8 History Chapter 11 Making Of National Movement 1870s 1947

Chapter Notes and Summary
Advent of Gandhiji : Gandhiji was 46 years old when he came to India after leading Indians in South Africa in non-violent marches against racist restrictions.
Indian National Congress : Indian National Congress was established in December 1885. Around 72 delegates attended first meeting of Indian National Congress held in Bombay. early important leaders were Dadabhai Naoroji, Ferozshah Mehta, Romesh Chandra Dutt and S. Subramania Iyer.
Economic Issues and Congress : Congress raised a number of economic issues in order to highlight economic exploitation by British rule export as they used to export grains to England that resulted into poverty and famines, increased land revenue and impoverished peasants and zamindars in India.
Radicals in Congress : Since 1890s, Congress party witnessed emergence of trend of radicals. They began to question nature of political methods and approach of moderates in Congress.
Swadeshi Movement : Swadeshi Movement emerged out as a result of many demonstrations and mass protest against partition of Bengal in 1905. movement was very strong in Bengal. It encouraged ideas of self-help, swadeshi enterprise, national education and use of Indian languages.
Separate Electorates : Separate electorates referred to reservation of some seats for Muslim Community in councils. This demand was made by League in 1905 and it supported British government’s partition of Bengal.
All India Muslim League : All India Muslim League was formed at Dacca in 1906 by a group of Muslim landlords and Nawabs. It supported partition of Bengal because of its desire for separate electorates for Muslims.
Congress Split : Congress split in 1907 because moderates were opposed to use of boycott by Radicals. Moderates dominated Congress after its split. Radicals and Moderates of Congress reunited in December 1915.
Demands of Moderates : moderates demanded a greater voice for Indians at higher positions in government and administration. They also demanded legislative councils to increase number of representatives by including Indians. They demanded introduction of legislative councils in provinces.
Lucknow Pact : Lucknow Pact was an historic agreement signed in 1916 between Congress and All India Muslim League. Both parties decided to work together for representative government in country.
Khilafat Agitation : Indian Muslims Community launched Khilafat Agitation. Its two important leaders were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. It was launched against Britishers’ imposition of a harsh treaty
(Treaty of Sevres) on Turkish Sultan or Khalifa.
Non-Cooperation Movement : leaders of Khilafat Agitation, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, persuaded Gandhiji to launch Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhiji accepted it and urged Congress to protest and demonstrate against Jallianwala massacre, Khilafat wrongdoing and in favour of Swaraj.
Chauri Chaura Incident : Gandhiji was against use of violent methods and movements. He called off Non-Cooperation Movement abruptly due to Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 policemen were killed, when a crowd of peasants set fire to police station in February 1922.
Rowlatt Satyagraha : In 1919, Gandhiji launched an anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha, which received countrywide response. April 6, 1919 was observed as day of “humiliation and prayers” and hartal (strike). Satyagraha Sabhas were held throughout country.
Rowlatt Act : Britishers passed Rowlatt Act in India, under which people could be imprisoned without trial. This act was called ‘Black Act’. This strengthened power of police.
Simon Commission : In 1927, British government in England sent a commission headed by Lord Simon to decide India’s political future. commission did not have any Indian representative, due to which it faced protest by Indians.
Salt March : In 1930, Gandhiji decided to lead a march to break Salt Law. march began at Sabarmati Ashram and ended at coastal village of Dandi and Gandhiji broke Salt Law by gathering salt naturally found on seashore.
Dissatisfaction of Indians : Various acts and bills introduced by Britishers intensified dissatisfaction of Indians with British rule.
Quit India Movement : In 1942, Gandhiji launched Quit India Movement against Britishers. movement urged Britishers to quit India and followed a popular slogan “Do or Die”, calling upon people’s full effort to fight against Britishers in a non-violent manner.
League and Independent States : All India Muslim League moved a resolution demanding “Independent States” for Muslims in 1940s. league located its “Independent States” in north-western and eastern areas of country.

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