmananda conquered Kalinga.
➤ Last Nanda ruler was Dhanananda.
➤ Dhanananda was the contemporary of Alexander.
➤ Alexander attacked India in the reign of Dhanananda (the last ruler)
➤ The Nandas were fabulously rich and enormously powerful.
➤ Nanda Dynasty was destroyed by Chandragupta Maurya and Chanakya.
➤ Nandas have been termed as first empire builders of India.
➤ North-West India was ruled by smaller principalities like Kambojas and Gandharas.
➤ The Period of 6th century B.C.
marked by political instability in North-West India.
➤ In 516 B.C. the Iranian ruler Darius penetrated into North- West India.
➤ Darius annexed Punjab, west of Indus and Sindh.
➤ This area constituted the 20th kshatrapy (province) of Iran.
➤ The Indian Kshatrapy included Sindh, the North-West frontier and part of Punjab.
➤ The Indian Kshatrapy paid a tribute of 360 talents of Gold.
➤ Xerxes, the successor of Darius, employed Indians in the long war against the Greeks.
➤ The Iranian Scribes brought into India Kharoshti script.
➤ Under the leadership of Alexander of Macedonia, the Greeks destroyed the Iranian Empire.
➤ Alexander marched to India through the Khyber Pass in 326 B.C.
➤ Ambhi was the king of Taxila.
➤ Porus ruled between Jhelum and Ravi.
➤ Porus provided a strong resistance to Alexander.
➤ Alexander remained in India for 19 months (326-325 B.C.)
➤ Alexander’s campaign opened up four distinct routes by land and sea.
➤ Alexandria and Boukephala were Greek settlements which were established in the North West.
➤ Alexander’s historian Nearchus has left valuable geographical accounts.
➤ Battle of Hydaspes was fought between Porus and Alexander.
➤ Alexander sent 20,000 oxen to Macedonia for use in Greece.
➤ The Sati system and slave trade was prevalent in the society.
➤ Alexander’s invasion paved the way for the expansion of Mauryan Empire in North West India.
Effects of Alexander’s Invasion
➤ It exposed India to Europe by opening up four distinct lines of communication three by land and one by sea.
➤ The Hindu and the Buddhist religious faiths and philosophies had an impact of the Greek world of philosophy following Alexander’s time.
➤ Due to cultural contacts, a cosmopolition school of art came up in Gandhara.
➤ It paved the way for the unification of North India under chandragupta by weakening small states.
CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA (322-295 B.C)
➤ The Mauryan dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya or Kautilya.
➤ Brahamanical texts say he was born of Mura, a sudra women in the court of the Nandas.
➤ An earlier Buddhist tradition says he belonged to the Moriya Kshatriya clan.
➤ In some texts he is referred to as Vrishala and Kulahina.
➤ He fought Seleucus in 305 B.C.
➤ Seleucus surrendered a large territory including Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Gandhara) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan), in return for 500 elephants.
➤ According to Jaina tradition Chandragupta was converted to Jainism.
➤ Chandragupta Maurya passed his last days at Sravanbelagola near Mysore. Where he died by starvation (Sallekhana/Santhara) ritual of Jains.
➤ Seleucus sent an ambassador Megasthenes to the Mauryan court.
➤ Megasthenes wrote the text ‘Indica’
BINDUSARA (298-272 B.C.)
➤ Bindusara succeeded Chandragupta Maurya.
➤ In Jain literature he has been called as ‘Simhasen’.
➤ Antiochus sent Deimachus as an ambassador to Bindusara’s court.
➤ Ptolemy Philedelphus of Egypt sent Dionysius as ambassador.
➤ He was known as Amitraghata.
He was also known as Amitrochates.
➤ He wrote to Antiochus I of Syria and asked for some sweet, wine, dry figs and a sophist.
➤ He sent his son Ashoka to quell a rebellion in Taxila.
➤ He was a followers of Ajivika sect
➤ The Syrian ambassador Deimachus was sent to his court.
ASHOKA (273-232 B.C.)
➤ Ashoka (273-232 B.C.) succeeded Bindusara.
➤ He was holding viceroyalty of taxila and Ujjain during his fathers lifetime.
➤ After his fathers death he ascended the throne but formal consecration was delayed for 4 years.
➤ A Buddhist text says he usurped the throne after killing his 99 brothers.
➤ He fought Kalinga war in 260 B.C. in the 9th year of his reign.
➤ Under Ashoka, the empire reached its zenith. And in the history, for the first time, the entire Indian sub-continent came under a single umbrella (except extreme Southern India).
➤ In course of his second Dharmayatra tour (in 21st year of his reign), he visited Lumbini.
➤ In the 14th year of his reign he started the institution of Dharma Mahamatras.
NAMES & TITLES OF ASHOKA
|NAMES & TITLES OF ASHOKA|
|Ashoka||Maski minor rock edict|
|Ashoka Maurya||Junagarh inscription|
|Piyadassi||Dipavamsa, Kandhar inscription|
|Piyadassi Raja||Barabar hill cave inscription|
|Piyadassi Raja Magadh||Bhabru-Bairat minor rock edict|
|Raja Ashoka Dewanampiya||Udegolum minor rock edict|
|Raja Ashoka||Nittur minor rock edict|
|Devanampriyas Ashoka Rajas||Gurjara minor rock edict|
➤ The reverberation of the war drum (Bheri Ghosha) was to become the reverberation of the law
➤ His Hellenistic contemporaries were Antiochus II of Syria, Ptolemy II of Egypt, Antigonas of Macedonia, Magas of Cyrene and Alexander of Epirus.
➤ He organised the third Buddhist council in the 18th year of his reign at Patliputra.
➤ Ashoka banned animal sacrifice, regulated the slaughter of animal for food.
➤ According to his Maski and Gurjara inscriptions he was known as Devanam Priya Priyadarshi.
➤ He was converted to Buddhism by Nigrodh.
