Chapter Notes and Summary
• Components of food :
(a) Carbohydrates (b) Proteins (c) Fats (d) Fibre or roughage
(e) Minerals (f) Vitamins (g) Water
• Major components of food are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals that are required for survival of living beings. They are called nutrients.
• Nutrition : It is process of obtaining food, necessary for good health and growth of living organisms.
• Diet : amount of food taken by an individual at a time is called diet of that individual.
• Balanced Diet : diet that comprises of right amount of all nutrients, a good amount of roughage and water to meet our body needs is called balanced diet.
• Obesity : If one eats more food then required amount by body, one ends in condition called obesity.
• Functions of Water : Human body contains approximately 70% of water. It performs following functions :
(a) Transports food materials within body.
(b) Helps in eliminating toxic substances through urine.
(c) It regulates body temperature.
(d) It is an essential part of blood.
• Vitamins : They help in protecting our body against diseases.
Deficiency : A person may be taking good amount of food, but if he does not take one or two nutrients for a long time, person may suffer from its deficiency, which may result in deficiency disease in that person.
• Deficiency Diseases
• Rickets : Due to deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D.
• Goitre : Due to deficiency of iodine.
• Anaemia : Due to deficiency of iron.
• Scurvy : Due to deficiency of vitamin C.
• Night Blindness : Due to deficiency of vitamin A.
• Beri-Beri : Due to deficiency of vitamin B 1.
• Minerals are important elements required for maintaining good health and overall well being.
• Some important mineral essential for our body are iron, calcium, iodine, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, fluorine and magnesium.
• Iron is important for formation of a red-coloured pigment known as haemoglobin in our blood. This pigment is essential for transport of oxygen through blood. Blood gets its red colour due to presence of haemoglobin.
• Calcium is essential for development of healthy bones and teeth.
• Phosphorus is required for healthy bones and teeth.
• Sodium is essential for proper functioning of muscles and nerves in body.
• Small amounts of fluorine are essential for general health of bones and teeth.
• Food rich in vitamins and mineral are called protective foods.
• Protein-rich foods are called body-building foods.
• Carbohydrates and fats are energy giving foods.
Chapter Notes and Summary