Chapter Notes and Summary
• weather is about day to day changes in atmosphere.
• major seasons in India are :
(a) Cold weather season
(b) Hot weather season
(c) South-West Monsoon season
(d) Season of Retreating monsoon Cold Weather Season or Winter
• During winter season, cool, dry winds blow from North to South.
• sunrays do not fall directly in region.
Hot Weather Season or Summer
• sunrays more or less directly fall in this region.
• Hot and dry winds are called loo.
South West Monsoon Season or Rainy Season
• winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal toward land.
Season of Retreating Monsoon or Autumn
• Winds move back from mainland to Bay of Bengal.
• Most of rain is brought by monsoon winds.
• climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from sea and relief.
• Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives world’s highest rainfall.
• grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation.
• Vegetation of India can be divided into five types—(a) Tropical evergreen forest (b) Tropical deciduous forest
(c) Thorny bushes (d) Mountain vegetation (e) Mangrove forests.
Tropical Rain Forest
• They are found in areas which receive heavy rainfall.
• Many species of trees are found in this forest, they shed their leaves at different times of year. They are called evergreen forests.
• Important trees are mahogany, ebony and rosewood.
Tropical Deciduous Forest
• They are also called monsoon forest.
• Trees of these forest shed their leaves at a particular time of year.
• Important trees are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.
• They are found in dry areas of country.
• leaves are in form of spines to reduce loss of water.
• Important trees are cactus, kaner, babool, keekar, etc.
• At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres, most of trees are conical in shape. These trees are called coniferous trees.
• Important trees are chir, pine and deodar.
• These forests can survive in saline water.
• Sundari is a well known species of trees.
Why are Forests Necessary?
• Plants release oxygen that we breathe and adsorb carbon dioxide.-
• They control soil erosion.
• Forests provide us with timber for furniture, fuel wood, medicinal plants, etc.
• Forests are natural habitat of wild life.
• Special programmes like Van Mahotsav involve more people in making our earth green.
• tiger is our national animal.
• Gir forest in Gujarat at home of Asiatic lions.
• peacock is our national bird.
• government has also started Project Tiger and Project Elephant to protect these animals.
• Elephants and one-horned Rhinoceroses are found in forest of Assam.
• Camels and wild asses are found in Great Indian Desert and Rann of Kuchchh.
Chapter Notes and Summary