➤ Ashoka sent peace missionaries inside India as well as abroad.
Location of Major Rock Edicts
(1) Kalshi (Dehradun) (2) Manshera (Hazara dist. Pakistan) (3) Shahbazgarhi (Peshawar) (4) Girnar (Gujarat) (5) Sopara (Near Mumbai) (6) Dhauli (Odisha) (7) Jaugada (Odisha) (8) Maski (Andhra Pradesh) (9) Yerragudi (Andhra Pradesh)
Location of Minor Rock Edicts
(1) Bairat (2) Rupnath (3) Sahsaram (4) Rupnath (5) Brahmagiri (6) Gavimath (7) Jatinga Rameshwar (8) Maski (9) Palkigundu (10) Rajula-Mandagiri (11) Suvarnagiri (12) Yerragudi (13) Gurjara (14) Ahraura
Location of Pillar Edicts
(1) Allahabad (2) Delhi-Topra (3) Delhi-Meerut (4) Nigalisagar (5) Lauriya-Araraj (6) Lauriya- Nandangarh (7) Rampurva
INFORMATION -ASHOKAN INSCRIPTIONS
➤ 1st major rock edict declares prohibition of animal sacrifice.
➤ 2nd major rock edict mentions medical treatment of human and animals.
➤ 3rd major rock edict mentions Pradeshikas, Rajukas and Yukta.
➤ 4th major rock edict mentions Bheri Ghosha is replaced by Dhamma Ghosha.
➤ 5th major rock edict mentions the appointment of Dhamma Mahamattas.
➤ 6th major rock edict mentions Mantri Parishad and officers like pulisani and Prativedikar.
➤ 7th major rock edict mentions religious toleration amongst all sects.
➤ 8th major rock edict mentions that he went to Sambodhi in Bodh Gaya.
➤ 9th major rock edict mentions the uselessness of various ceremonies.
➤ 10th major rock edict mentions that the king desires no more fame
➤ 11th major rock edict explains the policy of Dhamma.
➤ 12th major rock edict appeals for toleration amongs sects.
➤ 13th rock edict mentions Kalinga war.
➤ 14th major rock edict mentions the purpose of the rock edicts.
➤ There are 7 pillar edicts.
➤ In the 1st pillar edict, social code has been mentioned.
➤ In the 2nd pillar edict eye donation has been mentioned.
➤ In the 3rd pillar edict soul and sin has been mentioned.
➤ In the 4th pillar edict Rajukas have been mentioned.
➤ In the 5th pillar edict animal killing is mentioned.
➤ The 6th pillar edict mentions the welfare of people.
➤ The 7th pillar edict mentions the Dhamma Mahamattas.
FACTS ABOUT ASHOKAN INSCRIPTIONS
➤ Maski edict discovered in 1915 is the only edict which mentions the name Ashoka.
➤ The Topra & Meerut pillars were brought to Delhi by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
➤ Ashokan edicts were deciphered by James Princep in 1837.
➤ The Kausambi pillar was brought to Calcutta by Jahangir.
➤ The Bairat inscription was brought to Allahabad by Cunningham.
➤ Two major rock edicts as Mansehra and Sahbazgarhi are in Kharoshti script.
➤ The Kandhar inscription is bilingual- Greek and Aramaic.
➤ Most of the Ashokan edicts are written in Brahmi script.
➤ The language used in Ashokan edicts except Kandhar is Prakrit.
➤ The inscription in fragmentary condition found at Lampak/ Lamghan is in Aramaic
➤ In all the edicts except the Maski edict Ashoka refers to himself by his title Devanampiya Piyadassi.
➤ The Allahabad pillars (brought from Kausambi) contains the inscription of Samudra Gupta and Jehangir also.
➤ Major rock edicts are fourteen in number.
➤ Total number of pillar edicts is thirteen, they are inscribed in ten pillars. Out of thirteen seven are major pillar edicts, four are minor pillar edicts and two are commemorative pillar edicts.
➤ Of the four minor pillars edicts one is known as Queen’s edict and it is on Allahabad pillar.
➤ Schism edicts (one each) are found in Allahabad, Sanchi and Sarnath Pillars.
➤ The commemorative pillar edicts are Rumeindei and Nigalisagar
(both in Nepal).
➤ The longest among the major rock edict is 13th rock edict (in Odisha).
➤ 7th pillar edict is longest among all the edicts.
➤ The Allahabad pillar contains first six pillar edicts, Queen’s edict, Kosam Schism edicts, Prasasti of Samudragupta written by Harisena and some decrees of Jehangir.
➤ Kharosthi script was derived from Persian Aramaic.
➤ He constructed Sanchi Stupa at Vidisha (M.P.)
IMPORTANT ADHYAKSHAS AND THEIR DUTIES
1. Panyadhyaksha : Commerce
2. Samsthadhyaksha : Markets, checking wrong practices
3. Pautavadhyaksha : Weights and measure
4. Navadhyaksha : State Boats
5. Sulkadhyaksha : Tolls/Customs
6. Akaradhyaksha : Mines
7. Lohadhyaksha : Iron
8. Savvarnika : Gold
9. Sitadhyaksha : Crown lands
10. Aksha pataladhyaksha : Accounts
11. Rathadhyaksha : Chariot
12. Hastyadhyaksha : Elephant force
13. Ayudhagaradhyaksha : Production and maintenance of armaments
14. Kosadhyaksha : Treasury
15. Kosthagaradhyaksha : Store house
16. Kupyadhyaksha : Forest produce
17. Manadhyaksha : Measurement
18. Mudradhyaksha : Passports
19. Pattanadhyaksha : Ports
20. Ganikadhyaksha : Courtesan
21. Devatadhyaksha : Religious institutions
22. Lakshanadhyaksha : Mint
IMPORTANT OFFICIALS :
Amatyas : The Secretaries
Antapala : Governer of the Frontier
Akshapatala : Accountant General
Durgapala : Governer of Fort
Dhamma : A New Post created by Ashoka.
