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Chapter 01. Ancient History (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)

Chapter 01. Ancient History (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)

1. The word ‘Hindu’ as reference to the people of Hind (India) was first used by:(1995)
(a) the Greeks
(b) the Romans
(c) the Chinese
(d) the Arabs
2. Who among the following was a Brahmavadini who composed some hymns of the Vedas?(1995)
(a) Lopamudra
(b) Gargi
(c) Leelavati
(d) Savitri
3. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer (using codes given below the lists) (1995)
List-I (Eras) List-II (Reckoned from)
A. Vikrama era1. 3102 B. C.
B. Saka era2. 320 A. D.
C. Gupta era3. 78 A. D.
D. Kali era4. 58 B. C.
5. 248 A. D.
Codes:
(a) A – 2; B – 4; C – 5; D – 1
(b) A – 1; B – 3; C – 2; D – 4
(c) A – 4; B – 5; C – 2; D – 3
(d) A – 4; B – 3; C – 2; D – 1
4. In Sanskrit plays written during the Gupta period women and Sudras speak:(1995)
(a) Sanskrit
(b) Prakrit
(c) Pali
(d) Sauraseni
5. The name by which Ashoka is generally referred to his inscriptions is:(1995)
(a) Chakravarti
(b) Dharmadeva
(c) Dharmakirti
(d) Priyadarsi
6. The term ‘Yavanapriya’ mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts denoted:(1995)
(a) a fine variety of Indian Muslim
(b) ivory
(c) damsels sent to the Greek court for dance performance
(d) pepper
7. The concept of Anuvrata was advocated by:(1995)
(a) Mahayana Buddhism
(b) Hinayana Buddhism
(c) Jainism
(d) The Lokayata school
8. According to Mimamsa system of philosophy, liberation is possible by means by:(1995)
(a) jnana
(b) bhakti
(c) yoga
(d) karma
9. Bronze icons of Nataraja cast during the Chola period invariably show the deity with:(1995)
(a) eight hands
(b) six hands
(c) four hands
(d) two hands
10. According to ancient Indian cosmogonic ideas the sequential order of the cycle of four acons (yugas) is:(1996)
(a) Dvapara, Krita, Treta and Kali
(b) Krita, Dvapara, Treta and Kali
(c) Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali
(d) Treta, Dvapara, Kali and Krita
11. Which one of the following temples figured in the news regarding the institution of the Devadasi?(1996)
(a) Jagannath temple, Puri
(b) Pashupatinath temple, Kathmandu
(c) Kandariya Mahadev temple, Khajuraho
(d) Chausath Yogini temple, Bhedaghat
12. The river most mentioned in early Vedic literature is :(1996)
(a) Sindhu
(b) Sutudri
(c) Sarasvati
(d) Ganga
13. Which one of the following is not a part of early Jains literature?(1996)
(a) Therigatha
(b) Acarangasutra
(c) Sutrakritanga
(d) Brihatkalpasutra
14. Which of the following were common to both Buddhism and Jainism?(1996)
1. Avoidance of extremities of penance and enjoyment
2. Indifference to the authority of the Vedas
3. Denial of efficacy of rituals
4. Non-injury to animal life
Select the answer using the codes given below:
Codes:
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3, and 4
(d) 1 and 2
15. In the context of ancient Indian society which one of the following terms does not belong to the category of the other three?(1996)
(a) Kula
(b) Vamsa
(c) Kosa
(d) Gotra
16. Who among the following is known for his work on medicine during the Gupta period?(1996)
(a) Saumilla
(b) Sudraka
(c) Shaunaka
(d) Susrutha
17. Which one of the following sculptures was invariably used green schist as the medium? (1996)
(a) Maurya sculptures
(b) Mathura sculptures
(c) Bharhut sculptures
(d) Gandhara sculptures
18. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer:
(1996)
List-IList-II
A. Vishakhadatta1. Medicine
B. Varahamihira2. Drama
C. Charaka3. Astronomy
D. Brahmagupta4. Mathematics
Codes:
(a) A – 1; B – 3; C – 4; D – 2
(b) A – 2; B – 1; C – 3; D – 4
(c) A – 2; B – 3; C – 1; D – 4
(d) A – 3; B – 4; C – 1; D – 2
19. Which one of the following texts of ancient India allows divorce to a wife deserted by her husband? (1996)
(a) Kamasutra
(b) Manava Dharma Shastra
(c) Sukra Nitisara
(d) Arthashastra
20. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: (1997)
List-IList-II
A. Gupta1. Badami
B. Chandella2. Panamalai
C. Chalukya3. Khajuraho
D. Pallava4. Deogarh
Codes:
(a) A – 4; B – 3; C – 1; D – 2
(b) A – 4; B – 2; C – 3; D – 1
(c) A – 2; B – 3; C – 4; D – 1
(d) A – 3; B – 4; C – 1; D – 2
21. Which one of the following statements regarding Ashoka stone pillars is incorrect?(1997)
(a) These are highly polished
(b) These are monolithic
(c) The shaft of pillars is tapering in shape
(d) These are parts of architectural structures
22. Which one of the following scripts of ancient India was written from right to left?(1997)
(a) Brahmi
(b) Nandnagari
(c) Sharada
(d) Kharosthi
23. The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and Yama is mentioned in the:(1997)
(a) Chhandogyopanishad
(b) Mundakopanishad
(c) Kathopanishad
(d) Kenopanishad
24. Milindapanho is in the form of a dialogue between the king Menander and Buddhist monk:(1997)
(a) Nagasena
(b) Nagarjuna
(c) Nagabhatta
(d) Kumarilabhatta
25. Which one of the following edicts mentions the personal name of Ashoka?(1997)
(a) Kalsi
(b) Rummindei
(c) Special Kalinga Edict
(d) Maski
26. The following map shows four of the sixteen Mahajanapadas that existed in ancient India:(1997)

img_ext_export_285UPCpLT1_754.png
The places marked A, B, C and D respectively are:
(a) Matsya, Cedi, Kosala, Anga
(b) Surasena, Avanti, Vatsa, Magadha
(c) Matsya, Avanti, Vatsa, Anga
(d) Surasena, Cedi, Kosala, Magadha
27. In the Mahayana Buddhism, the Bodhisatva Avalokitesvara was also known as:(1997)
(a) Vajrapani
(b) Manjusri
(c) Padmapani
(d) Maitreya
28. The silver coins issued by the Guptas were called:(1997)
