9 History Chapter 7 History and Sport Story of Cricket

Chapter Notes and Summary
Introduction
1. Cricket grew out of many stick and ball games played in England 500 years ago.
2. word ‘bat’ is an old English word that simply means stick or club.
3. By 17th century, cricket had evolved enough to be recognisable as a distinct game.
4. Till middle of 18th century, bats were roughly same shape as hockey sticks curving outwards at bottom. reason for this was that ball was bowled underarm along ground and curve at end of bat gave batsman best chance of making contact.
Historical Development of Cricket as a Game in England
1. Pecularities of Cricket
(a) A Test Match of cricket can go on for five days and still end in a draw.
(b) No other modern team sport takes even half as much time to complete.
(c) size and shape of ground is not specified.
(d) Most team sports such as hockey and football lay down dimensions of playing area, but cricket does not.
(e) Grounds can be Oval like Adelaide Oval or nearly circular, like Chepauk in Chennai.
2. Codification of Cricket
(a) first written ‘Laws of Cricket’ were drawn up in
1774.
(b) These laws stated that ‘the principals shall choose from amongst gentlemen present two umpires who shall absolutely decide on disputes’.
(c) stumps must be 22 inches high and bail across them six inches.
(d) ball must be between 5 and 6 ounces and two sets of stumps 22 yards apart.
(e) world’s first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in 1760s and Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was founded in 1787.
(f) In 1788, MCC published first revision of laws and became guardian of cricket’s regulations.
Changes in Cricket Due to MCC’s Revision of Laws
1. A series of changes occured in game of cricket in second half of 18th century.
2. During 1760’s and 1770, it became common to pitch ball through air rather than roll it along ground.
3. curved bat was replaced with straight one.
4. weight of ball was limited to between 5 1
2 to 53
4
ounces and maximum width of bat to 4 inches.
5. In 1774, first leg before law was published. Also around this time a third stump became common.
6. By 1780, three days had become length of a major match; this year also saw creation of first six seam cricket ball.
Other Changes in Cricket
1. rule of wide balls was applied.
2. exact circumference of ball was specified.
3. Protective equipment like pads and gloves became available.
4. Boundaries were introduced; earlier all runs had to be run.
5. Overarm bowling became legal.
Cricket’s Connection With a Rural Past
1. Cricket’s connection with a rural past can be seen in length of a Test Match. Originally, cricket matches had no time limit. game went on as long as it took to bowl out a side twice.
2. rhythms of village life were slower and cricket’s rules were made before industrial revolution.
3. Cricket’s vagueness about size of cricket ground is a result of its village origins. Cricket was played on country commons, unfenced land that was public property and size of commons varied from village; to village; so playing grounds were of different sizes.
4. game’s equipment remained fundametally true to its origins in rural England.
5. Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural, pre-industrial materials.
6. bat is made of wood, as are stumps and boils.
The ball is made with leather, twine and cork. Even today bat and ball are handmade, not industrially manufactured.
7. material of bat changed slightly with time. Once it was cut out of a single price of wood. Now, it consists of two pieces : blade which is made out of wood of willow tree and handle which is made out of cane.
8. Unlike golf and tennis, cricket has refused to make its talls with industrial or man made materials, plastic fibre and metal have been rejected.
9. In matter of protective equipment; cricket has been influenced by technolgical change.
10. invention of vulcanised rubber led to introduction of pads in 1848 and protective gloves soon afterwards; also helmets made of metal and synthetic lightweight materials were introduced.
Cricket in Victorian England
1. organisation of cricket in England reflected nature of English society.
2. Amateurs rich who could afford to play it for pleasure were called amateurs.
3. rich covers amateurs for two reasons : one, they considered sport a kind of leisure; Two, there was not enough money in game for rich to be interested.
4. They were called gentlemen.
5. Proffessionals poor who played it for a living were called Proffessionals.
6. wages of Proffessionals were paid by patronage or subscription or gate money.
7. Most professionals worked as miners or in other forms of working class employment in winter and off season.
8. Socially, amateurs were superior and were called Gentlemen, while Proffessionals were called Players.
9. Amateurs tended to be batsmen and Proffessionals were generally bowlers.
10. amateur would be captain of a cricket team because he was a gentleman.
Spread of Cricket
1. While some English team games like hockey and football became international games played all over world, cricket remained a colonial game.
2. Cricket remained limited to those countries that had once been part of British Empire.
3. British imperial officers brought game to colonies where subjects were non-whites like India and West Indies. Here, playing cricket become a sign of superior social and racial status.
4. Afro-Caribbean population of countries in West Indies was discouraged from participating in organised club cricket. This remained dominated by white plantation owners and their servants.