Gopa : Responsible for accounts
Lipikaras : Scribes
Kumaras : The Viceroys-in-change of a province
Mahamatras : Functions of Propagating Dhamma and taking care of the common folk for their material well being.
Pra deshikas : Modern District magistrate.
Rajukas : later day Patwaris
Sthanika : The tax collector officers
THE VILLAGE LEVEL OFFICERS :
Gramika : Head of Village
Gram widdhas : Village elders.
SUNGAS AND KANVAS
➤ Pushyamitra laid the foundation of Sunga dynasty.
➤ Pushyamitra killed the last Mauryan ruler Brihdrath in 185 B.C.
➤ Patanjali was a contemporary of Pushyamitra Sunga.
➤ Pushyamitra performed two Aswamedha sacrifices.
➤ It was corroborated by Patanjali and Malavikagnimitram.
➤ He was succeeded by Agnimitra.
➤ A Sunga king, Agnimitra was the hero of kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitram.
➤ Heliodorus came during the reign of Bhagbhadra
➤ He was the ambassador of Greek king Antialkidas of Taxila.
➤ The last Sunga king was Devabhuti.
➤ This period saw the revival of Bhagvatism.
THE SATVAHANA DYNASTY
➤ The Puranas speak only of Andhra rule and not of Satvahana rule.
➤ Simuka was the first Satvahana king.
➤ They issued mostly coins of lead.
➤ They were the successors of the Mauryans in the Deccan and the central India.
➤ Gautamiputra Satkarni (106-130 A.D.) called himself the only Brahamana.
➤ His achievements are recorded in Nasik Inscription.
➤ Nasik Inscription belongs to his mother Gautami Balasri.
➤ Vashisthaputra Pulumayi (130- 158 A.D.) set up his capital at Paithan.
➤ He enlarged Amravati Stupa and decorated it with marble.
➤ He has been praised in Nanaghat Inscription.
➤ Yajnasri Satkarni (165-194 A.D.) recovered Malwa from the Shaka rulers.
➤ Ship is depicted on his coins.
➤ Satvahanas were the first rulers to make land grants to Brahamanas.
➤ Prakrit text Gathasaptashati is attributed to Satvahana king Hala.
➤ They had brisk trade with Romans.
➤ Nasik and Nanaghat are important inscription of the Satvahana period.
➤ A series of invasions from central Asia began around 200 B.C.
➤ The first to cross the Hindukush were the Indo–Greeks.
➤ Demetrius, the king of Bactria invaded India about 190 B.C.
➤ The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander (165-145 B.C.). His capital was Sakala or Sialkot.
➤ Menander was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
➤ The conversation between the two is recorded in a book named ‘Milindapanho’, or question of Milinda.
➤ Indo–Greeks were the first to issue gold coins in India.
➤ They were the first rulers in India to issue coins definitely attributed to the kings.
➤ They also introduced practice of military governorship. The governors were called ‘Strategos’.
➤ The Greek ambassador Heliodorus set up a pillar in honour of Vishnu at Vidisha.
➤ The term Horashastra used for astrology in Sanskrit is derived from the Greek term Horoscope.
➤ The Greeks were followed by the Sakas.
➤ They are referred to as scythians.
➤ The Saka poured into India through the Bolan Pass.
➤ The earliest Indian textual reference to the Sakas are found in the Mahabhasya.
➤ The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara.
➤ Maues was succeeded by Azes who successfully attacked the last of the Greek kings in Northern India, Hippostratos.
➤ The most famous of the Saka rulers was Rudradaman (130- 152 A.D.)
➤ His achievements are highlighted in his Junagarh Inscription.
➤ It is the first major inscription to be written in Sanskrit.
➤ It records the repair of Sudarshan lake undertook by his officers.
THE KUSHAN DYNASTY
➤ They are referred to as Yuch- Chis or Tocharians.
➤ They belonged to one of the five clans of the Yuch-Chis tribe.
➤ They came from North Central Asia near China. Their empire included a good part of central Asia a portion of Iran a portion of Afghanistan, Pakistan and almost the whole of North India.
➤ Kujula Kadphises initiated copper imitation of Roman coins.
➤ Wima Kadphises issued a large number of gold coins.
➤ Kanishka (78-144 A.D.) started the Shaka era (78 A.D.)
➤ His two capitals were Purushpura (Peshawar) and Mathura.
➤ He erected a monastery stupa at Peshawar.
➤ He was a great patron of art and literature.
➤ At Toprak-Kala a huge Kushan palace has been unearthed.
➤ Charak was the court physician of Kanishka.
➤ He was a great patron of Buddhism.
➤ Fourth Buddhist Council was held under his patronage at Kundalvan.
➤ Kanishka controlled the famous Silk route in central Asia.
➤ The Gandhara School of art recieved royal patronage of the Kushans.
➤ The Kanishka group of rulers used the title ‘Shanaushahi’.
➤ The Kushanas started erecting mortuary temples called Devakulas.
➤ Kushanas divided their empire into strips.
➤ Kanishka provided patronage to Ashvaghosha and Nagarjuna.
➤ Sri Gupta was the founder of Gupta rule.
➤ He was succeeded by Ghatotkacha.
➤ The real founder of the Gupta power was Chandragupta I (319- 355 A.D.)
➤ He was the first independent king with the title of Maharajadhiraja.
➤ He started the Gupta era in 319-320 A.D.
➤ He married a Lichchavi Princess.
➤ His empire included Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Bengal.
➤ Samudragupta (355-380 A.D.) enlarged enormously the Gupta kingdom.
➤ His achievements are mentioned in the Prayag-Prasasti composed by Harisena.
➤ He captured and annexed the Aryavrata rulers.
➤ He defeated 12 rulers of Dakshinapatha.
➤ These rulers were first captured and then released by Samudragupta.
➤ Harisena and Vasubandhu adorned his court.
