7 History Chapter 6 Town Traders And Craftspersons

Chapter Notes and Summary
• In medieval India there are three types of towns—a temple town, an administrative town and a commercial town or a port town.
Thanjavur was a temple town with a temple of Rajarajeshvara built by Rajaraja Chola.
• Temple towns represent a very important pattern of urbanization, process by which cities develop.
• Important temple towns were Bhillasvamin in Madhya Pradesh, Somnath in Gujarat, Kanchipuram and Madurai in Tamil Nadu and Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh.
• From eighth century onwards subcontinent was dotted with small towns. Different kinds of artisans such as potters, oil pressers, sugar makers, smiths, stonemasons ,etc., also lived in these towns.
• craftspersons of Bidar were very famous. Their inlay work in copper and silver came to be known as Bidri.
• Hampi was capital of Vijayanagar Empire. Moors, Chettis and agents of European traders thronged markets of Hampi.
• Surat in Gujarat was a cosmopolitan city. textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders known as zari and had a market in west Asia, Africa and Europe.
• town of Masulipatnam was a centre of intense activity in 17th century. As it became most important port on Andhra coast both Dutch and English East India Companies attempted to control it.
• When Golconda was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686-1687, European trader moved to Mumbai, Calcutta
(Kolkata) and Chennai.
• English emerged as most successful commercial and political power in subcontinent.
• Europeans established Black Towns in these cities and merchants and artisans were made to move there.
• ‘White’ rulers occupied superior residences of Fort St. George in Madras or Fort St. William in Calcutta

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