(a) Rupaka
(b) Karshapana
(c) Dinara
(d) Pana
29. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: (1997)
List-I (Author) List-II (Text)
A. Varahamihira1. Prabandha Chintamani
B. Vishakhadatta2. Mrichchha-Katikam
C. Sudraka3. Brihat-Samhita
D. Bilhana4. Devi-Chandraguptam
5. Vikramankadeva-Charita
Codes:
(a) A – 3; B – 4; C – 5; D – 2
(b) A – 3; B – 4; C – 2; D – 5
(c) A – 5; B – 3; C – 4; D – 1
(d) A – 1; B – 3; C – 5; D – 2
30. Which one of the following was a corporation of merchants in ancient India?(1997)
(a) Chaturvedimangalam
(b) Parishad
(c) Ashtadikgaja
(d) Manigrama
31. The Badami rock inscription of Pulakesin I is dated in the Saka year 465. If the same were to be dated in Vikrama Samvat, the year would be:(1997)
(a) 601
(b) 300
(c) 330
(d) 407
32. Many of the Greeks, Kushanas and Shakas embraced Buddhism rather than Hinduism because:(1998)
(a) Buddhism was in the ascendant at that time
(b) they had renounced the policy of war and violence
(c) caste-ridden Hinduism did not attract them
(d) Buddhism provided easier access to Indian society
33. The Ashoka major rock edicts which tell us about the Sangam Kingdom include rock edicts: (1998)
(a) I and X
(b) I and XI
(c) II and XIII
(d) II and XIV
34. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched? (1998)
1. Mrichchakatikam–Shudraka
2. Buddhacharita–Vasuvandhu
3. Mudrarakshasha–Vishakadatta
4. Harshacharita–Banabhatta
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
Codes:
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 4
(d) 2 and 3
35. What is the correct chronological order in which the following appeared in India?(1998)
1. Gold coins
2. Punch marked silver coins
3. Iron plough
4. Urban culture
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 3, 4, 1, 2
(b) 3, 4, 2, 1
(c) 4, 3, 1, 2
(d) 4, 3, 2, 1
36. Assertion (A) : According to Ashoka’s edicts social harmony among the people was more important than religious devotion.
Reason (R) : He spread ideas of equity instead of promotion of religion. (1998)
(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
37. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
(1998)
1. Lothal: Ancient dockyard
2. Sarnath : First Sermon of Buddha
3. Rajgir : Lion capital of Ashoka
4. Nalanda : Great seat of Buddhist learning
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
Codes:
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 1 and 2
38. Which one of the following ancient Indian records is the earliest royal order to preserve food-grains to be utilised during the crises in the country? (1998)
(a) Sohgaura Copper-plate
(b) Rummindei Pillar-edict of Ashoka
(c) Prayaga-prasasti
(d) Mehrauli Pillar inscription of Chandra
39. The concept of Eight fold path forms the theme of:(1998)
(a) Dipavamsa
(b) Divyavadana
(c) Mahaparinibban
(d) Dharma Chakara Pravartana Sutta
40. The given map relates to :(1998)

Image605_fmt.jpeg
(a) Kanishka at the time of his death.
(b) Samudragupta after the close of his South Indian campaign.
(c) Ashoka towards close of his reign.
(d) Empire of Thaneswar on the eve of Harsha’s accession.
41. From the third century AD when the Hun invasion ended the Roman Empire, the Indian merchants relied more and more on the:(1999)
(a) African trade
(b) West-European trade
(c) South-East Asian trade
(d) Middle-Eastern trade
42. The following persons came to India at one time or another:(1999)
1. Fa-Hien
2. I-Tsing
3. Megasthanese
4. Hieun-Tsang
The correct chronological sequence of their visits is:
(a) 3, 1, 2, 4(b) 3, 1, 4, 2
(c) 1, 3, 2, 4
(d) 1, 3, 4, 2
43. Which one of the following was initially the most powerful city state of India in the 6th century B. C. ?(1999)
(a) Gandhar
(b) Kamboj
(c) Kashi
(d) Magadh
44. The Indo-Laws Kingdom set up in north Afghanistan in the beginning of the second century B. C. was:(1999)
(a) Bactria(b) Scythia
(c) Zedrasia
(d) Aria
45. The term ‘Aryan’ denotes:(1999)
(a) an ethnic group (b) a nomadic people
(c) a speech group (d) a superior race
46. Which one of the following ports handled the North Indian trade during the Gupta period?(1999)
(a) Tamralipti(b) Broach
(c) Kalyan
(d) Cambray
47. Assertion (A) : The Aham and Puram poems of the Padinen Kilukanakku group formed a continuation of the Sangam composition.
Reason (R) : They were included under the post-Sangam works as against the Sangam works proper. (2000)
(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
48. Assertion (A) : The emphasis of Jainism on non-violence (ahimsa) prevented agriculturalists from embracing Jainism.
Reason (R) : Cultivation involved killing of insects and pests. (2000)
(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
49. Assertion (A) : The origin of feudal system in ancient India can be traced to military campaigns.
Reason (R) : There was considerable expansion of the feudal system during the Gupta period. (2000)
(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
50. Assertion (A) : Ashoka annexed Kalinga to the Mauryan Empire.
Reason (R) : Kalinga controlled the land and sea routes to South India. (2000)
(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
51. The practice of military governorship was first introduced in India by the:(2000)
(a) Greeks(b) Shakas
(c) Parthians
(d) Mughals
52. Which one of the following dynasties was ruling over North India at the time of Alexander’s invasion?(2000)
(a) Nanda(b) Maurya
(c) Sunga
(d) Kanva
53. Hoysala monuments are found in:(2001)
(a) Hampi and Hosper
(b) Halebid and Belur
(c) Mysore and Bangalore
(d) Sringeri and Dharwar
54. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(2001)
