8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation Of Plants And Animals

Chapter Notes and Summary
• A great variety of plants and animals exist on earth. They are essential for well-being and survival of mankind.
• A major threat to suvival of these organism is deforestation.
• Trees in forest are cut for some of purposes mentioned below :
• Producing land for cultivation.
• Building houses and factories.
• Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
• Natural calamities causing forest fires and severe droughts.
Effects of deforestation :
• Deforestation causes increase of atmospheric temperature due to increase in concentration of carbon dioxide leading to global warming.
• Severe drought and flood.
• Deforestation changes nature of soil, water holding capacity and soil erosion.
• Deforestation causes destruction of habitat of wildlife, its survival becomes difficult.
Biosphere is that part of earth in which living organism exist or which supports life.
Biological diversity refers to variety of organism existing on earth, their inter-relationships with environment.
• To protect our flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas are called sanctuaries, national park and biosphere reserves are formed.
Sanctuaries : Areas where animals are protected from any disturbances to them and their nabitats.
National Park : areas reserves for wildlife where they can freely use habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserves : Large areas of protected land for conservation of wild life animals, plants and traditional life of tribals living in area.
• plant and animals found in a particular area are termed as flora and fauna of that area.
Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.
Species are a group of population that are capable of interbreeding.
Wildlife sanctuaries provide protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals, where killing (Poaching) or capturing of animals is strictly prohibited.
National parks are large area to protect whole set of ecosystems. They protect flora, fauna, land space and historical object of that area. Satpura National Park is first reserve forest of India. finest teak is found in this forest.
• Project tiger was launched by government to protect tigers in country.
• Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as endangered animals.
• An ecosystem is made up of all plants, animals and micro-organisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, river deltas etc.
Red Data Book is source book that keeps a record of all endangered species of animals and plants.
• Migratory birds fly to far away areas every year during a particular time because of climate changes. Birds who cover long distances to reach another land are known as migratory birds.
Recycling of Paper : Paper is made from wood pulp that is produced from wood of forest trees. Therefore, it is one of important products we get from forests and thus, a major cause of deforestation.
• ‘Recycling of paper’ is is process to make a new paper from waste paper that can be used again.
• We should save, reuse and recycle for following reasons :
• To save forests trees from being cut.
• To save water used in paper making.
• To save energy (electricity) used in making paper.
• To reduce amount of harmful chemical used in paper making.
Reforestation is restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees. It can take place naturally also, if deforestated area is left undisturbed.
In India, there are following conservation acts to save forests :
• Government of India has enacted a Forest Conservation Act (1980).
• Chipko Andolan.
• Joint Forest Management Programme.

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