➤ He was a great patron of art and adopted the title of Kaviraja.
➤ On some coins he is shown playing the Veena.
➤ V.A. Smith calls Samudragupta the ‘Napoleon of India’.
➤ Samudragupta had a disputed accession to the throne.
➤ Virasena was the commander of Samdragupta during his southern campaign.
➤ Samudragupta performed the Aswamedha Yajna and struck gold coins of Yupa type.
➤ He granted permission to the Buddhist king of Ceylon Meghavarman to build a Monastery at Bodh Gaya.
➤ The historian V.A. Smith complemented Samudragupta as the ‘Indian Nepoleon’.
➤ Samudragupta was succeeded by Ramgupta but Chandragupta II killed him and married his queen Dhruvadevi.
➤ He entered into matrimonial alliance with the Nagas by marrying princess Kubernaga.
➤ He defeated the Saka king Rudrasimha III and annexed his kingdom.
➤ He adopted the title of Vikramaditya. Mehrauli iron pillar inscription mentions his authority over North western India and a portion of Bengal.
➤ Virasena’s Udaigiri cave inscription refers to his conquest of the whole world.
➤ He made Ujjain his second capital.
➤ His court contained 9 gems including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Fa-hien, Acharya Dignaga etc.
➤ Veerasena Saba was the court poet and minister of Chandragupta II. Amarkhaddava was his army general.
➤ Fa-hien, the Chinese traveller came during the time of Chandragupta II.
➤ He issued silver and copper coins.
Titles of the Gupta Kings
Srigupta Adiraja, Maharaja
Samudragupta Sarva-raj-ochhchetta, kaviraja
Kumargupta Mahendraditya, Shakraditya
Skandagupta Vikramaditya, Karmaditya
Taxes Levied during the Gupta Dynasty
Bhag Kings share of produce
Bhoga General tribute
Hiranya Tax on special produce taken in cash
Bedakbhog Irrigation tax
Bhatta Police tax
Charasana Grazing tax
Chat Security tax
Prataya Toll tax
Halivakar Tax on Ploughing
Upkilpta Sales tax
Taradaya Navigation tax
Gupta Temples : Places
Vishnu temple : Tigawa (Jabalpur)
Shiva temple : Bhumara (Nagaud)
Parvati temple : Nachna Kuthara
Dasavtar temple : Deogarh (Jhansi)
Shiva temple : Koh (Nagaud)
Bhitargaon temple : Bhitargaon
Lakshman temple (birck made) : Kanpur
Laxman temple : Sirpur (Raipur)
Mukund Darra temple : Kota
Dhammekh stupa : Sarnath
Jarasandh’s sitting : Rajgrih (Bihar)
➤ His predecessors had issued only gold coins.
➤ The gold coins were called ‘Dinara’.
➤ Chandragupta II was succeeded by Kumargupta I.
➤ His inscriptions are the Bilsad inscription, the Karandanda inscription, the Mandsor inscription, the Damodarpur copper plate inscription.
➤ He founded the Nalanda University.
➤ Towards the last year of his reign, the Gupta empire faced foreign invasions.
➤ Skandagupta had to fight the Pushyamitras and the Hunas.
➤ He was successful in throwing the Hunas back.
➤ The Junagarh inscription of his reign tells that his governor Parnadatta got the Sudarshan lake repaired.
➤ He adopted the title of Vikramaditya.
➤ Some of the successors of Skandagupta were Buddhagupta, Vainyagupta Bhanugupta Narsimhagupta Baladitya, Kumargupta II and Vishmigupta.
➤ Harshavardhan ascended the Pushyabhuti throne in 606 A.D.
➤ Harshavardhan was also known as Siladitya.
➤ Banabhatta and Hiuen Tsang have provided important information about Harsha’s reign.
➤ Poet Banabhatta wrote ‘Harshacharita’.
➤ Harsha was not successful in his first expedition against Gauda.
➤ In his second expedition Harsha conquered Magadha and Sasanka’s empire.
➤ Gauda was divided between Harsha and Bhaskarvarman.
➤ The Aihole inscription mentions that Harsha met defeat at the hands of Pulakesin II.
➤ Harsha’s empire extended from the Punjab to northern Orissa and from Himalayas to the banks of Narmada.
➤ Harsha wrote three Sanskrit plays-Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarshika.
➤ Banabhatta wrote Harshacharita and Kadambri.
➤ Harsha showed equal respect to all religious sects.
➤ Harsha built rest houses, hospitals, and endowed numerous Brahamanical, Buddhist and Jaina establishments.
➤ The Kannauj assembly was held in the honour of Hiuen-Tsang.
➤ Harsha used to celebrate religious festivals at the end of every five years at Prayag.
➤ Harsha sent an embassy in 641 A.D. to the Chinese emperor.
➤ Harsha also received a Chinese embassy in return.
➤ Harsha died in 647 A.D.
Officials in Harshavardhana’s administration
Singhnada Chief of Armed Forces
Amatya Revenue and Finance Minister
Uparika Provincial Head
Dandapashik Police Officer
Vrihadeshwara Head of Cavalry
Baladhikrita The Commander
Skandagupta/Katuka Head of Elephant Brigade
Ayuktaka Ordinary officer
Mahasandhivigrahaka Officer to decide on war and peace
THE CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI (543-757 A.D.)
➤ The Vakatakas in the deccan were followed by the Chalukyas of Badami.
➤ The Chalukyas established their base at Badami (Vatapi) in Bijapur district of Karnataka.
➤ The Chalukyas claimed their descent either from Manu or Moon.
➤ Pulakesin-I (543-66) : founder of the Chalukya dynasty, established a small kingdom with Badami/Vatapi in Bijapur District as its capital.
➤ Kirtivarman-I-expanded the kingdom by wars against the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Nalas of Bastar.
➤ Pulakesin II was able to check Harsha’s design to conquer Deccan.
➤ Aihole inscription is a eulogy written by his court poet Ravikirti.