(a) The Harappan civilization – Painted Greyware
(b) The Kushans – Gandhra School of Art
(c) The Mughals – Ajanta Paintings
(d) The Marathas – Pahari School of Painting
55. Assertion (A) : Harshavardhana convened the Prayag Assembly.
Reason (R) : He wanted to popularize only the Mahayana form of Buddhism. (2001)
(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
56. Which one of the Chola kings conquered Ceylon?(2001)
(a) Aditya-I(b) Rajaraja-I
(c) Rajendra
(d) Vijayalaya
57. Who among the following presided over the Buddhist Council held during the reign of Kanishka at Kashmir ?(2001)
(a) Parsva(b) Nagarjuna
(c) Sudraka
(d) Vasumitra
58. Which one of the following animals was not represented seals and terracotta art of the Harappan culture?(2001)
(a) Cow(b) Elephant
(c) Rhinoceros
(d) Tiger
59. Match List-I (Ancient site) with List-II (Archaeological finding) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:(2002)
List-I List-II
(Ancient site) (Archaeological finding)
A. Lothal1. Ploughed field
B. Kalibangan2. Dockyard
C. Dholavira3. Terrcotta replica of a plough
D. Banawali4. An inscription comprising ten large sized signs of the Harappan script
Codes:
(a) A – 1; B – 2; C – 3; D – 4
(b) A – 2; B – 1; C – 4; D – 3
(c) A – 1; B – 2; C – 4; D – 3
(d) A – 2; B – 1; C – 3; D – 4
60. Which one of the following statements is not correct?
(2002)
(a) The statue of Gomateshwara at Shravana Belagola represents the last Tirthankara of Jains.
(b) India’s largest Buddhist monastery is in Arunachal Pradesh.
(c) Khajuraho temples were built under Chandela kings.
(d) Hoysaleswara temple is dedicated to Siva.
61. In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarana used to be held. It was the: (2002)
(a) occasion to elect the Sanghparinayaka and two speakers one on Dhamma and the other on Vinaya
(b) confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season
(c) ceremony of initiation of new person into the Buddhist Sangha in which the head is shaved and when yellow robes are offered
(d) gathering of Buddhist monks on the next day to the full-moon day of Ashadha when they take up a fixed abode for the next four months of the rainy season
62. The ancient Indian play Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutt has its subject on:(2002)
(a) a conflict between Gods and Demons of ancient Hindu lore
(b) a romantic story of an Aryan prince and a tribal woman
(c) the story of the power struggle between two Aryan .
(d) the court intrigues at the time of Chandragupta
63. Emperor Harsha’s southward march was stopped on the Narmada river by:(2003)
(a) Pulakesin-I(b) Pulakesin-II
(c) Vikramaditya-I (d) Vikramaditya-II
64. Consider the following statements:
1. The Cholas defeated Pandya and Chera rulers and established their domination over peninsular India in the early medieval times.
2. The Cholas sent an expedition against Sailendra empire of South-East Asia and conquered some of the areas.
Which of these statements is/are correct?(2003)
(a) Only 1(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
65. Mrichchhakatika’ an ancient Indian book written by Shudraka deals with:(2003)
(a) the love affair of a rich merchant with the daughter of a courtesan
(b) the victory of Chandragupta II over the Shaka Kshatrapas of western India
(c) the military expeditions and exploits of Samudragupta
(d) the love affairs between a Gupta king and a princess of Kamarupa
66. Consider the following statements:(2003)
1. Vardhaman Mahavira’s mother was the daughter of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka
2. Gautama Buddha’s mother was a princess from the Koshalan dynasty
3. Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankara, belonged to Benaras
Which of these statements is/are correct?
(a) Only 1(b) Only 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
67. Consider the following statements:(2003)
1. The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha was assassinated by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga.
2. The last Sunga king, Devabhuti was assassinated by his Brahmana Minister Vasudeva Kanva who usurped the throne.
3. The last ruler of the Kanva dynasty was deposed by the Andhras.
Which of these statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2(b) Only 2
(c) Only 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
68. Consider the following statements:
1. The Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hien attended the fourth Great Buddhist Council held by Kanishka.
2. The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang met Harsha and found him to be antagonistic to Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only(b) 2 only(2004)
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
69. With reference to ancient Jainism, which one of the following statements is correct?(2004)
(a) Jainism was spread in South India under the leadership of Sthalabahu.
(b) The Jainas who remained under the leadership of Bhadrabahu were called Shvetambaras after the council held at Pataliputra.
(c) Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharaavela in the first century BC.
(d) In the initial stage of Jainism, the Jainas worshipped images unlike the Buddhist.
70. Which one of the following four Vedas contains an account of magical charms and spells?(2004)
(a) Rigveda(b) Yajurveda
(c) Atharvaveda
(d) Samaveda
71. Who among the following was not a contemporary of the other three? (2005)
(a) Bimbsara(b) Gautama Buddha
(c) Milinda(d) Prasenjit
72. Who among the following laid the foundation of Rashtrakuta Empire?(2006)
(a) Amostghavarsha I
(b) Dantidurga
(c) Dhruva
(d) Krishna I
73. Between which of the following was the ancient town of Takshasila located?(2006)
(a) Indus and Jhelum
(b) Jhelum and Chenab
(c) Chenab and Ravi
(d) Ravi and Beas
74. With reference to the invaders in ancient India, which one of the following is the correct chronological order?(2006)
(a) Greeks-Sakas-Kushanas
(b) Greeks- Kushanas-Sakas
(c) Sakas-Greeks- Kushanas
(d) Sakas-Kushanas-Greeks
75. Consider the following statements:(2006)
1. The Ikshvaku rulers of Southern India were antagonistic towards Buddhism.
2. The Pala rulers of Eastern India were patrons of Buddhism.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/ are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
76. The Allahabad Pillar inscription is associated with which one of the following?(2006)
(a) Mahapadma Nanda
(b) Chandragupta Maurya
(c) Ashoka
(d) Samudragupta
77. What does Baudhayan theorem (Baudhayan Sulva Sutras) relate to?(2008)
(a) Lengths of sides of a right angled triangle
(b) Calculation of the value of pi
(c) Logarithmic calculations
(d) Normal distribution curve
78. Anekantavada is a core theory and philosophy of which one of the following?(2009)
(a) Buddhism
(b) Jainism
(c) Sikkhism
(d) Vaishnavism
79. There are only two known examples of cave paintings of the Gupta period in ancient India. One of these is paintings of Ajanta caves. Where is the other surviving example of Gupta paintings?(2010)
(a) Bagh caves(b) Ellora caves
(c) Lomas Rishi cave
(d) Nasik caves
80. India maintained its early cultural contacts and trade links with Southeast Asia across the Bay of Bengal. For this pre-eminence of early maritime history of Bay of Bengal, which of the following could be the most convincing explanation/explanations ? (2011 – I)
(a) As compared to other countries, India had a better ship-building technology in ancient and medieval times
(b) The rulers of southern India always partronized traders, Brahmin priests and Buddhist monks in this context.
