8 Geography Chapter 2 Land Soil Water Natural Vegetation And Wildlife Resources

Chapter Notes and Summary
Land :
 Land is an important natural resource which covers only 30 percent of earth’s surface.
 Land provides most of human needs. Its use depends on physical factors such as topography, soil, climate, mineral and availability of water and human factors.
 Due to excessive use of land for agricultural and constructional activities, major problem of land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, etc. arises.
 To conserve land, we must promote afforestation, check overgrazing and regulate use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers.
Soil :
 upper layer of land’s surface is called soil. This is further divided into top soil, sub-soil, weathered rocks and bed rocks which are inclusively known as soil profile.
 Soil formation depends on nature of parent rock, climate, relief features, flora, fauna, microorganisms and time.
 Deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, rain wash, landslides and floods leads to soil degradation.
 Conservation of soil can be done by mulching, contour barriers, constructing rock dam, terrace farming, intercropping, contour ploughing and making shelter belts.
Water :
 Three-fourth of earth surface is covered with water, out of which only 2.7 per cent water is fresh water, but only 1% of fresh water is available for human use.
 excessive use of water leads to shortage in supply of fresh water either due to drying up of water sources or due to water pollution.
 Discharge of untreated sewage, agricultural chemicals and industrial effluents in water bodies causes water pollution.
 Water conservation can be done by afforestation, adopting effective techniques for irrigation and promoting rainwater harvesting.
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife :
 Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in biosphere and they are interrelated and interdependent on each other for their survival. This system is called ecosystem.
 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife both are valuable resources. They are not only useful for us, but they also help in maintaining balance in nature.
 Major vegetations of ecosystems are Forests, Grasslands, Scrubs and Tundra.
 Due to deforestation, soil erosion, constructional activities, forest fires, Tsunami, landslides and poaching, many species of vegetation and wildlife have become extinct and many others are on verge of extinction.
 We can conserve Natural vegetation and wildlife by making national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.

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