7 History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Chapter Notes and Summary
• After Aurangzeb’s death, Mughal Empire started to decline because of weak and inefficient rulers.
• States like Hyderabad, Awadh, Bengal and states under control of Sikhs and Marathas declared independence.
• Declining power of Mughals also gave rise to regional powers like Jats, Sikhs and Marathas.
Jats were powerful in areas near Delhi under leadership of Churaman.
Sikhs united as a force under Guru Gobind Singh in 1699.
Marathas had Shivaji as their leader.
• regional states Hyderabad, Awadh and Bengal were powerful but did not formally break from Mughal Empire.
• governors of Bengal, Awadh and Hyderabad had shaken off Mughal rule and had set up autonomous states.
Hyderabad state (1724-1748) was founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah.
• State of Awadh was founded by Burhan-ul-Mulk Saadat Khan in 1722.
• Murshid Quli Khan took control of Bengal and began to command revenue administration of state.
• rulers of these states introduced reforms and particularly became dependent on revenue farmers for tax collection.

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