10 Political Science Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy

Chapter Notes and Summary• A challenge is described as a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress. Once we overcome a challenge of any form, we go up to a higher level than before.
• India is a largest democratic country in world. It faces a number of challenges like casteism, illiteracy, communalism,
etc.
• Different countries of world are facing different kinds of challenges.
• Most of democratics are facing challenges like foundational challenge, challenge of expansion and challenge of deepening democracy.
non-democratic countries are facing foundational challenge. This includes phase of changing democracy and establishment of democratic government.
• Challenge of expansion is faced by most of established democracy in world. It includes extention of democratic powers to local government and political empower to women and minorities.
• challenge of deepening democracy is faced by all democratic countries in one and another way. This challenge ensure strengthening democratic institution. It is done in such a way that people would realise their expectation from democracy. It also make ensure to check influence of wealthy and influential people in democratic decision.
Political reforms are also known as Democratic reforms.
These are suggestions or proposals to overcome various challenges or difficulties to democracy.
• Legal ways or changes to reform or to overcome different challenges/difficulties faced by democratic government are called legal constitutional changes.
Right To Information (RTI) Act enables people to know what is happening in government.
• In democratic countries, implementation of democratic reform is must, because without implementation of reforms no success can be made.
• bureaucracy refers to rules of officials. term refers to organisations, officials and set of procedures related to large administrative set up.
Communalism refers to encouraging idea of any one particular religion with a sense to divide society on basis of religion.
• Regionalismis an ideology, by which citizens or a group of people belonging to one particular region believe that their region is being neglected by government and other authorities and it should be developed. For a balance regional growth, government should give equal preference to all regions,
otherwise it will cause serious problem to national unity.


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