7 History Chapter 3 Delhi Sultans

Chapter Notes and Summary
• Delhi first became capital of a kingdom under Tomara Rajputs.
• Under Tomaras and Chauhans, Delhi became an important commercial centre.
Slave, Khalji, Tughluq, Sayyid and Lodi were major Sultanate dynasties.
Inscriptions, coins and architecture are main sources of information for this period.
• In 1236, Raziyya, daughter of Sultan Iltutmish, became Sultan of Delhi. She was removed from throne in 1240.
• Delhi saw expansion during reigns of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad-bin-Tughluq.
• Delhi Sultanate expanded in three phases — consolidation of garrison, expansion under Khalji’s and growth under Tughluq’s.
• expansion was initiated with internal frontier.
External frontier was next phase of expansion which started with Alauddin Khalji in southern India and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq.
Alauddin Khalji, most important ruler of Khalji dynasty, introduced system of market control and administrative measures in order to maintain a large standing army.
Muhammad-bin-Tughluq introduced three projects – Shifting of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, introduction of token currency, raising land tax in Doab region to fifty percent—all of which failed and weakened his position.
• After Tughluqs Sayyid and Lodi dynasties ruled from Delhi and Agra upto 1526. By that time Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajasthan and entire South India had independent rulers who established flourishing states and prosperous capitals.
• Sher Shah Suri challenged and defeated Mughal emperor Humayun. He captured Delhi and established his own dynasty. Although, he ruled for only fourteen years (1540-1555) but his administration became model followed by great Mughal emperor Akbar (1556-1605), when he consolidated Mughal Empire.

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