(c) Monsoon winds across the Bay of Bengal facilitated sea voyages
(d) Both (a) and (b) are convincing explanations in this context
81. The Jain philosophy holds that the world is created and maintained by (2011 – I)
(a) Universal Law(b) Universal Truth
(c) Universal Faith(d) Universal Soul
82. Regarding the Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following statements :
1. It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene
2. During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India (2011 – I)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2(d) Neither 1 nor 2
83. The “Dharma” and “Rita” depict a central Idea of ancient Vedic civilization of India. In this context, consider the following statements : (2011 – I)
1. Dharma was a conception of obligations and of the discharge of one’s duties to oneself and to others.
2. Rita was the fundamental moral law governing the functioning of the universe and all it contained.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2(d) Neither 1 nor 2
84. With reference to the scientific progress of ancient India, which of the statements given below are correct?(2012 – I)
1. Different kinds of specialized surgical instruments were in common use by 1st century AD.
2. Transplant of internal organs in the human body had begun by the beginning of 3rd century AD.
3. The concept of sine of an angle was known in 5th century AD.
4. The concept of cyclic quadrilaterals was known in 7th century AD.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
85. With reference to the history of ancient India, which of the following was/were common to both Buddhism and Jainism?(2012 – I)
1. Avoidance of extremities of penance and enjoyment
2. Indifference to the authority of the Vedas
3. Denial of efficacy of rituals
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only(d) 1, 2 and 3
86. The Nagara, the Dravida and the Vesara are the
(1995, 2012 – I)
(a) three main racial groups of the Indian subcontinent
(b) three main linguistic divisions into which the languages of India can be classified
(c) three main styles of Indian temple architecture
(d) three main musical Gharanas prevalent in India
87. Lord Buddha’s image is sometimes shown with the hand gesture called ‘Bhumisparsha Mudra’. It symbolizes(2012 – I)
(a) Buddha’s calling of the Earth to watch over Mara and to prevent Mara from disturbing his meditation
(b) Buddha’s calling of the Earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara
(c) Buddha’s reminder to his followers that they all arise from the Earth and finally dissolve into the Earth, and thus this life is transitory
(d) Both the statements (a) and (b) are correct in this context
88. The religion of early Vedic Aryans was primarily of(2012 – I)
(a) Bhakti
(b) image worship and Yajnas
(c) worship of nature and Yajnas
(d) worship of nature and Bhakti
89. With reference to the guilds (Shreni) of ancient India that played a very important role in the country’s economy, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2012 – I)
1. Every guild was registered with the central authority of the State and the king was the chief administrative authority on them.
2. The wages, rules of work, standards and prices were fixed by the guild.
3. The guild had judicial powers over its own members.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
90. Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the difference between the two?(2013 – I)
(a) Vihara is a place of worship, while Chaitya is the dwelling place of the monks
(b) Chaitya is a place of worship, while Vihara is the dwelling place of the monks
(c) Chaitya is the stupa at the far end of the cave, while Vihara is the hall axial to it
(d) There is no material difference between the two
91. With reference to the history of philosophical thought in India, consider the following statements regarding Sankhya school:(2013 – I)
1. Sankhya does not accept the theory of rebirth or transmigration of soul.
2. Sankhya holds that it is the self-knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior influence or agent.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
92. Which one of the following describes best the concept of Nirvana in Buddhism?(2013 – I)
(a) The extinction of the flame of desire
(b) The complete annihilation of self
(c) A state of bliss and rest
(d) A mental stage beyond all comprehension.
93. Which of the following characterizes / characterize the people of Indus Civilization?(2013 – I)
1. They possessed great palaces and temples.
2. They worshipped both male and female deities.
3. They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare.
Select the correct statement/statements using the codes given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of the statements given above is correct
94. Which of the following statements is/are applicable to Jain doctrine?(2013 – I)
1. The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance.
2. Every object, even the smallest particle has a soul.
3. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
95. With reference to the history of Indian rock-cut architecture, consider the following statements:(2013 – I)
1. The caves at Badami are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India.
2. The Barabar rock-cut caves were originally made for Ajivikas by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
3. At Ellora, caves were made for different faiths.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
96. The Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang (Hiuen Tsang) who visited India recorded the general conditions and culture of India at that time. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2013 – I)
1. The roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery.
2. As regards punishment for offences, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments for determining the innocence or guilt of a person.
3. The tradesmen had to pay duties at ferries and barrier stations.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
97. In the context of cultural history of India, a pose in dance and dramatics called ‘Tribhanga’ has been a favourite of Indian artists from ancient times till today. Which one of the following statements best describes this pose?(2013 – I)
(a) One leg is bent and the body is slightly but oppositely curved at waist and neck
(b) Facial expressions, hand gestures and make-up are combined to symbolize certain epic or historic characters
(c) Movements of body, face and hands are used to express oneself or to tell a story
(d) A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism.
