7 History Chapter 2 New Kings And Kingdoms

Chapter Notes and Summary
• During period 700-1200 CE, many new dynasties emerged in different parts of sub-continent.
• main ruling dynasties were Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas, Rashtrakutas and Chahamans in North India and Chola, Pandyas and Chalukyas in South India.
• Administration of these kingdoms were carried by rulers themselves but their powers were shared by their Samantas.
• Samantas gradually gained power and wealth and thereafter declared themselves to be maha-samanta, mahamandaleshvara.
• kingdoms Gurjaras-Pratihara, Pala and Rashtrakuta dynasties were in constant struggle to acquire control over Kanauj, termed as ‘Tripartite Struggle’.
• Temples were first target when one ruler attacked over other.
• Four main ruling houses of Rajputs that emerged at this time were – Pratiharas, Chalukyas, Chahamanas and Solankis.
Mahmud of Ghazni was earliest Turkish invader in India. He invaded India seventeen times between AD 1000—AD 1025. His sole purpose was to plunder wealth of India.
• During this period, Southern part of India also saw emergence of Chola dynasty.
• Chola kingdom was administered through assemblies—Ur, Nadu, Sabha and Samiti.
• These assemblies played an important role in village administration.

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