➤ He sent an ambassador to Persian king Khusrau II in 625 A.D. and also received one from him.
➤ The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang Visited his kingdom.
➤ Pallava ruler Narsimhavarman I invaded the Chalukya kingdom, killed Pulakesin II and captured Badami.
➤ Vishnuvardhan, son of Pulakesin II, founded the eastern branch of the Chalukyas with its capital at Vengi.
THE PALLAVAS (560-803)
➤ The Pallavas played an important role after the fall of Satvahanas in 3rd century until the rise of the Cholas.
➤ The origin of Pallavas is a debatable issue.
➤ Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavisnu in 560 A.D.
➤ Mahendravarman-I was defeated by Pulakesin-II.
➤ Narasimhavarman was the greatest king. He defeated Pulakesin II and captured Badami/Vatapi. So, took the title of Vatapikonda.
➤ Narsimhavarman also defeated Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas, thus became supreme in South India.
➤ Narsimhavarman was a great builder, having constructed Mamallapuram and the various buildings here. During his reign Hieun Tsang visited Kanchi.
➤ Narsimhavarman II constructed the shore temple of Mamallapuram and the Kailasnath temple of Kanchi. He sent embassies to China to encourage maritime trade.
➤ The Chalukya Vikramadita-II attacked the Pallava capital during the reign of Paramesvar Varman.
➤ Nandivarman-II was a worshipper of Vishnu. He built Vaikuntaperumal temple at Kanchi.
➤ The last Pallava ruler, Aparajita Pallava was defeated by Aditya Chola.
➤ Kanchi, Pallavas capital was a great centre of Sanskrit learning.
➤ Both Bharavi and Dandin, the authors of ‘Kirtarjuniyam’ and ‘Dashkumarcharitam’ respectively lived in the Pallava court.
➤ The scientific works of Varahamihira and the poetry of Kalidasa were well known in the Pallava country.
➤ Most of the kings were accomplished scholars and Mahendravarman-I himself wrote the famous burlesque ‘Mattavilasa Prahasana.’
➤ The Gangas were the contemporaries of the Chalukyas and the Pallavas.
➤ They ruled over a large part of modern Mysore.
➤ The region was called after them as Gangavadi.
➤ The founder of the Ganga dynasty was Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja.
➤ The Gangas had matrimonial alliances with the Pallavas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas.
➤ The Kadamba dynasty was founded by Mayur Sarman.
➤ The Kadambas ruled from Banvasi from 345 A.D. to 365 A.D.
➤ Kakusthavarman (435-455 A.D.) was the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.
➤ Kakusthavarman established matrimonial relations with the Gangas and the Guptas.
➤ The Cholas were the feudatories of the Pallavas
➤ The founder of Chola dynasty was Vijayalaya, who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D.
➤ The greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja (985-1014 A.D.) and his son Rajendra I (1014-1044 A.D.)
➤ Raja built a Saiva, a temple of Rajarajeshwara at Tanjore.
➤ Rajendra I assumed the title of Gangaikondachola and built a city called Gangaikondacholapuram.
➤ The Chola empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces and these in turn were divided into Valanadu and Nadu.
➤ Chola rulers marked their victories by erecting a number of Shiva and Vishnu temples.
➤ During the reign of Rajendra I a naval expedition was sent against the Sri Vijaya empire.
➤ The Bay of Bengal was converted into a ‘Chola lake’.
➤ The Chola rulers fought constantly with the Chalukyas of Kalyani.
➤ Rajaraja I granted a village for the maintenance of Buddhist vihara at Nagapattam.
➤ The king was the most important person in the Chola administration.
➤ The Cholas maintained a large army consisting of elephants, cavalry and infantry.
➤ Rajaraja gave his daughter Kundavai to Vimaladitya (Eastern Chalukya of Vengi) and restored Vengi to him.
➤ Rajaraja-I sent his son Rajendra-I to capture Banarasi and sack Manyakhet of Western Chalukyas.
➤ During the reign of Rajaraja Maldives was captured.
➤ Rajaraja conferred the title of ‘Mahadandanayaka’ upon Rajendra-I for his victory over Pandyas & Keralas.
➤ Rajaraja-I started the system of land survey called ‘kadamb’.
➤ Adhirajendra was killed in a public revolt.
➤ Kulotunga-I of Vengi united the kingdom of Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and Chola kingdom. His other name was Rajendra-II. He was given the title of Sangam Tavirtta (he who abolished tolls).
➤ Rajendra II was crowned in the battle field of Koppam. He was given the title of Prakesari.
➤ Vira Rajendra Rajakesari defeated Western Chalukyas king Someswara- I Ahvamalla in the battle of Kudal Sangman (Kurnool district). He foiled all efforts of Vijayabahu of Sri Lanka to extend his authority and drive away the Cholas from Sri Lanka.
➤ After the decline of Cholas, their place was taken by the Hoysalas of Dwarsamudra and Pandyas of Madurai.
➤ The gopuram style was developed under the Cholas.
➤ The system of canals in south is a contribution of the Cholas.
➤ Rajendra-I built Shiva temple at Gangaikondacholapuram.
➤ The Cholas were famous for the bronze statue of Nataraja.
➤ Kamban wrote Ramayana. Sivagasindamani was also produced.
➤ Temple architecture in south attained its climax under the Cholas.
➤ The style of architecture which came into vogue during this period is called Dravida.
➤ ‘Mandap’ was the pillared hall.
➤ ‘Garbhgriha’ was the room of the chief-deity.
➤ Ceremonial dances were performed by Devadasis.
Titles of the Chola Kings
Rajaraj–I Rajkesari, Arumoli, Cholormand, Mumadichola Dev.
Rajendra–I Gangaikondachola, Mudigundchola, Panditchola.
Kulotunga–I Kataikondachola, Malaindu Kondachola.