5. first non-white club in West Indies was established towards end of 19th century, and its members were light skinned mulattos.
6. blacks played informal cricket on beaches, in back alleys and parks. Cricket became hugely popular in Caribbean.
Cricket, Race and Religion
1. first record we have of cricket being played in India is from 1721, an account of recreational cricket played by English sailors in Cambay.
2. Cricket in India was organised on principles of race and religion.
3. first Indian club, Calcutta Cricket Club was established in 1792. Through 18th century, cricket in India was almost wholly a sport played by British military men and civil servants in all white clubs and Gymkhanas.
4. Indians were considered to have no talent for game and certainly not meant to play it.
5. origins of Indian cricket, that is cricket played by Indians, are to be found in Mumbai, earlier known as Bombay.
6. first Indian community to start playing game was small community of zoroastrians, parsis.
7. Parsis came into close contact with British because of their interest in trade and this was first Indian community to Westernise.
8. Parsis founded first Indian Cricket Club, Oriental Cricket Club, in Bombay in 1848.
9. They built their own Gymkhana to play cricket.
10. A Parsi team beat Bombay Gymkhana at cricket in
1885.
Cricket Tournaments in India
1. First class cricket was organised on communal and racial lines.
2. Quadrangular tournament was called Quadrangular because it was played by four teams: Europeans, Parsis, Hindus and Muslims.
3. Pentangular Quadrangular later became Pentangular when a fifth team was added namely, rest, which comprised of all communities left over, such as Indian Christians. Vijay Hazare, a Christian, played for rest.
4. Pentangular was criticised because of its racial and communal foundations.
5. Mahatma Gandhi condemned Pentangular as a communally divisive competition that was out of place at a time when nationalists were trying to unite India’s diverse population.
6. A rival first class tournament on regianal lines, National Cricket Championship (later renamed Ranji Trophy) was established.
7. CK Nayudu, Palwankar Vithal and Palwankar Baloo were famous players of that era.
Decolonisation and Sport
1. Decolonisation led to decline of British influence in trade, commerce and military affairs and inevitably in sporting matters.
2. Imperial Cricket Council (ICC) was renamed as International Cricket Conference as late as 1965. Till then England and Australia could veto its proceedings.
3. England, Australia and New Zealand continued is play Test Cricket with South Africa, a racist state that followed a policy of racial segregation, which, among other things, barred non-whites from representing that country in Test Matches.
4. India, Pakistan and West Indies boycotted South Africa.
5. Due to political pressure and pressure of cricket playing non-white countries, Britain cancelled a cricket tour to South Africa.
Commerce, Media and Cricket Today
1. 1970’s was decade in which cricket was transformed; it was a time when traditional game evolved to fit a changing world.
2. 1971 was a landmark year because first One Day International was played between England and Australia in Melbourne.
3. Enormous popularity of game led to first World Cup being successfully staged in 1975.
4. In 1977, cricket celebrated 100 years of test matches.
Kerry Packer’s Contribution
1. Kerry Packer, an Australian television tycoon, signed up fifty of world’s leading cricketers and staged unofficial Tests and One Day Internationls under name of World Series Cricket.
2. innovations introduced during this time changed nature of game.
3. Coloured dress, protective helmets, field restrictions and cricket under lights became a standard part of post Packer game.
4. Cricket boards became rich by selling television rights to television companies.
5. Television channels made money by selling spots to companies to air commercials for their products.
6. Television coverage made cricketers celebrities, who made large sums of money by making commercials from tyres to colas on television.
7. Television coverage changed game of cricket. audience for game expanded because it was being telecast live into small towns and villages.
8. Satellite technology created a global market for cricket.
Matches in Sydney could now be watched in Surat.
Shift of ICC Headquarters from London
1. India had largest viewership for game amongst cricket playing nations and largest market in cricketing world. Therefore, games centre of gravity shifted to South Asia. This marked end of Anglo-Australian domination sover game.
2. Pakistan has pioneered two great advances in bowling: the
‘doosra’ and ‘reverse swing’. Both skills were developed in response to sub-continental conditions.
3. doosra was to counter aggressive batsmen with heavy modern bats who were threatening to make finger spin obsolete, and ‘reverse swing’ to move ball in on dusty unresponsive crickets under clear skies.
4. Initially, both these techniques were treated with suspicion by countries like England and Australia, which saw them as an underhand, illegal bending of laws of cricket.
5. In time, they became part of technique of bowlers everywhere in world.
6. One hundred and fifty years ago first Indian cricketers, Parsis had to struggle to find, an open field to play in.
Today, global marketplace has made Indian players best paid and most famous cricketers in game.

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