Chapter Notes and Summary
• To provide food for a large population, regular production, proper management and distribution of food is necessary.
• When nomadic people settled and cultivated lands, they produced rice, wheat and other crops, then agriculture was born.
• Crop : When plants of same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called crop. In India, two cropping patterns are found :
Kharif crops : Grown from June to September (Rainy Season) e.g., paddy, maize, soyabean, etc.
Rabi crops : Grown from October to March (Winter Season) e.g., gram, pea, mustard, linseed etc.
• Agricultural Implements : Tools used for purpose of various agricultural activities.
• Main agricultural implements are :
(i) Plough (ii) Hoe (iii) Cultivator (iv) Tools used for sowing seeds.
• Agricultural Practices :
General activities undertaken by farmer over a period of time to cultivate crops are called agricultural practices. They are as follows :
(i) Preparation of soil : It is first step before growing a crop. Soil has to be loosened (The process of loosening and turning of soil in called tilling or ploughing). This also helps in growth of earthworms and microbes that add humus to it. ploughed fields have big pieces of soil called crumbs.
(ii) Sowing : Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected. Farmers are advised to use good, healthy and high yielding seeds.
Methods of Sowing : Sowing is done either manually or by using machines. Some methods are –
(a) Traditional Tools : It was used by farmers. It is upper funnel shaped part which is filled by seeds. seeds pass down through two or three pipes having sharp ends pierce into soil and place seed in that space.
(b) Manual Sowing : In this method, seeds are scattered in entire field unevenly by sprinkling them into soil by hand. This process is called broadcasting.
(c) Seed Drill : It is a mechanical method of sowing by using a tractor. Seed drill is a long iron tube having funnel at
top. This is tied with plough and seeds are put into funnel of seed drill. This method protects seeds from damage caused by birds. It also saves time and labour.
(iii) Adding manures and fertilizers : substances are added to soil in form of nutrients for healthy growth of plants is called manures and fertilizers.
Manure : It is an organic substance obtained from decomposition of plant or animal wastes.
Fertilizers : These are chemical substances which are rich in a particular nutrient. e.g., urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, NPK.
Advantages of Manure over Fertilizers :
The organic manure is considered better than fertilizers. This is because—
(a) it enhances water holding capacity of soil.
(b) it makes soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.
(c) it improves texture of soil.
(iv) Irrigation : supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation. Sources of irrigation are—wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.
Methods of Irrigation :
(a) Traditional methods : Water available in wells, lakes and canals is lifted up by different methods :
(i) Moat (Pulley system) (ii) Chain pump
(iii) Dhekli and (iv) Rahat (Lever system)
(b) Modern methods :
(i) Sprinkler system : Rotating nozzles sprinkle water as it is raining. (Useful for sandy soil)
(ii) Drip Irrigation : Water falls drop by drop. (Best for fruits and vegetables).
(v) Protection from weeds :
• Undesirable plants that naturally grow with plants are called weeds.
• Removal of weeds is called weeding. It can be done by different methods as follows :
(i) Manual Weeding : In this method, weeds are removed from crop field by pulling them up by hands and throwing away. Manual weeding is carried out by using trowel or Khurpi.
(ii) Spraying Weedicides : Certain chemicals called weedicides (herbicides) like 2,4-D are sprayed in fields to kill weeds but crops remain unaffected.
(vi) Protection from pests : Pests use organisms that damage crops. Pest include rodents (rats) and insects like locusts, termites etc. These are controlled by using insecticides and pesticides.
Chapter Notes and Summary