Chapter Notes and Summary
• Burial Spots of Families : Some burial chambers have more than one skeleton, probably meaning that one chamber was used for many members of same family. A hole in wall allowed chamber to be used over and over again. burial sites were marked by stones.
• Battles : Rig Veda tells us about battles fought for land and cattle. People met in assemblies and discussed about war and peace. Wealth obtained thereafter was distributed amongst leaders, priests and people.
• Words Describing People : Rig Veda describes people according to their work—the priests who performed various rituals and rajas who were tribal chiefs. Rajas were different during this period as they did not have capital, palaces or armies, nor did they collect taxes.
• Other Terms : community as a whole was described as ‘jana’ and ‘vish’. We also find mention of Aryans who composed hymns. Rig vedic hymns mention about ‘dasas or dasyus’ who spoke different languages. Later on, term ‘dasas’ came to be used for ‘slaves’.
• Silent Sentinels : Some burial sites of late Chalcolithic age and early Iron Age are marked by Megaliths.
Kashmir, north-eastern India, Deccan and southernmost parts of India are some places where such sites have been found.
• Vedas : Initially, Rig Veda was not in written form, but was passed on orally. Knowledge passed on in this way is known as ‘shruti’. Vedic teachers took great care to teach students to pronounce words and memorise hymns correctly.
• Sanskrit and Other Languages : Scholars have discovered many similarities between Sanskrit and European languages such as Latin, English and German. Historians came to conclusion that Sanskrit belongs to Indo-European group of languages. Other languages like Hindi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, etc. also belong to same group.
• Skeleton Studies : Study of bone structure helps to differentiate between male and female skeletons. hip or pelvic area of a woman is generally larger than a man.
• Special Burial at Inamgaon : We find burials dated back to 3600 and 2700 years ago. Adults were generally buried in ground. Special mention may be made of a man who was found buried in a large, four legged clay jar in courtyard of a five-roomed house.
• Writing Evidences : First evidence of writing in China was found 3500 years ago. These writings were on animal bones and were called oracle bones. However, Chinese did not know use of iron.
• Other languages : Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam belong to Dravidian family and languages spoken in Jharkhand and parts of Central India belong to Austro-Asiatic family.
• Sukta : This term which means “well said” was used to describe hymns of Vedas.
• Agni Devta : He was God of Fire mentioned in hymns of Rigveda.
• Indra : In Rigvedic hymns, Indra is mentioned as God of War. He is also mentioned as ‘Purandara –
destroyer of forts’.
• Soma : It was plant from which a special drink was prepared and is mentioned in hymns of Rigveda.
• Sentinels : This term means ‘to watch over as a guard’ and in context to chapter it refers to Megaliths put on burial sites so as to guard and spot these burial sites.
• Megaliths : These literally mean big stones, which were used by early men to spot burial sites.
Chapter Notes and Summary