7 History Chapter 1 Tracing Changes Through A Thousand Years

Chapter Notes and Summary
• period from second half of 8th century up to first half of 18th century is known as “medieval period” of Indian history.
• term “Hindustan” was first used by a Persian chronicler, Minhaj-i-Siraj, in 13th century.
• Basic sources used by historians for learning medieval period are coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records.
• Manuscripts and textual records increased during this period as paper gradually became cheaper and more widely available.
• Prominent groups of people emerged during this period were Rajputs, Ahoms, Marathas, Sikhs, Jats and Kayasthas.
• People were grouped into jatis or subcastes on basis of their background and occupations.
• Major development of this period was emergence of idea of bhakti.
• teachings of holy Quran was also brought to India in seventh century.
• Followers of Islam were divided in two sub-sects—Shias and Sunnis.
• At different moments in this period new technologies made their appearance, like Persian wheel in irrigation, spinning wheel in weaving and firearms in combat. New foods and beverages also arrived in subcontinent in this period.
• In middle of nineteenth century British historian divided history of India into three periods—“Hindu”, “Muslim” and “British”. This division was based on idea that religion of rulers was only important historical change, and that there were no other significant developments in economy, society or culture.
• Prosperity during this period brought European trading companies to India.

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