98. Consider the following historical places:(2013 – I)
1. Ajanta Caves
2. Lepakshi Temple
3. Sanchi Stupa
Which of the above places is/are also known for mural paintings?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None
99. With reference to the Indian history of art and culture, consider the following pairs :(2014 – I)
Famous work of SculptureSite
1. A grand image of Buddha’s :Ajanta
Mahaparinirvana with
numerous celestial musicians
above and the sorrowful
figures of his followers below
2. A huge image of Varaha:Mount Abu
Avatar (boar incarnation)
of Vishnu, as he rescues
Goddess Earth from the deep
and chaotic waters, sculpted
on rock
3. “Arjuna’s Penance”/ :Mamallapuram
“Descent of Ganga” sculpted
on the surface of huge boulders
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
100. With reference to Buddhist history, tradition and culture in India, consider the following pairs :(2014 – I)

Famous shrineLocation
1.Tabo monastery and:Spiti Valley
temple complex
2.Lhotsava Lhakhang:Zanskar Valley
temple, Nako
3.Alchi temple complex:Ladakh

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
101. Which one of the following pairs does not form part of the six systems of Indian Philosophy?(2014 – I)
(a) Mimamsa and Vedanta
(b) Nyaya and Vaisheshika
(c) Lokayata and Kapalika
(d) Sankhya and Yoga
102. The national motto of India, ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed below the Emblem of India is taken from
(a) Katha Upanishad(2014 – I)
(b) Chandogya Upanishad
(c) Aitareya Upanishad
(d) Mundaka Upanishad
103. Which of the following Kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?(2014 – I)
1. Avanti
2. Gandhara
3. Kosala
4. Magadha
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2 and 4.
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 3 and 4
104. With reference to the art and archaeo-logical history of India, which one among the following was made earliest?(2015-I)
(a) Lingaraja Temple at Bhubneshwar
(b) Rock-cut Elephant at Dhauli
(c) Rock-cut Monuments at Mahabalipuram
(d) varaha Image at Udayagiri
105. Which one of the following books of ancient India has the love story of the son of the founder of Sunga dynasty?(2016-I)
(a) Swapnavasavadatta
(b) Malavikagnirnitra
(c) Meghadoota
(d) Ratnavali
106. In the context of the history of India, consider the following pairs:(2016-I)

TermDescription
(1) EripattiLand, revenue from which was set apart for the main¬tenance of the village tank
(2) TaniyursVillages donated to a single Brahmin or a group of Brahmins
(3) GhatikasColleges generally attached to the temples

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3(d) 1 and 3
107. With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements:(2017-I)
1. Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.
2. Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
108. The painting of Bodhisattva Padmapani is one of the most famous and oft-illustrated paintings at
(2017-I)
(a) Ajanta
(b) Badami
(c) Bagh
(d) Ellora
109. Which of the following is/are famous for Sun temples?(2017-I)
1. Arasavalli
2. Amarakantak
3. Omkareshwar
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
110. With reference to the difference between the culture of Rigvedic Aryans and Indus Valley people, which of the following statements is/are correct?(2017-I)
1. Rigvedic Aryans used the coat of mail and helmet in warfare whereas the people of Indus Valley Civilization did not leave any evidence of using them.
2. Rigvedic Aryans knew gold, silver and copper whereas Indus Valley people knew only copper and iron.
3. Rigvedic Aryans had domesticated the horse whereas there is no evidence of Indus Valley people having been aware of this animal.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
111. Which one of the following was a very important seaport in the Kakatiya kingdom?(2017-I)
(a) Kakinada
(b) Motupalli
(c) Machilipatnam (Masulipatnam)
(d) Nelluru
 

Solutions

1. (d) The name of India is a corruption of the word Sindhu. Sindhu is the name of the Indus River, mentioned in the Rig-Veda. Neighboring Arabs, Iranians uttered ‘s’ as ‘h’ and called this land Hindu. Greeks pronounced this name as Indus.
2. (a) Other Brahmavadini are Vishwawara, Sikta, Nivavari, Ghosha and Maitreyi.
3. (d) 248 A. D. is Kalachuri era. Vikram era was started by king Vikramaditya. Shaka era was started by Kanishka. Gupta era was started by Chandragupta-I.
4. (b) In Sanskrit plays of Gupta period women and Sudras speak prakrit and Elite class speak Sanskrit.
5. (d) In the year 1915 near a village called Maski in Raichur District of Karnataka, a rock inscription was discovered on a hill. In this inscription for the first time the name of Ashoka was found with titles like Devanampriya and Priyadarshi. It was then certain that Devanampriya Priyadarshi was no other than Ashoka.
6. (d) Yavanas were Indo-Greeks. They liked pepper, that is why pepper was known as Yavanapriya.
7. (c) Anuvrata was the five main teachings of Jainism- Ahimsa, Asateya, Aparigraha, Satya and Brahmacharya
8. (d)
9. (c) Four handed Bronze icon of Nataraja is the finest example of Chola sculpture.
10. (c) A complete Yuga starts with the Satya Yuga (Krita) , via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga.
11. (a) Devadasi is a girl “dedicated” to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life. They were Considered the human wife of Lord Jagannath.
12. (a) Sapta Sindhu play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rigveda, and consequently in early Vedic religion.
13. (a) Therigatha was a part of the Buddhist literature.
14. (b) Both denied the authority of the Vedas and the necessity of performing sacrifices and rituals. Both of them were opposed to animal sacrifices.
15. (c) Kosa was used for treasury and the rest of the three terms were related to family.
16. (d) Susrutha Samhita was written by Susrutha. He was said to have been the best surgeon during the Gupta period.
17. (c)
18. (c) Vishakhadatta wrote a drama named “Mudra Rakshasa”.
19. (d) Arthashastra was written by Kautilya. In this book ‘Moksha’ has been used for divorce.
20. (a) Badami was also known as Vatapi in Bijapur district of Karnataka. Panamalai or Kanchi in Tamil Nadu was the capital of Pallavas.
21. (d) Ashoka stone pillars were meant to spread his Dhamma (not the part of architectural structure. )
22. (d) Kharosthi script was deciphered by James Prinsep (1799–1840) , using the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greek period. This in turn led to the reading of the Edicts of Ashoka, some of which, from the northwest of the Asian subcontinent, were written in the Kharosthi script.
23. (c) Kathopanishad is the conversation between Nachiketa and Yamraj (God of death) . Nachiketa was a seeker, and Yamraj was a Guru (knower of secrets) .
