7 History Chapter 4 Mughal Empire

Chapter Notes and Summary
Babur (1526-1530) was first Mughal emperor, who became ruler of old Delhi by defeating Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526.
• After his death in 1530, his son Humayun (1530-1540, 1555-1556) became second Mughal emperor.
Sher khan defeated Humayun at Chausa. He recaptured Delhi in 1555 with help of Safavid Shah.
Akbar (1556-1605) became emperor of Delhi at age of 13 and established most powerful empire of that time.
Jahangir (1605-1627) became emperor in 1605. He continued military campaigns started by Akbar.
• After Jahangir, Shah Jahan (1627-1658) took control of Mughal Empire and continued Mughal campaign in Deccan.
Aurangzeb’s reign ranges from 1658 to 1707. His campaign against Maratha Chieftain Shivaji was very important.
• Those who joined Mughal services were enrolled as mansabdars.
Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs.
• Main source of income to Mughal rule was tax received on produce of peasantry.
Abul Fazl, one of Akbar’s friends and courtiers wrote a three-volume history of Akbar’s reign, titled Akbar– nama.
• Akbar founded Sulh-i-Kul or ‘universal peace’ • By end of 17th century authority of Mughal Empire declined which gave rise to many independent provinces like Hyderabad and Awadh.

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