Administrative Units of Chola Dynasty
Mandalam – Province
Kottam – Division
Nadu – District
Kurtam – Group of villages
Important Chola Kings
1. Vijayalaya : 846-887 A.D.
2. Aditya : 871-907 A.D.
3. Parantaka-I : 907-955 A.D.
4. Rajaraja-I : 985-1014 A.D.
5. Rajendra-I : 1014-1044 A.D.
6. Rajadhiraja : 1044-1054 A.D.
7. Rajendra II : 1054-1064 A.D.
8. Virarajendra : 1064-1069 A.D.
9. Rajaraja-II : 1150-1173 A.D.
Tripartite Struggle (Palas, Pratiharas and Rastrakutas)
➤ A number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 A.D.-1000 A.D.
➤ The Gurjara Pratiharas, the Palas and the Rastrakutas emerged almost at the same time.
➤ These three powers fought for the supremacy over Kannauj.
➤ The Pratiharas emerged from Gurjaratra or South West Rajasthan.
➤ They resisted Araburincrusions from Sindh into Rajasthan.
➤ Pratihara dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta-I.
➤ Pratihara power revived under Nagabhatta-II. He defeated Dharmapala near Monghyr (Mudgir).
➤ Pratiharas traced their descent from Lakshamana (the solar race).
➤ Their capital was at Mahodaya (Kannauj).
➤ The real founder and the greatest king was Bhoja (836–885 A.D.).
➤ Bhoja is also called Mihir Bhoja. He defeated Devapala and got Kannauj back.
➤ Bhoja was a devotee of Vishnu and adopted the title of Adivaraha.
IMPORTANT PRATIHARA RULERS
Nagabhata I 793-833
➤ The Pala empire was founded by Gopala in 750 A.D.
➤ Gopala was elected as the king by the notable men of the area.
➤ Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharmapala in 770 A.D.
➤ Palas established their rule in Bengal and Bihar.
➤ Dharmapala (770-810) was defeated by Dhruva (Rashtrakuta) and Nagabhatt II (Pratihara).
➤ During Dharmapala, two brothers Indra & Chakra clashed for Kannauj.
➤ Dharmapala revived Nalanda University, which had been famous all over the eastern world.
➤ He also founded the Vikramshila University.
IMPORTANT PALA RULERS
Gopala : 750-770 A.D.
Devapala : 810-850 A.D.
Dharmapala : 770-810 A.D.
Vigrahapala : 850-854 A.D.
➤ Founded by Dantidurga in deccan.
➤ Their capital was at Manyakhet or Malkhed near modern Sholapur (earlier at Ellora).
➤ Amoghvarsha rulled for 68 years.
➤ Amoghvarsha wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, a book on Poetics Kannada.
➤ Amoghavarsha first transferred capital from Ellora to Manyakhet or Malkhed.
➤ Indira III (915-927) defeated Mahipala (Pratihara) and sacked Kannauj in 915, Indra was the most powerful ruler of his time.
➤ Rashtrakutas imported horses from Arabia, West-Asia and central Asia.
➤ In the Rashtrakuta kingdom, the directly administered areas, were divided into Rashtras (provinces), Visaya and Bhukti.
➤ The last ruler Karka was overthrown by Tailap, the founder of Chalukyas of Kalyani.
➤ Dantidurga built the Dashavatara temple at Ellora.
➤ Krishna-I built the Kailasa or Shiva temple at Ellora in the 9th century.
➤ The great Apabhramsha poet Svayambhu and his son lived at the Rashtrakuta court.
IMPORTANT RASHTRAKUTA RULERS
1. Dantidurga : 753-756
2. Krishna-I : 756-773
3. Amoghavarsha : 814-880
4. Krishna-II : 880-915
5. Krishna-III : 940-967
➤ The Parmaras ruled in the Malwa region.
➤ The Parmaras initially had their capital at Ujjain.
➤ The Parmaras later transferred their capital to Dhara.
➤ Vakpati Munj was the founder of the Parmara dynasty.
➤ Vakpati was a great patron of art and literature.
➤ Padmagupta, Dhananjya, graced the court of Vakpati.
➤ The greatest ruler of dynasty was Bhoja.
➤ Bhoja built the city of Bhojapur.
➤ Bhoja founded a college, Bhojshala near Dhara.
➤ The Gahadaval dynasty was founded by Chandradeva.
➤ The capital of Gahadaval was Kannauj.
➤ Govindchandra conquered east Malwa.
➤ Govind Chandra’s minister for peace and war, Lakshmidhara wrote Krityakalpataru.
➤ Jaychandra was defeated by Lakshman Sena of Bengal.
➤ In the Battle of Chandawar
(1194 A.D.) Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaichandra.
➤ Harischandra was the last ruler of Gahadaval dynasty.
➤ The Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty emerged near Sakambhari (Ajmer).
➤ The Chauhans were the feudatories of Pratihara.
➤ Simharaja declared independence in the middle of 10th century.
➤ Ajayraja founded the city of Ajaymeru (Ajmer).
➤ Prithviraja Chauhan ascended to the throne in 1177 A.D.
➤ Prithviraja Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori in the first battle of Tarain (1191 A.D.).
➤ In the second battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.) Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraja Chauhan.
➤ Three dynasties Karkota, Utpala and Lohar ruled Kashmir during 800 A.D. to 1200 A.D.
➤ Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabh Vardhana.
➤ Lalitaditya Muktapida defeated Yasovarman of Kannauj.
➤ Lalitaditya built the famous Sun temple at Martand.
➤ Utpala dynasty was founded by Avantivarman.
➤ Queen Didda ruled from 980 A.D. to 1003 A.D.
➤ Sangramraja founded the Lohara dynasty.
➤ King Harsha belonged to Lohara dynasty.
➤ Kalhana wrote ‘Rajatarangini’ in 12th century.
➤ The Chandelas ruled in Bundelkhand.
➤ The dynasty was founded by Nanuka in the early years of 9th century and his capital was Khajuraho.