24. (a) Milindapanho wasn’t written by one person. It is the collected dialogue between the Indo-Greek king Milinda (or Meander) and the Buddhist sage Nagasena.
25. (d) Maski, Gurjara, Nettur and Udegolam inscriptions mention the personal name of Ashoka.
26. (c) Matsya Mahajanapada comprised the present-day Jaipur-Bharatapur-Alwar area of Rajasthan, Avanti was one of the most important ones and its core area comprises the present-day Ujjain district of Madhya Pradesh. Vatsa with its capital at Kausambi was another powerful Mahajanapada, annexed by Magadha. Anga Mahajanapada was in Gangetic valley.
27. (c) Avalokiteśvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. He is one of the more widely revered bodhisattvas in mainstream Mahayana Buddhism. In Sanskrit, Avalokitesvara is also referred to as Padmapâni (“Holder of the Lotus”) or Lokeśvara (“Lord of the World”) .
28. (a) Rupaka was a silver coin of Gupta period. 16 Rupaka was equal to 1 gold coin.
29. (b) Varahamihira also wrote Panchasiddhantika; Vishakhadatta also wrote Mudra Rakshasa.
30. (d) A manigramam was a large, influential guild of South Indian merchants during the period of Western Chalukyan rulers in 10th – 12th Century CE.
31. (a) The Saka era started in 78 AD, while Vikram era started from 58 BC. So if we want to convert Badami rock inscription of Pulakesin I to Vikram era, it will be 465 + 78 + 58 = 601 Vikram Samvat.
32. (c) They embraced Buddhism because caste ridden Hinduism did not attract them.
33. (c) The ll and Xlll rock edicts mention the southern kingdoms of Chola, Pandya, Satyaputra, Keralaputra and Tambapanni.
34. (b) Buddhacharita was written by Ashvaghosh.
35. (d)
36. (a) Ashoka’s edicts put stress on social harmony among the people by spreading ideas of equity instead of promotion of religion.
37. (c) Lion capital of Ashoka is in Saranath (not Rajgir) .
38. (a) The earliest known copper-plate called Sohgaura is a Maurya record that mentions famine relief efforts. It is one of the very few pre-Ashoka Brahmi inscriptions in India.
39. (d) The Noble Eight fold Path, is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (Dukkha) and attainment of self-awakening. In Buddhist symbolism, the Noble Eight fold Path is often represented by means of the Dharma wheel (Dharmachakra) , whose eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path. Eight fold path includes right understanding, right speech, right livelihood; right mindfulness, right thought, right action, right effort and right concentration.
40. (c) The given map is related to the reign of Ashoka towards end of his rule. Ashoka (304–232 BC) , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled over the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra.
41. (c) After the 3rd century AD Roman empire came to an end. Indian merchants meanwhile had begun to rely more heavily on the south-east Asian Trade.
42. (b) Fa-Hien–405–411 CE; I-Tsing–671–695 CE; Megasthanese – 302–298 BC; Hieun–Tsang–630–645CE
43. (d) Of the 16 Mahajanapadas, Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti were more powerful. They fought amongst themselves for years and ultimately Magadha emerged victorious under Bimbisara (Haranyak dynasty) in 6th C BC.
44. (a) Bactria was the ancient civilizations of Iranian peoples. Ancient Bactria was located between the Hindu Kush mountain range and the Amu Darya river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
45. (c) Aryan is in fact a linguistic term indicating a speech group of Indo-European origin, and is not an ethnic term.
46. (a) Tamralipta or Tamralipti was the name of an ancient city on the Bay of Bengal corresponding with Tamluk in modern-day India. Tamralipta may have been one of the most important urban centres of trade and commerce of early historic India, trading along the Silk Road with China, by Uttarapatha, the northern high road, the main trade route into the Middle East and Europe; and by seafaring routes to Bali, Java and the Far East.
47. (a) The didactic works of Sangam period are called Kilukanakku (18 minor groups) consisting of Tirukurral and Naladiyar. The Aham and Puram poems of the Kilukanakku group were composed in post-Sangam period. That’s why R explains A.
48. (a) Both statements are true and the reason is correct explanation of assertion.
49. (b) Both the statements are true but do not explain each other.
50. (a) Ashoka annexed Kalinga to the Mauryan empire in 261 BC. Though Ashoka abandoned the policy of physical occupation in favour of policy of cultural conquest after the Kalinga War, yet he retained Kalinga after its conquest and incorporated it into his empire. Thus R explains A.
51. (a) Greeks first introduced military governorship in India. They appointed their Governors called strategos.
52. (a) Alexander invaded India in 326 BC. Nandas were ruling over India at that time. The chronological order of these 4 dynasties was: Nanda, Maurya, Sunga and Kanvas.
53. (b) The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebid.
54. (b) Painted Greyware belonged to later Vedic period (1000–600BC) . Ajanta paintings belong to the Gupta period. Pahari School came into existence during the Mughal period.
55. (b) To popularize the Mahayana form of Buddhism. Harshavardhana convened an assembly at Kannauj. The Prayag assembly was convened to popularize himself.
56. (c) In 1017, Rajendra conquered Ceylon (Srilanka) . Earlier Rajaraja I conquered only half of it.
57. (d) Vasumitra and Ashavaghosh together presided over the fourth council. In this council Buddhists were divided into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.
58. (a) Cow, camel, horse and lion were not depicted on seals. Unicorn (bull) was the animal most commonly represented on the seals.
59. (b) The correct match is option (b) .
60. (a) The Statue of Gomateshwara was built in deference to Jain deity Bahubali, It does not represent last Tirthankara of Jains. India’s largest Buddhist monastery is Tawang Monastery located in Arunachal Pradesh. It is the second largest in the world after the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet.
61. (b) Pavarana is a Buddhist holy day celebrated on the full moon of the eleventh lunar month. It marks the end of the month of Vassa, sometimes called “Buddhist Lent. ” This day marks the end of the rainy season in some Asian countries like Thailand, where Theravada Buddhism is practiced. On this day, each monk (Pali: bhikkhu) must come before the community of monks (Sangha) and atone for an offense he may have committed during the Vassa.
