Chapter Notes and Summary
• Palaeolithic : This term refers to age where we find a large number of stone tools. It extends from 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago and is divided into Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.
• Mesolithic : This period extends from 10,000 years ago to about 12,000 years ago. Stone tools found during this period were generally tiny and were called Microliths.
• Neolithic : This was period that dates back to about 10,000 years ago and is therefore, known as New Stone Age.
• Earliest People : They were hunter-gatherers, a name derived from way they collected food. They hunted animals, collected berries and fruits and gathered nuts, stalks and eggs. To hunt, they needed to move constantly and to gather plant products, They needed knowledge about edibility of plants and change of season.
• Division of Labour : Both men and women performed activities like stone-making, hunting and gathering collectively.
• Archaeological Evidence of Early Man : How do we know about early man? This has been possible through an analysis of objects found, which were probably used by early man. For example, tools made of stone, bone and wood.
• Uses of Tools : Stone tools were used to cut meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and hides (animal skins) as well as chop fruit and roots.
• Making Stone Tools : Two different techniques were used for making stone tools.
• Choosing a Place to Live In : Dwellings chosen by early man were located near sources of water, such as rivers and lakes as well as where good quality stone was available for their tools.
• Types of Dwellings (sites) :
• Factory sites were sites where stones were found and tools were made.
• Factory-cum-habitation sites were sites where along with tool-making, people lived for a long duration of time.
• Painting-Rock paintings : Paintings on a rock shelter.
(Cave paintings : Early people lived in caves and many such caves have paintings on walls which were made by them.)
• Finding out about Fire : At Kurnool caves in Andhra Pradesh, evidence and traces of ash have been found suggesting use of fire. Fire might have been used as a source of light, to cook meat and to scare away animals.
• A Changing Environment : About 12,000 years ago, there was a major change in climate of world. This change led to a shift to warm conditions, leading to development of grasslands at many places which helped people to start thinking about herding and rearing animals.
• Habitation-cum-Factory Sites : Places where stones were found and early people made their tools. Sometimes, people lived (habitat) here for longer span of time.
• Bhimbetka : This is a place in Madhya Pradesh where we find examples of habitation sites, natural caves and rock shelters.
Chapter Notes and Summary