➤ Dhanga was the first independent king of the Chandella dynasty and assumed the title Maharajadhiraja.
➤ He was succeeded by Ganda who in turn was succeeded by Vidyadhara.
➤ During Vidyadhara’s reign Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Kalinjar in 1019 and again in 1022.
➤ In 1165 Parmardideva was defeated by Prithviraja Chauhan.
➤ Qutub-ud-din Aibak defeated Parmadideva and occupied greater part of Bundelkhand.
➤ Alauddin Khalji captured the whole of the kingdom.
➤ Temples of Khajuraho were built by Chandellas.
➤ The most prmoinent among the Khajuraho temples are the Kandariya Mahadeva, Devi Jagadamba, Parsvanatha, Lakshamana and the Viswanatha temples.
➤ The Senas supplanted the Palas in Bengal.
➤ The Senas called themselves ‘Brahma Kshatriya’.
➤ Vijaysena ascended the throne in 1095 A.D. and enlarged the frontiers of senas.
➤ Vijayapuri and Vikrampuri were two capitals of Senas.
➤ Vijayasena was succeed by his son Ballalsena.
➤ Ballalsena established the tradition of ‘Kulinism’.
➤ Ballalsena wrote ‘Adbhutsagar’ and ‘Dansagar’.
➤ Ballalsena was succeeded by Lakshmansena.
➤ Bakhtiyar Khalji invaded Bengal during the reign of Lakshmansena.
➤ Jayadeva, Dhoyi, Halayudha adorned Lakshmansena’s court.
➤ The word Sangam is associated with the assembly of Tamil Scholars and Poets flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyan Kings at Madurai.
➤ The first Sangam was held at Madurai but its work has not survived. Its Chairman was Agastya.
➤ The second Sangam was held in Kapatpuram. Its Chairman was Tolkapiyar.
➤ The third Sangam was held in Madurai. Its chairman was Nakkirar.
➤ Tolkapiyam belongs to second Sangam.
➤ Tokapiyam is a work on grammar.
➤ The Sangam literature was compiled in circa A.D. 300-600.
➤ Thirukural of Kural by Tiruvalluvar is sometimes called the ‘fifth Veda’ or ‘Bible of the Tamil land’.
➤ Silpaddikaram literally ‘The jeweled Anklet’ by Ilango Adigal is an epic, deals with the love stories of Kovalan and Madhavi.
➤ Manimekhalai is written by Sattalai Sattanar, considered the ‘Odysseus of Tamil poetry’.
➤ Jivaga Chintamani, a third epic by the Jaina Tiruttakadevar.
➤ Roman king built a temple of Augustus at Muziris.
➤ Murugan was the God par excellence of the Tamils, also known as Subramaniyam.
➤ Yavan Priya is a Sanskrit terms for pepper.
➤ Muslin, gems, pearls and spices were the important export items to Rome.
➤ The Sangam Age was marked by three political powers. These were Pandyas, Cholas and Cheras.
➤ The Chola dominion was known as Tondaimandlam.
➤ Karikala was the greatest Chola king.
➤ He constructed 160 km of embankment along the Cauvery river.
➤ Uraiyur was the Chola capital.
➤ Nedunjeral Adan is the first known Chera king.
➤ He earned the title of Udiyanjeral.
➤ Senguttuvan was the greatest Chera king.
➤ He established the Pattini cult.
➤ The capital of Cheras was Vanji.
➤ Nedunjhelian was the most important Pandya king.
➤ He ordered the execution of Kovalan the husband of Kannagi.
➤ The capital of Pandyas was Madurai.
➤ Megasthenes has pointed out that Pandyas were rules by a woman.
➤ Korkai and Saliyur were important sea ports of Pandyas.
➤ Earliest known Pandya king is Palyagasalai Mudukudumi.
➤ Chola king Elara conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for 50 years.
➤ Karikala defeated the joint forces of Cheras and Pandyas.
➤ Captains of army were invested with the title Enadi.
➤ The ruling class in Sangam Age was called Arasar.
➤ The lowest class in society was of Kadaisiyar.
➤ Purananuru contain the poems of Kapilar, Avvai and Kovurkilar.
➤ In Silppadikaram there is a reference to Ceylonese king Gajabahu.
➤ Bow was the royal emblem of Cheras.
➤ Tiger was the royal emblem of Cholas.
➤ Carp/Fish was the royal emblem of Pandyas.
➤ In the battle of Talaiyalanganam Nedunjelian defeated Chera and Chola kings.
➤ Muziris was a great centre of cotton trade.
➤ Uraiyur was famous for pearls and muslins.
➤ Yavana ships used to arrive at Kaveripattinam.
➤ Kadamai and Kavalmaram are tutelary tree.
➤ ‘Yal’ was a stringed instrument like lute.
➤ Puliyars were the craftsmen.
➤ Tamil work Jivak Chintamani highlights the importance of Jaina philosophy.
➤ Jivak Chintamani was written by Tiruttakkadevar.
|Forest land (Mullai)||Lended cattle, sheep||Mayon|
|Hill area (Kurinji)||Hunting||Seyon (Murugan)|
|Cultivable land (Marudam)||Cultivators||Vendan (Indra)|
|Coastal regions (Neidal)||Fishing||Varunan|
|Sandy region (Palai)||Robbery||Korravai.|
|Panchtinai (five Tamil regions||Inhabitants||Occupation|
|Kurinji (hilly backwoods or montane)||Kurvar, Vetar||Hunting, Gathering|
|Palai (Pastoral tract)||Eyinar, Maravar||Cattle lifting, Highway Robbery|
|Mullai (Pastoral tract)||Ayar, Idaiyar||Shifting Agriculture, Animal husbandary|
|Marutam (Wetland) Neital (costal)||Ulavar, Vellalar Paratavar, Valayar||Plough Agriculture Fishing, Salt extraction|
Important Officials in Sangam Administration
Armaichchar Minister Purohitar Religious Affair Dutar Envoys Orrar Spies Senapatiyar Cheif of Armed Forces Social groups in Sangam Dynasty
Ulavar Agriculturists Kuravar Shifting Agriculturists Idaiyar Cattle holders Kallar Plunderer of cattle Vetar Food gatherers and Hunters Panar Wandering Balladmanger Paratavar Fisherman Umnar Salt producer Sangam Literature
➤ The word Sangam is associated with a college or assembly of Tamil scholars and poets flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyan kings.