62. (d) The Mudrarakshasa (“The Signet of the Minister”) , a historical play in Sanskrit by Vishakhadatta (4th century CE) narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya to power in Northern India.
63. (b) Emperor Harsha’s southward march was stopped on the Narmada river by Pulakesin II, the Chalukya king of Vatapi in northern Mysore.
64. (c) The Chola kingdom of the Sangam period extended from modern Tiruchi district to southern Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was first located at Uraiyur and then shifted to Puhar. Karikala was a famous king of the Sangam Cholas. Pattinappalai portrays his early life and his military conquests. In the Battle of Venni he defeated the mighty confederacy consisting of the Cheras, Pandyas and eleven minor chieftains.
The Chola emperor launched a successful naval expedition against the sailendra kingdom.
65. (a) Mrichchhakatika (The Clay Court) is a Sanskrit play written by Shudraka in 2nd C BC. It is about a young man named Charudatta, and his love for Vasantasena, a rich courtesan.
66. (c) Vardhaman Mahavira’s mother, Trishala was the sister (not the daughter) of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka.
67. (d) All statements are correct. The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha was assassinated by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga in 185 BC. The last ruler of Kanva dynasty, Susharma was deposed by the Andhras and Satavahana dynasty came into being.
68. (d) Statement 1 is incorrect as fourth Buddhist Council was held in Kashmir during the reign of Kanishka under the presidentship of Vasumitra and Ashvaghosh. Fa-Hien visited India during the reign of Chandra Gupta-II and not during Kanishka’s reign. Statement 2 is incorrect as Harsha was not antagonistic to Buddhism when Hiuen -Tsang met him.
69. (c) Jainism spread in South India under the leadership of Bhadrabahu (not Sthalabahu) . The Jainas who remained under the leadership of Bhadrabahu were called Digambaras (not Shvetambaras) after the first council held at Pataliputra (modern Patna) by Sthulbahu.
70. (c) Atharvaveda is a book of magical formula. It contains charms and spells to ward-off evil and disease.
71. (c) Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty. Magdha empire came into prominence under him. He was a contemporary of the Buddha. He strengthened his position by marriage alliances. His first wife was the sister of Prasenjit (son of king of Koshala) who was also contemporary of the Buddha.
72. (b) Dantidurga, a feudatory of Chalukyas, founded the Rastrakuta empire in 753 C E (AD) with their capital at Manyakhet.
73. (a) Sindhu was the old name of river Indus and Vitasta was the old name of River Jhelum. In persent time Takshashila situated in Pakistan.
74. (a) Alexander (Greek, 326 B. C. E. ) ; Sakas (90 B. C. E. ) ; Kushanas (45 C. E. )
75. (b) Statement 1 is incorrect as most of the inscriptions of the Andhra Ikshvaku period record either the construction of the Buddhist viharas or the gifts made to them which shows that the Ikshvaku rulers of Southern India were supporters of Buddhism
76. (d) It was written by Samudragupta’s court poet Harisena.
77. (a) This is same as the Pythagoras theorem.
78. (b) The Jaina metaphysics is realistic and relativistic pluralism. It is called Anekantavada or the doctrine of ‘mayness of reality’. Matter and spirit are regarded as separate and independent realities.
79. (a) A copper plate inscription of Maharaja Subandhu, recording his donation for the repair of the vihara was found at the site of Cave 2. Though, the date of the Bagh inscription is missing, the Badwani copper plate inscription is dated in the year (Gupta era) 167 (487) .
80. (d) Option (d) is the correct answer.
81. (d)
82. (c) We have read about the Mehrgarh cotton which is the earliest example of Cotton cultivation in the old world, older than the Peruvians. The cloth was made, and even dyed, so statement 2 is correct. The first statement is also correct and has been “lifted” from a famous history book.
83. (c) ‘Rita’ refers to regulation order by nature and was related to the conduct of the Vedic Gods and Humans, somewhere related to the moral and physical law. Statement 2 is correct. ‘Rita’ was later replaced by ‘Dharma’ and was a more sophisticated form of principles of law. As per Chanakya, ‘Dharma’ was the promotion of one’s own security, happiness as well as the social order.
84. (c) 1st, 3rd and 4th are correct.
85. (b) Both Buddhism and Jainism denied the authority of the Vedas and the efficacy of Rituals.
86. (c) Nagara, Dravida and Vesara are three main styles of Indian temple architecture.
87. (b) The earth witness Buddha is one of the most common iconic images of Buddhism. It depicts the Buddha sitting in meditation with his left hand, palm upright, in his lap; and his right hand touching the earth. This represents the moment of the Buddha’s enlightenment.
88. (c) The early Vedic Aryans indulged in Image Worship and Yajnas.
89. (c) The wages, rules of work, standards and prices were fixed by the guild.
The guild had judicial powers over its own members.
90. (b) Chaityas refer to the halls enclosing the stupas. Chaityas were probably constructed to hold large numbers of devotees for prayer. Viharas on the other hand are constructions built in ancient India in order to provide resting places for the wandering Buddhist monks.
91. (b) Sankhya yoga believes that self –knowledge leads to liberation. Almost all the rest of philosophies of India adopted Sankhya as its main base. Sankhya yoga also believes in rebirth. According to Sankhya darshan each purusha experiences bhoga, apavarga and takes birth repeatedly until kaivalya. (moksa) .
92. (a) The concept of Nirvana was originally explained by Lord Buddha (566-486 BC) . The word ‘Nirvana’ comes from the root meaning ‘to blow out’ and refers to the extinguishing of the fires of greed, hatred, and delusion. When these emotional and psychological defilements are destroyed by wisdom, the mind becomes free, radiant, and joyful and he who has realized the Truth (Nirvana) is the happiest being in the world. He is free from all complexes and obsessions. He does not repent the past nor does he brood over the future. He lives fully in present. He appreciates and enjoys things in life in the purest sense without self projections. He is free from the thirst of becoming and the illusion of self. Buddism explain Nivrana as a state of bliss or peace.
93. (b) Indus valley people did not possess great palaces and temples rather the civilization was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system and multistoried houses.