➤ The whole Sangam age is called Golden or Augustan Age. According to Tamil sources, the father of Tamil literature is ‘Agastya.’
|SANGAM AGE (AD First-Third Century)|
|Kingdom||Location||Capital||Emblem||Famous port||Famous Rules||Other Features|
|North-East of Pandyas between Penner and Vellar rivers||Uraiyaur (famous for Cotton trade) and Puhar||Tiger||Puhar||Elara was the earliest known Chola king, ffe conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for 50 years.|
Karikala founded the capital city Puhar/Kaveripatnam and constructed embankment along Cauveri river.
|Chola maintained an efficient Navy. Their economy was based on trade in cotton cloth. The Chola kingdom was destroyed by the attack of Pallavas from the North.|
|Chera||Part of Kerala and Tamil Nadu||Venji of Karur||Bow||Muzris Todi, Bandar||Udiyangera is one of the earliest known Chera rulers. This title of Udiyangeral was given to him because it is said that he served both the armies of KurukshetraWar, Senguttuvan / Red Chera, was the greatest Chera King, ffe invaded the north and crossed Ganga. ffe is remembered for building a temple of ‘”Kannagi” the Goddes of chastity and founded the famous Pattini cult.||It has well-established trade with Romans and also set up two regiments at Muzris to protect their interests, They built temple of Augustus a Muzris.|
|Pandya||Southern most part of India||Mudurai||Carp||Korkai,|
|Mudukudumi was the earlist known Pandyan ruler. Nedunjelian was the most important king of Pandya. He accused Kovalon of theft. As a result, the city of Madurai was laid under a curse by Kannagi (Kovalan’s wife).||This kingdom was first mentioned by Megasthenes, who says that their kingdom was famous for pearl and was a ruled by a woman, Also find mention in the Ramayana and Mahabharata.|
|2nd||Kapatapuran Alvai||Agastya (founder) Tolakappiyan (later chairman)||Tolakappiyan (Tamil Grammar)|
|3rd||North Madurai||Nakkirar||Ettutogati Patinenki lakanakku, pattu-Pattu|
Sangams Venue Chairman Surviving Text
Important Sangam Works
➤ Tokapiyam by Tokapiyar (Tamil Grammar).
➤ Tirukunal or Kunal by Tiruvaluvar is sometimes called the ‘Fifth Veda’ or ‘Bible of the Tamil land’. It explains the doctrine of dharma, artha,
kama and moksha.
➤ Aggatiyam comprises grammar of letters and life, in three parts written by saint Aggatiyar.
➤ Silappadikarma the jewelled anklet: by Ilango Adigal is an epic, dealing with love story of Kovalan and Madhavi also called ‘llliyad’ of Tamil Poetry.
➤ Manimekalai is one of the two greatest epics and a sequel to Silappadikaram written by Satallai Sattannam.
➤ Jivaka Chintamiui (Sivaga Sindamani) a third epic by a Jaina Tiruttakrdeva. It has elements of Jainism.
➤ Bharatman written by Perudevanar.
➤ The land was very fertile with proper irrigation facilities. The chief local God was Murugan, also called as Subramaniya.
Karai Land tax Irai Tribute paid by feudatories and body collected in war Iravu Extra demand or forced gift Ulgu Custom duties Variyar Tax collector Variyan A well known unit of territory yielding tax
|Vikram Deva Charita||Bilhana|
Udayraja : Mahmud Begrha (Gujarat)
Hemchandra : Kumarpala (Chalukyas of Anhilwara)
Nagarjuna : Kanishka
Amar Singh : Chandragupta Vikramaditya
Ravikirti : Pulkesin-II
Vakpatiraj : Yashovarman of Kannauj
Bhav Bhuti : Yashovarman of Kannauj
Harishena : Samudragupta
Rajshekhar : Mahendrapala and Mahipala
Somadeva : Prithviraja III
Chandarbardai : Prithviraja III
Banabhatta : Harshavardhana
Dandin : Narsinghavarman (Pallava)
Bharvi : Simhavishnu (Pallava)
Gunadhya : Hala (Satvahana)
Mahaviracharya : Amoghvarsha (Rashtrakuta)
Jinasen : Amoghvarsha (Rashtrakuta)
Sakatyayan : Amoghvarsha (Rashtrakuta)
Jayadeva : Lakshman Sena (Bengal)
Bilhan : Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya of Kalyani)
Vijnaneshwar : Vikramaditya VI
Lakshmidhar : Govind Chandra
Shri Harsha : Jaychand
Map of Medieval India :
➤ A number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 A.D.–1000 A.D. i.e. Rajput Age. There are Gurjara Prathihars, Palas, Rastrakutas, Chauhan, Parmars, Chalukya, Gahadawal Tomars etc.
➤ Mahmud Ghazni invaded Kannauj in 1018 A.D. and Somnath in 1025 A.D.
➤ In 1194 A.D. Muhammad Ghori returned to India. The battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundations of Turkish rule in India.
➤ After the death of Muhammad Ghori, his slave Qutubuddin Aibak laid the foundation of Slave dynasty in 1206 A.D.
➤ The Khalji Dynasty was founded by Jalaludding Khalji.
➤ The Tughlaq dynasty was founded by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
➤ The Vijayanagar Empire was founded by Harihar-I and Bukka-I in 1336 A.D.
➤ The Bahamani Kingdom was founded by Zafar Khan in 1347.
➤ Babur was the founder of the Mughal empire of India.