Indus valley people were peace loving. They were never engaged in any war. However speculations have been rife that some tectonic forces destroyed the civilization. Some historians are of the view that invasion of Aryans, sea level changes, earthquakes might have brought the civilization to its end therefore people employing horse drawn chariots in warfare is not true. Moreover, Indus valley seals show swastika, animals which is suggestive of their religious beliefs. In view of large number of figurines found in Indus valley, some scholars believe they worshipped mother goddess symbolizing fertility. They worshipped a father God who might be a progenitor of the race and was a probably a prototype of Siva as the Lord of the Animals.
94. (d) The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended.
“Swadhyay Paramam Tap” According to Jain doctrines Penance washes away all the blemishes and purges the soul of all karmic matter.
Also, according to Jainism, Karma is the bane of the soul. Karma not only encompasses the causality of transmigration but it is also conceived as an extremely subtle matter which infiltrates the soul, obscuring its natural, transparent, pure qualities. Karma is thought of as a kind of pollution that taints the soul with various colors. Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnation in various states of existence like heavens or hells or as humans or animals.
95. (c) The Barbara rock cut caves are the oldest rock cut caves. They were originally made for the Ajivikas during the Mauryan period (322-185 BCE) . The Ellora caves were built between 5th century and 10th century. There were 34 caves out of which 12 were Buddhist caves, 17 were Hindu caves and 5 were Jain caves. The proximity of the caves clearly demonstrates the religious harmony prevalent at that period of time.
96. (b) The tradesmen had to pay light duties at ferries and barriers. After paying the revenue they could go to and fro to barter their merchandise. The punishment for social offences according to the traveller’s account, were to cut off the nose, or an ear or a hand. Minor offences were dealt with fines. And to determine guilt or innocence, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments which were used.
97. (a) The pose ‘Tribhanga’ is the favourite posture of Lord Krishna. We have often seen Lord Krishna standing in tribhanga posture before his cow ‘Kamdhenu’ or whenever he is playing his flute. He is often called Tribhana Murari.
98. (b) Ajanta Caves have mural paintings in caves 1, 2, 16 and 17. Some of the paintings were commissioned by Harisena of Vakataka dynasty. The theme of the paintings was Jataka tales. Lepakshi Temple is renowned for being one of the best repositories of mural paintings of the Vijaynagar kings. Sanchi Stupa has many beautiful sculptures but not mural paintings.
99. (c) 1 is correctly matched because Parinirvana of the Buddha in Cave 17 of Ajanta, with numerous celestial musicians above and the sorrowful figures of his followers below, is one of the grandest and yet most delicately expressive scenes ever made in stone. 2 is wrong because huge image of Varaha Avatar of Vishnu, as herescues Goddess Earth from the deepand chaotic waters, sculpted on rock is found in Mamallapuram. 3 is right because Arjuna’s Penance “Descent of Ganga” sculpted on thesurface of huge boulders is found in Mamallapuram.
100. (c) Tabo monastery and temple complex is in Spiti Valley and Alchi temple complex is in Ladakh. Lhotsava Lhakhang, Nako is in Himachal Pradesh. Zanskar Valley is in Jammu and Kashmir.
101. (c) Lokayata and Kapalika do not form of Six system of Indian philosophy
102. (d) The words Satyameva Jayate came from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’.
103. (c) Buddh born in Lumbini, in Kosala kingdom. Buddh died in Kusinara, in Magadha kingdom. Avanti lay outside the area visited by buddha, and was converted to his teaching by his disciple Mahakaccana. Gandhara is western part of Pakistan & Afghanistan and Buddha never went to Pakistan.
104. (b) Rock-cut Elephant at Dhauli was built during the reign of Ashoka in 250 BC. lingaraja Temple at Bhubneshwar was built by Yayati (1025-1040) . Rock-cut monuments at Mahabalipuram were built during 7th-8th century AD during the reign of Pallavas. Varaha Image at Udaygiri was built by Chandragupta II of Gupta Empire.
105. (b) The Malavikagnimitra is a Sanskrit play by Kalidas. The play tells the love story of Agnimitra, the Shunga Emperor. He falls in love with the picture of an exiled servant girl named Malavika.
106. (d) A special category of land, eripatti, or land, is mentioned. Donated by individuals, the revenue from this land was set apart for the maintenance of the village tank. Occasionally a very large village would be administered as a single unit and this was called Taniyur.
Ref: A History of India by Romila Thapar.
107. (b) Sautrantikas and Sammtiyas as Buddhism sects. So first statement is wrong.
And Sarvastivadin sect of Buddhism believes that all things exist, and exist continuously, in the past and the future as well as in the present. So second statement is right.
108. (a) New NCERT, Std. 11. An Introduction to Indian Art (Page 54 shows big photo with caption: Padmapaniboddhisattva at ajanta Cave no. 1)
109. (a) •Andhra Pradesh state Govt. website says Arasavalli in Srikakulam district has sun temple. So 1 is right.
•Sri Omkareshwar temple in Mysore is for Lord Shiva and it’s not a Sun Temple.
•Amarakantak in Madhya Pradesh has temples, but not any Sun temple. So #3 is wrong. Hence, by elimination, answer “A” only 1.
110. (a,c) NEW NCERT Class 12, Ch. 1, page 10 list the locations and photographs of gold jewelry found at Harappan sites, soSecond statement is wrong. Indus Valley people also knew gold and silver also. This eliminates B and D. and we are left with “A” or “D” in both cases.
In the third statement, the ending part is: there is no evidence of Indus Valley people having been aware of horse.
•If we go by the history books written by Krishna Reddy or RS Sharma- atleast in the post-urban Indus places some people would be aware of Horse. Hence answer C.
•If we go by Tamilnadu Class 11, A. L. Basham, Upinder Singh, answer is “A” because Indus Valley people’s knowledge of horse is inconclusive or debatable.
•Final answer can be arrived only when UPSC will declare the official Answerkey
111. (b) Academic books on medieval history mention that Ganapati was the most powerful of Kakatiya sovereigns. Motupalli, now in Krishna district, was an important seaport in his kingdom, frequented by foreign merchants. So, “B” is the answer.
 

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